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Cornell University Library 
V23 .P31 
Illustrated nautical dictionary 

3 1924 030 750 776 
olin Overs 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


Illustrated Nautical Dictionary, 


From Keel to Truck. From Stem to Sternpost. 

From Zenith to Nadir. From Bedplate to Funnel. 

From Torpedo Boat to Battle Ship. 

A Work of Seferenee for Naval, Revenue, and Merchant Marine Officers, Yachtsmen, Canoeists, 

TJ. S. Local Inspectors of Steam Vessels. Builders of Wooden and Iron Steam and 

Sailing Ships, Admiralty Lawyers, Undertoriters, Naval Cadets and Toiing 

Men on hoard of State Training Vessels, Marine Draughtsmen, 

Builders of Engines and Boilers, and Adapted for the 

Use of the Sank and File of the United 

States Naval Reserve. 








The Common Sense Navigator; The Yachtsman's Guide; Hand Book to the U. S. 

Local Marine Board Examination for Masters and Mates ; 

Yachting Under American Statute, Etc. 

Publication Offices, 99 and 101 Fouhth Avenue, 


go Messrs. Harper Brothers, Outing, arid especially to 
Captain H. Paascli, are due tine tlianKs of tl^e autlior 
for rnany of tlie engravings wl^icli so rnaterially enlnance 
tlie value of tliis volurne. In none of its five departrnents 
does the Dictionary fail to corne literally down to date. 
The text of Parts I., III., lY. and Y. is original. In the 
cornpilation of Part II. the author found various standard 
authorities serviceable, and none rnore so than Meade's 
Naval Architecture. 





General Sea Terms, dealing Trith Tarions Parts of Yessels; Seamanship, 

Running and Standing Rigging, Spars, Sails, Xautical Expressions, etc. 9-196 


Wooden, Composite, and Iron Sliipbnilding in All its Details and Considera- 
tions, 199-252 


An Exlianstire Digest of Navigation and Nautical Astrononij-, 255-.S10 


steam Engineering Terms; Descriptions of Various Types and Parts of Marine 

Boilers and Engines, Etc., • . .313-341 

Naval Terms j Ordnance ; Explosives ; Uniforms ; Pay Table ; Particulars ol 

Modern Men of War, Etc., 345-392 


After-body of a screw steamer. '. 250 

After-body of a wooden sailing vessel 207 

After-framing of an iron steamer 341 

After-framing of an iron sailing vessel 235 

After-framing of a wooden vessel 303 

Alidade 273 

Anchor-buoy 13 

Anchor-light 31 

Anchors 11 

Angle-irons, etc 237 

Armored Cruiser — particulars of 361 

Artificial horizon 367 

Atmospheric sounder 395 

Azimuth attachment 373 

Azimuth compass 273 


Bailer 49 

Ballast shovel 49 

Ballast tanks 241 

Balsa 47 

Bark 107 

Barkentine 101 

Barometers — aneroid and mercurial 277-279 

Battle ship — modem type 363 

Belaying pin 27 

Bell 33 

Bellov.'s foghorn 47 

Bends of every character 39-47 

Binnacle hoods 389 

Binnacles— various styles 29, 371-383, 389 

Binnacle tops 389 

Binoculars 381 

Bitts 51 

Blocks 35 

Boats 49 

Boat binnacles 385-387 

Boat chocks 49 

Boat compasses 31, 47 

Boat davits 49 

Boat gripes 49 

Boat hooks 49 

Boat tackles 49 

Boatswain's call 31 

Boatswain's chair 37, 47 

Boilers — marine, various types of 315-323 

Bolts 37 

Braces 51 

Breast-hooks, knees, etc 213 

Brig 101 

Brigantine 105 

Brig-rigged screw steamer 131 

Bucket 27 

Bulwark rail 49 

Butt-straps, etc 237 


Canoes — every description 71 

Can hooks 27 

Capstans 19 

Catamaran 69 

Cat-boat 73 

Caulking irons 37 

Caulking mallets 27 

Carvel work 51 

Ceiling 215 

Chain cables 13 

Chain hooks 24 

Charts — various projections 147-183 


Chasse-maree 103 

Chronometer 291 

Clinched work 51 

Clinometer 391 

Clouds — various formations 137-141 

Coal bunkers 323 

Coasting schooners 97-103 

Compasses— dry and liquid 39-31, 269-389 

Compensating binnacle 283 

Composite vessel 331 

Compressers 13 

Cork fenders 37 

Cruisers— modem war ships 857-361 

Current charts 157-163 

Cutter yachts ; 77-81 


Davit guys 49 

Davits 49 

Davit sockets 49 

Dead-eyes 35 

Dead-lights 47 

Deck-beams, etc. — wooden vessels 209 

Deck-lights 47 

Deck-plans — iron sailing vessels 331-233 

Deck-plans — wooden sailing vessels 317-319 

Deep-sea lead 39 

Degree compass card 369 

Despatch vessel — modern navy 353-355 

Details of an iron ship 335 

Dingey 47 

Dip of the horizon 263 

Dividers 269 

Donkey boilers 315 

Drag 31 

Dynamite gun vessel— modem navy 351 

Earth's inclination 257 

Easterly variation 273 

Engines — various kinds of marine 335-339 


Fairleaders 51 

Fenders 37 

Ferry-boat 121 

Flare-up light 81 

Fog-horns 29 

Fore-body of a wooden sailing vessel 205 

Forecastles — iron vessels 241 

Fore-framing of an iron sailing vessel 328 

Fore-framing of an iron steamship 343 

Fore-framing of a wooden vessel 201 

Four-mast schooner 99 

Four-mast screw-steamer 133 

Four-mast sailing ship 119 

Frames of an iron ship 337 

Frames of a mail steamer 249 

Frames of a two-deck steamer 247 

Frigate 367 

Gripes . 


Hand-spike 27 

Hanks 27 

Hatchways, mast-partners, etc 309 

Hemispheres 857 

Index to Engraa'ings. 


Hitches 263 

Hygrometer .......'.'..'.'.... 379 

Ice, icebergs, implements, etc 153-155 

Iron shipbuilding— all details aai-353 


Jury-masts '. 137 

Jury-rudders 33 


Keelsons s 239 

Knees, riders, etc 313 

Knocked down — position of a vessel when .. . 135 
Knots of every character 39-47 


Lead and line 29 

Life-raft 47 

Logs— various kinds in use. . . 39, 375-277, 393-395 

Log page forms — steam and sail 143-145 

Lugger 103 


Machintiry — various kinds of marine 335-339 

Mail steamer 133 

Marlinspike 37 

Mast-head light 31 

Masts 53-133 

Meridians 357 

Midship portions — screw steamers 351 

Midship sections — iron sailing vessels 337-339 

Midship sections — iron steamers 345-346 

Midship sections — wooden sailing vessels 311 

Monitor— latest type 365 


Naphtha launch 121 

Nippering 45 


Oars 49 

Obsei'ving altitudes 365 


Paddle-wheel steamer 353 

ParaUax 365 

Parallel rulers — various kinds 369 

Parallels 357 

Parcelling 43 

Partially protected cruiser 357 

Parts of machinery 325-337 

Pelorus 375 

Pintle : 51 

Planking 315 

Plating 237 

Pole-box light 393 

Poops — iron vessels 341 

Protected cruiser 359 

Pumps 25 


Quadrant 3.59 


Racking J5 

Kam— modern type d4D 

Beading glass ^^1 

Refraction *^ 

Riveting -jf 

Rope 39-47 

Rope-ladder i^r fn 

Rowlocks oo 

Rudders °3 

Rudder braces 5 J 

Rudder pintles 51 

Rudder yokes ■49 

Runnmg riggmg 'oj '-''^ 

.**. PAGE. 

Sails of every description 63-133 

Schooners— working 97-103 

Schooner yachts . .-. , 87-95 

Scrapers 37 

Screw steamers — various types 133-133 

Sea anchors 31 

Sectional after-bodies — screw steamers 348 

Seizing 45 

Semi-diameter 365 

Serving 43 

Serving mallets 37 

Sextant 361 

Sharpie 69 

Sheaves — common and patent 35 

Shipbuilding — wooden, composite, iron . .201-353 

Ships 109-117 

Ship's bell 33 

Side ladder 37 

Side light 39 

Slings 47 

Sloop yachts 75 

Sounding machines 395 

Spars 53-133 

Speaking-trumpet 39 

Splices of every character 39-47 

Ppy-elass 281 

Standing rigging 73-133 

Steamboat 131 

Steam-launch 131 

Steam-ships 123-133 

Steam winch 339 

Steam yachts 133-135 

Steering wheels 33 

Stem-lights 393 

Stringers 337 


Tackles of every description 37 

Telescope 381 

Tell-tale 387 

Thermometer 379 

The two oceans 139 

Thimbles 31 

Thole pins 47 

Three mast coasting schooner 97 

Thwarts 49 

Tiller 49 

Timbers 31.5 

Topsail schooners 101 

Topsail schooner screw steamers 137-139 

Torpedo boat — modern type 347 

Torpedo launch 349 

Towing boat 131 

Track charts 165-171 

Trough of the sea 135 

Trucks 37 


Variation diagrams 373 


Water ballast tanks 341 

Waterspouts 1 41 

Westerly variation 273 

Whipping 43 

Winches 31, 339 

Wind charts 169-183 

Windlasses — common and patent 15-17 

Wooden shipbuilding in all its details ... .301-331 
Worming 45 


Yards 53-61 

Yawl yachts Sd-sa 



A 1. The liigliest that a vessel is classed in reference to her construoti(jn. (Sec 

A. B. Signifying Able Seaman. 

Aback. When the wind presses the surface of the sails against the mast witli a ten- 
dency to drive the vessel astern. 
Abaft. In the direction of the stern. 
Abaft the Beam. The hearing of any object contained lietween the ship's beam 

and the stem of the vessel. 
Abeam. The bearing of any object at right angles to the keel. 
Aboard. On board ; upon the vessel ; within the vessel. 
About. To go about is to tack ship ; to go off' on the opposite tack. 
About Ship. (See Ready About.) 

Abox. When the head-yards are braced aback and the after-sails are full. 
To brace abox is to lay the head-yards abox. 
To box off is, to box the vessel's head away from the wind after she has missed stays in 

tacking. When the vessel is in the latter position she is said to be in ironc. 
Abreast. Side by side. 
Absence Flag. The small, square, blue flag hoisted at the starboard-spreader on ei 

yacht to signify that the owner is not on board. 
Accommodation Ladder. (See Gaxgwat Laddee.) 
A-COCk-bill. When the yards are topped up at an angle with the deck. Said of 

an anchor when it hangs up and down at the cat-head. 
Adrift. Broken away from moorings. 
Afloat. Resting on, or buoyed up by the water. 
Afore. Forward. 
Aft. In the direction of the stem. 
After Peak. (See Run.) 

After Sails. The sails on the masts abaft the foremast. 
After Yards. The yards on the masts abai't tiie foremast. 
Against the Sun. A rope laid up from left to right is said to be laid up against 

the sun. When the wind shifts around the compass contrary to the way in which the 

hands of a watch revolve (from north -to south by the way of west), it is said to bnc/.; 

against tJie sun. A rope coiled down from left to right is coiJpd (igainst the y/tu. I'lie 

sun is supposed to move from right to left. 


Aground. On the bottom. 

Ahead. Before the vessel. When we say that the wind is aliead we mean that it is 
from the direction toward which we wish to sail the ship. 

Ahoy. The term used in hailing a vessel. 

A-hull. Said of a vessel when she lies with all her sails furled, and the helm lashed 
to leeward, or a-lee. 

Albatross. A large, web-footed aquatic bird, belonging to the gull famity, and pe- 
culiar to the southern ocean. Sailors entertain sujjerstitious venei-ation for this bird, 
and will not harm it, believing that to do so would entail all kinds of calamities in the 
shape of gales, stagnant calms, and jjersonal ill fortune. 

A-lee. AVlien the helm is put over to leeward it is said to be a-lee. 

AU-ahack. When all the sails are pressed against the masts. 

All Hands. The call by which all the ship's comjiany are summoned. The crew 

All in the Wind. All the sails shaking from being too close to the wind. 

Aloft. Above the vessel's deck. 

Alongshore. Along the coast. 

Along-side. Side by side. 

Aloof. At a distance. 

Amain. At once ; suddenly. 

American Shipmasters' Association. An incorporated American society 
for the survey and classification of American and foreign merchant vessels, and "which 
is approved Tty the Underwriters of New York, Boston and San Francisco. This 
society also issues certificates of competency to masters and mates provided they j)ass 
the required professional examination. (See License.) 

Amidships. A term applied to ^ny place on or below decks that is in the centre of 
the vessel, whether in reference to the length or to the breadth. Strictly speaking it 
refers to tlae axis, or the fore-and-aft line of the vessel — a line drawn over the keel. 

Anchor. The iron shape used to drop overboard, and, being connected with the ves- 
sel l)y a cable of iron or rope, it holds her riding near the place below which the 
anchor is resting on the bottom. 

Anchor Away. The report made by the mate from the forecastle when the anchor 
leaves the bottom in getting under way. 

Anchor Liigllt. The globular lantern light hoisted after sundown by all vessels 
when at anchor. 

Anchor Watch. A watch kept at night when the vessel is at anchor to guard 
the ship against dragging, fire, thieves, etc. 

An-end. Said of a mast when it is perpendicular to the deck. 

Angle of Safety. The angle, reckoned in degrees, which marks the safety limit in 
a vessel's rolling. Should she roll beycmd the limit she would upset. This angle 
varies according to the vessel. An instrument called the cVuioiiidcr records the angles 
made in the rolling of a ship. 

Annunciator. An electric tell-tale or recorder. When an electric button is 
pressed in any part of the vessel its wire connection transmits a current from the batterv 
to the iiiiiinnciafor, in which a bell is rung, and at the same time a hinged card drops 
on which is painted the station at which the button was pressed. 

A-peak. When the cable is hove in so as to bring the vessel's head over, or nearl\- 
over, her anchor, the anchor is said to lie a-p(>ulc. The yards are said to be a-pcaJ: when 
they are topped up Viy their lifts so as to incline toward the perpendicular. 

Apple Bows. (See Bluff BoAVED.) 

Apprentice. Young men shipped both on board naval and merchant vessels for a 
specified length of time to learn seamanship. 

Apron. The timber bolted behind the stem. 

Ardent. A vessel is said to be ardenf when she has a tendency to come up into the 
wind, requiring the carrying of a weather helm. 

Arm. The elbow on the lower part of the anchor, which crosses the shank, and to 
the ends of which the flukes are welded. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



BOWER (common) 


BOWER (patent) 







12 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Arming". A filling of tallow or soap in the cavity in the lower end of a heaving lead, 

placed there for the purpose of bringing up the quality of the bottoan in the way of 

sand, shell, mud, coral, etc. 
Arrival. A vessel is said to arrive when she is at a point where she can communicate 

officially with the port authorities ; for instance, a vessel bound in to New York arrives 

when she passes Sandy Hook. Within twenty-four hours of the time of arrival she must 

enter at the custom-house. 
Arctic Navigators. (See Polar Explorations.) 
Ashore. On the shore ; aground. 
A- stern. Toward the after part of the vessel. 
At Anchor. The situation of the vessel when riding at anchor. 
A-taunt. Same as Taunt — see latter. 
Athwart. From side to side ; opposed to fore-and-aft. 
Athwart Hawse. Across a vessel's cable ; across a vessel's head. 
Athwart Sliips. (See Athwart.) 

A-trip. When the anchor is raised clear of the ground. (See Aw^Eian.) 
Auxiliary Vessel. A full-powered sail vessel that carries a low power engine, 

which is used dming calms, in a head wind, going into port, etc. 
Avast. The order to cease. 

Avast Heaving. An order to the crew to cease revolving the \\indlass or capstan. 
Average. (See General Average.) 
Awash. Level with the water. Rooks, shoals, etc., are said to be awash when they 

cover and uncover to the swell of the sea. 
A- weather. When the helm is put toward the windward side of the ship ; anything 

to windward. 
A-weigh. (See A-trip.) 

Aw^ning. A canopy over a vessel's deck to shield the same from sun and rain. 
Awning Stanchions. Iron or wooden uprights shipped in sockets in the sides of a 

vessel ; in the upper end a lidge rope is rove for spreading the awnings to. 
Aye, Aye, Sir. A reply made by seamen in answer to an officer's call. 


Bahy Jib Topsail. Yachts generally carry three sizes of jib topsails — baby, 
working, and balloon — the baby jib topsail being, as its name implies, the smallest 
Back. The wind is said to hack when it shifts around the compass contrary to the 
manner in which the hands of a watch revolve. 

To hack an anchor. To allow another anchor to slip down and along the cable on a 
large shackle, which will run until it fetches up against the ring of the anchor that is 
holding the ship, when it will also bury its fluke in the bottom and assist to hold the 

Another way to hack an anchor is to shackle an extra anchor to the cable a few 
fathoms from the other before letting go the bower. 

To hack a sail. To throw its after-surface against the mast. 

To hack and fill. To work to windward with a weather tide in a nan-ow channel liv 
alternately backing and filling the sails. 

T'o hack a ship at anchor. To keep the cable taut by setting some after-sail so us 
to hack the ship down from her anchorage. 

To hack ivater. To reverse the order of rowing so as to give the boat sternway. 
Backboard. A thwartships board in the stem sheets of rowing-boats, which'affords 

a rest for the back of the one steering. 
Back-bone. The rope stitched to the back of an awning, and running fore-and-aft. 
To this rope the crows-foot is splic'ed, by whicli the awning is triccil up. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 








Back-ropes. Ropes leading hack from tlie dolpliin striker on tlie lower end of tlie 

martingale to steady it, and wliicli set np on the bows. 
Backstay Stools. Small separate channels abaft the main channels used for setting 

up the standing backstays. > 

Backstays. Ropes extending from all mast heads above the Ljwer mast heads, and 

leading to the vessel's side, for the purpose of steadying the masts. (Hee .Stats.) 
Back-strapped. When a ship, having a fair wind, is unable to stem the current 

she is said to be back-strapped. 
Back Wash. The disturbed water thrown aft by the action of the paddle-wheels or 

screw propeller. 
Bagpipe. The mizzen is said to be hag-piped when its sheet is brought to the 

weather-mizzen rigging. 
Bag-reef. A name sometimes applied to the lower reef in fore-and-aft sails, and the 

upper reef in square topsails. 
Balance Dock. (See Dock.) 
Balance Reef-band. A reef-band on a gafF-sail which runs across it diagonally. 

It is used in bad weather, and makes the sail triangular. 
Bale. The act of throwing water out of a boat. 
Bale-band. A big shackle-shaped kon at the mast-head, supported by the cap-band, 

and to which the standing part of the flying jib-stay is bent on. 
Bale-sling. A simple strap passed round a bale or bag, the two ends nreetiug on to}), 

one dipping under the other. The hook of the hoisting block is hooked into the loop, 

and the strap jams around the bale or bag when it is hoisted. (See engraving.) 
Ballast. Iron, lead, stone, gravel, or earth placed in the bottom of vessels to give 

them stability, and to prevent some crank merchant vessels from upsetting when they 

have no cargo in. 

The hallnst sJioots when it shifts from one side of the hold to the other. 
To freshen ballast is to shift it about. 
Shingle ballast is coarse gravel. 
Ballast Tanks. Iron tanks placed in the holds of vessels which can 1 le pumped 

full or free from water, and which are used for trimming the vessel and giA^ing her ne- 
cessary draught when little or no cargo is on board. 
Balloon Foresail. A sail made of light canvas and carried in place of the regular 

fore staysail. 
Balloon Jib. A very large jib of light material used in moderate winds on board 

racing yachts. ■ 

Balloon Jib Topsail. A yacht sail made of light canvas, set itpon the jib topsail 

stay, and sheeting to the quarter of the vessel. When this sail is set, it generally takes 

the place of all other head sails. 
Balloon Maintopmast Staysail. A large sail of light material which sets 

between the fore and mainmasts, and is used in moderate winds on board racing yachts. 
Balsa. (See Life Raft.) 
Banding. The band of canvas sewed over the tabling on the head, luff, and foot, and 

on the leach, from the clew up above the reef cringles. 
Banked. A boat is said to be dotible-banlied when two men sitting on the same thwart 

pull separate oars, one a port and the other a starboard oar ; single-banked when the 

thwarts are occupied by one man. Oars are double or single-banked according to the 

number of men pulling the same oar. 
Bar. A shoal of sand or mud. 

Bare-poles. When a ship has no sail set whatever. 
Barge. A large boat in which the thwarts are double-banked, such as the coiLimodore's 

or admiral's barge in the navy. 
Bark. A vessel having three masts, the fore and main square-rigged, and the mizzen 

schooner-rigged. This name is sometimes written Barque. 
Barkentine. A vessel with three masts, the foremast square-rigged, and the main 

and mizzen schooner-rigged. 
Barnacle. Shell-fish which adhere to a vessel's bottom, to logs of driftwofxl, etc. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical diction aey. 






Barrator. A term applied to a dislionest sMpmastev. 

Barratry, Breaches of trust and dishonest actions on the part of a shipmaster. 

Barrel. The horizontal revolving part of a windlass, the main piece of a capstan, or 
the horizontal piece around which the tiller-ropes go, and which is turned by the steer- 
ing-wheel of a vessel. 

Barrel-sling. A simple sling made for hoisting a headless barrel. This is much 
employed on board ship for sending hold-sweepings up on deck in a barrel, etc. (Sec 
engraving.) It differs from a cask-sling, which see. 

Basin Dock. (See Dock.) 

Bass Rope. A rope made from a certain kind of soft rush. There is no difference 
between hass rope and coiv rope. (See Ooie Rope.) 

Bateau. A flat-bottomed boat, sharp at both ends, and employed on lakes and rivers. 

Battens. Strips of wood or iron placed around the outside of hatch comings after the 
hatches have been shipped and the tarpaulin spread over them. These battens are em- 
ployed to jam the tarpaulin against the comings and make the hatches watertight. 
Battens are also jilaced upon rigging to prevent chafing. (See Scotchman.) 

Beach Comber. A loafer about a sea port. 

Beacon. A stake placed over a shoal as a warning to mariners. Beacons are some- 
times placed on prominent places on shore as a particular bearing or signal mark 
for vessels. There are perch, ball, and cage beacons, so named from the forms they 

Beam. One of the timbers extending across the vessel for supporting the deck, and 
for keeping the sides of the vessel in shape. (See Abeam.) 

Beam Gnds. When a vessel is heeled over to snch an extent that her beams ap- 
proach the vertical -she is said to be on her beam ends. 

Beam Sea. A sea that breaks against the vessel's beam. 

Beam Wind. A wind blowing at right angles to the vessel's course. 

Bear. The direction of an object in relation to a point of the compass. 

Bear a-Haild. To lend assistance ; to hasten. 

Bear A^vay. Meaning the same as hear up. 

Bear Down. To approach a vessel from windward is to hear down vpon her. 

Bear In. When a ship sails toward the shore she is said to hear in with the land. 

Bear Off. To keep a boat clear of a vessel's side, or from a dock. 

Bear Up. To approach a vessel by putting the helm up and manning off to leeward, 
is to hear up to her. 

Bearing. The direction of an object in relation to a point of the compass. 

The hearings of a rcssel refer to the widest part of her below the covering board ; also 
her line of flotation when she is in proper trim. 

Beat^to Quarters. (See Quaetbes.) 

Beating. When sailing close hauled, a vessel is said to be heating to icindward. (See 
Eating to Windwaed.) 

Beating to Windward. Making progress against the direction of the wind 
when sailing close hauled. 

Beating Wind. A head wind, necessitating a vessel to tack. 

Becalm. A current of air intercepted in its course toward a vessel is said to hecahn 
Jier. When the foresails intercepts a wind which would otherwise blow into the jib it 
is said that the former hecalms thejih. (See Blanket.) 

Becalmed. When there is no wind, a vessel is said to be hecalmed. 

Becket. A small piece of rope in the shape of an eye or grommet into and across 
which a toggle is slipped as a fastening. Also an eye of rope on the gunwale of a boat 
for the oar to work in. 

Becket Rowlock. A rope-becket secured to the gunwale in which the oar works. 

Bed.' This term applies to many things : pieces of wood placed under the quarters of 
casks so as to keep the bilge clear of the floor ; a vessel makes a hed or cradle for her- 
self when she settles in the mud ; extra pieces of timber placed on decks like a plat- 
fonn, for raising the guns above the port sills when the latter are too high for the bat- 
tery ; a- lied is made for the bowsprit, where it rests upon the stem and apron. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 











_, ~ !*i .2 ^ e 

(* ^ a^ --02 

18 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Beef. A term applied to muscular efibrt. " Mo)-e 'beef" has reference to more strengtli. 

Bees. Pieces of oak bolted to the outer sides of the bowsprit and through a hole in 
which the fore topmast-stay.s (double) reeve before they are set. up on the bows. 

Before the Beam. Tlie bearing of any object from the vessel contained between 
the ship's beam and that point of the compass towards which the vessel heads. 

Before the Mast. Expressive of that portion of the crew who live in the forecastle. 

Before the Wind. A vessel is said to be before the wind when the latter is blow- 
ing after the ship — when the wind is following after the vessel. 

Belay. An order to cease pulling or hauling ; to make a rope fast to a belaying pin or 
other object. 

Belaying Pin. Wooden or iron shapes foimd in the pin-rails, and used for securing 
ropes to. 

Bell Buoy. A buoy, on top of which is suspended a deep-tone bell, which rings 
when the buoy rocks from the action of the waves. It is specially valuable to vessels 
in its vicinity during foggy weather. 

Bell Pulls. The handles to the wires in the wheel-house of a steamer connecting tlie 
engine-room bells. Sometimes vessels are provided with engine-room connections in 
various parts of the decks, and these are called declz pulls. 

Bells. (See Ship's Bells.) 

Belly. A sail is said to belli/ when it is swelled out by the wind. 

Bench Marks. (See Tide Bench Marks.) 

Bend. To fasten ; to secure one rope to another rope, spar, etc. 

Bending Cable. To shackle the anchor chain to the anchor. 

Bending Sail. To secure a sail to a yard, or to a boom and gaff. 

Bends. The thickest planks on the vessel's outboard side, and to which the knees, 
beams, etc., are bolted; also the ribs of a vessel. (See Wales.) TJie midslrip bend is 
that at the broadest part of the ship. (See Dead Flat, Part II.) 

Beneaped. (See Neaped.) 

Bentick Shrouds. Ropes seized to the weather futtock staves and set up to the 
lee channels for the purpose of steadying the mast when the vessel was rolling heavily 

Berth. Bunks on board of vessels are known as berths ; a position on board ship ; the 
place of a vessel when at anchor or alongside a dock. (See Wide Berth.) 

Berthing a Ship. Making a vessel fast alongside of a dock. (See Docking a 

Best Bower. The largest of the two bower anchors. (See Bowers.) 

Between-decks. The space between two decks. 

Between Wind and Water. That part of the vessel around the water line. 

Bibbs. Pieces of timber bolted to the hounds of a mast for the trestle trees to rest 

Bight. A curve or indentation in the coast is called a bight. When a curve or bend 
exists in a rope it is called tlie bight of the rope. Any part of a rope except the ends 
may be called the bight. 

Bilge. That part of the bottom of a vessel that is next to the keel. In reference to a 
cask, bilge refers to the greatest circumference in the direction that the hoops run. 

Bilge-boards. Same as Limber Boards. 

Bilge-keel. Fore-and-aft timbers bolted outside along the bilges of a vessel to pre- 
vent excessive rolling. 

Bilge-keelson. Fore-and-aft timbers bolted inside along the bilges for the purpose 
of strengthening the frame. 

Bilge- plank. A thick plank used on the same principle as tlie bilge keel and keel- 
son — a modification of the latter. 

Bilge-shores. A block placed under a vessel's bilge to steady her while on a drv 

Bilge-water. Water which has collected in the vessel's bilge either from the natu- 
ral oozing leaks through tlie planking of the bottom, as in the case of a wooden .'^hiii. or 
from deck leaks, etc;., in reference to iron vessels. 






"20 pattbeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Bilge-"VFays, Timbers belonging to the launoiiing ways, and on which the cradle 
rests, the latter supporting the body of the vessel. 

JBilgecl. Said of a vessel when the bilge is broken in by the bottom of the ship com- 
ing in contact with a rock, the shore, etc. 

Sill. The apex of the fluke of an anchor. The term applied to the end of a knee or 
compass timber. (See Fire, Watch, Quarter and Station Bills.) 

Bill-boartl. The extra planking or the covering of iron, copper, or brass on the rail 
abaft the cat-head for the fluke to rest on when the anchor is catted. 

Bill of Exchange. A written agreement (practically a note) in which the debtor 
agrees to pay his creditor on a date specifled the sum of money which the bill calls for. 
Tlus bill is drawn in sets of three owing to the risk involved in mailing. Upon pres- 
entation of one of these bills, the other two become void. 

Bill of Health. A document obtained by the master from the custom house, or 
from the health oflicer of the port, certifying to the state of health of the port at the 
time the vessel leaves, and which must be submitted to the proper authorities when 
another port is entered. 

Bill of Lading'. A receipt given by the master, mate, or clerk of a vessel for cargo 
received alongside or on board. 

Billet-head. (See Head.) 

Binnacle. A stand of wood or brass for the compass to rest in. 

Binnacle Hood. The glass-front cover to the binnacle stand, and into which the 
binnacle lamps are fitted. 

Binnacle Lamp. The small lamp which fits into the binnacle hood and lights up 
the compass-card. 

-Bitt Heads. The upper ends of the bitts. 

Bitt the Cable. To confine the cable to the bitts by one turn under the cross- 
piece and another turn round the bitt head. When in this position the cable may either 
be veered away or kept fast. 

JJitter. To litter a rope or cable is to take a turn with it around the bitts. (See Bitt 
THE Cable.) 

Bitter-end. The last part of a rope or cable ; when the end of the cable by which 
the vessel is riding is secured to the bitts, the cable is said to be paid out to the litter- 

Bitts. Forecastle bitts are pei-pendicular timbers stepped in the keel and extending 
above the deck ; used for securing to wing-hawsers, etc. Quarter litts are those found 
on the quarters of vessels, used for fastening anything to — the sheets of fore-and-aft 
sails are belayed to them. (See Windlass Bitts, Bowsprit Bitts.) 

Black List. A list of the names of men who have committed some offence against 
the order and discipline of their ship, and who have been listed for punishment. 

Blackwall Hitch. A simple hitch made over and around the hook of a tackle 
block, and which answers the same purpose as a cats-paw. (See engraving). 

JBlade. The flat part of an oar that is thrust in the water in rowing. The arms of a 
steamers screw-propeller are called Hades. 

Blanket. When one vessel is in such a position to windward as to take the wind out 
of another vessel's sails, the latter is said to be llanketed. 

Block. Pieces of wood, or a hollow shape of iron called the sMl, between or inside of 
which one or more sheaves (wheels) revolve on & pin which runs through the block from 
side to side. The aperture between the sheave and the top of the block is called the 
swallow. The sides of the block are called cheelcs. On the outside of the cheeks a 
groove is cut, into which is fitted the strop— i\ie, grommet which tightly encircles the 
block. For definitions of various kinds of blocks look opposite to proper headings. 
(See engravings.) 

Block-and-Block. (See Chock- a-Block.) 

Blowing Great Guns. Expressive of a heavy gale. 

Blue-noser. A designation for a Nova Scotia seaman. 

Blue Peter. A flag having a blue ground and a white centre, and which when 
hoisted at the fore, signifies that the A-essel is ready to sail. ' 

pattkjjson's illustjeated nautical dictionaey. 



2 / 

j Cbdchlwi 
S Barrels 

4 Rii.1071' 

5 ^jxirWhcels 

6 FmirMuj 

7 Raichs -'■^h^' 

8 PcmIs 
5 fitroi 





Blue Water. A term applied to the open sea. 

Bluff-bowed. A vessel that has full bows, after the style of a canal boat's bows, is 
said to be hluff-bowcd. Also known as wpple-hoived. 

Bluff- headed. A vessel having a nearly perpendicular stem, or cut-water, is said to 
be bluff-Jieaded. 

Board. When a vessel is sailing close-hauled she is said to be making a hoard on the 
port or starboard tack as the case may be. (See Hale-Board.) To board a vessel is 
to enter upon her deck. (See Br the Board.) 

Board of Trade. The English Board of Trade is a public institution having juris- 
diction over merchant shipping. One of its duties is to examine and pass upon all sea- 
men applying for a certificate of competency as master or mate. 

Boarders. Men who enter upon a vessel other than theu- own, either in a hostile or 
friendly manner ; in the latter case they may board a vessel to render assistance. 

Boarding' NettlugS. A net work of ropes extending from the bulwark-rail up- 
wards, and completely or nearly encircling the vessel. A hoarding netting is used for 
the purpose of frustrating an attack upon the vessel by a body of boarders. 

Boarding Pike. A lance or spear used in repelling boarders. 

Boat. A small vessel propelled by oars or sails and termed respectively, a row-boat or 
a sail-hoat; a freight or passenger steam vessel built for the navigation of rivers and 
harbors is called a steam-hoat, without reference to size ; a vessel used on canals is 
called a canal-boat. 

Boat Boom Ladders. Short rope ladders hanging down from the boat-boom for 
aft'ording access to the boats when the crews are called away, or when they are re- 
turning to the ship from the boats. 

Boat Boom Pendants. The single lengths of rope seized on to the boat-booms 
and allowed to hang down so that the boats of the vessel, when at anchor, may be se- 
cured to them by hitching the jDainter through the eye spliced in the lower end of the 

Boat Booms. The booms that swing out from either side of the vessel and to which 
the boats ride by making fast their painters to the boom pendants when the vessel is at 

Boat Chocks. The shapes of wood in which a boat rests when it is stowed on deck. 

Boat Falls. Purchases made with two blocks and a length of rope used for hoisting 
a boat to the davits. 

Boat-hook. A wooden staff, with a hook-shape in one end, belonging to the 
furniture of a boat. It is used for bearing a boat off from a, vessel's side or wharf, or 
holding her in position alongside of some object. 

Boat Kecall. An understood signal made from the ship summoning a boat to return. 

Boat Service. (See Shove Oee; Up Oars; Let Fall; Give Wat; G-ive- 
Way Together ; Hold Water ; Sters^ All ; Oars ; Trail ; Way Es^odgh ; 
Toss ; In Bows.) 

Boatswain. An officer mider the mates whose duty it is to work the crew under the 
orders of the officer of the watch. The title is pronounced ho-s'n. 

Boatswain's Chair. A piece of board shaped and hung like a soup seat, and used 
to sit on while being swayed aloft to perform certain kinds of work. 

Boatswain's Locker. The chest, or other receptacle, in which the boatswain 
keeps marlinspikes, serving mallets, spun-yarn, etc. (See Locker.) 

Boat the Oars. To arrange the oars fore and aft in a boat along the thwarts so as 
to have them ready for the order " iip oars." 

Bobstays. The chains or ropes leading from the underneath outboard end of the 
bowsprit to the stem where they are secured, and by which the bowsprit is held down 
and prevented from jumping. (See Bowsprit Shrouds.) 

Boiler Deck. (See Deck.) 

Bold Bow. A broad bow. 

Bold Shore. A steep coast; a shore that may be closely approached by a vessel. 

Bole. A small boat. 

Bollard Timbers. (See Kxight Heads.) 

pa'iteeson'b illustrated nautical ektionaey. 


PATENT Steering-Apparatus- 

/. standard 
Z. SpindU 

S. Anru 

6. Giiide^Tods 
7v Grosshuupi 
8. Yoht-loh 
S>. Budder-Jiead 
Id. Spokes 


/. Budder-luad' 5. Spindle^ 

%. Budder-tilUr 6. WheeL-chaui' 

3. Standards arStanchumal. Spokes 
■4; BarrcL 

24 Patterson's illustrated nautiqal DicTioNARr. 

Bolsters. Pieces of soft wood, sometimes covered witli canvas, wliicli arc placed upon 
tlie trestle-trees, and on -wliii'li tlic eyes of the rigging rest, so as to prevent dialing. 

-Bolt. A roll of canvas is called a holt, and contains tliii-ty-nine yards, whatever may lie 
its width. Bars of metal used for various pur-poses in the constriiction of a vessel, pos- 
sessing different names according to their shape, such as ei/e-bolf, etc. 

Bolt Rope. The rope that goes around the edges of sails, and to which the latter is 

Bone. A vessel is said to curri/ n hone in her month when she is coming along rapidly 
so as to ciu'l the water about the stem into froth. 

Bonnet, The piece of canvas secm-ed to the foot of a head sail liy a lacing, and which 
is taken off in heavy weather. 

Booby Hatcll. A wooden hood which covers a small after-hatchway which is used 
for obtaining access to the interior of the vessel without removing the main hatches. 

Boom. A spar used for extending the foot of a fore-and-aft sail or a studding sail — 
pronounced stitn'' sail. 

Boom Brace. A rope leading from the end of the stun-sail boom through a tail 
block in the main rigging. 

Boom Foresail. A fore-and-aft foresail having its foot spread by a boom. 

Boom Guy. (8ee Boom Pexdakt.) 

Boom Horse. An iron half-circle which is secured to the iron band of a Ikjohi for 
the sheet traveler (the iron ring on the end of the boom sheet block) to traverse on. 

Boom Irons. Iron rings or collars at the extremity of the yard arms and through 
which the stun-sail-booms travel. (See Pacific Irons.) 

Boom Jigfjer. A light tackle used for rigging out and in the stun-sail booms. 

Boom Mainsail. A fore-and-aft mainsail, having its foot spread by a boom. 

Boom Tackle. A double purchase used to guy out booms when the vessel is 
running so that they will not come aboard. Also known as hoom-guys and lazy-guys. 

Boom Topping Lifts. Whips which lead from the after end of a boom through 
.a block at the lower .mast-head, thence down on deck, and are employed for topping up 
the boom and taking the strain off the sail when the latter is set, and the strain off the 
peak halliards when the gaff is lowered and the sail tied up. (See Quarter Lifts.) 

Boot Topping. Scraping off the marine growth from a vessel's bottom, and giving 
the latter a coating of some mixtm'e to prevent worming. 

Boring. Forcing a vessel through ice. 

Botil Sheets Aft. The situation of a square-rigged vessel when sailing right lie- 
fore the wind — the wind dead-aft or nearly so. 

Bottle Charts. Charts of cm-rents calculated by the drift of bottles thrown over- 
board, tightly corked, and containing the date, together with the ship's latitude and 
longitude. When these bottles are picked up by ships or on the beach the data afforded 
by their contents is utilized for approximating the direction and force of the current in 
which they have been borne. 

Bottomry. A bottomry hand is a contract entered into in order for the master to secure 
a loan of money on the ship upon maritime risks which are to be borne by the lender 
It takes effect at the termination of the voyage and at the port or place specified in the 
document. One of the conditions of the bond is that in the event of the loss of the ^-es- 
sel before reaching the port to which it is bound, the bond cancels itself ; but this risk 
may be provided against by the lender of the money insuring the bond. (Oftentimes the 
freight and the cargo are included in the bond, and in such a case the bond is called a 
Respondent i((. Bond or Bond of Bottomry and Itespoiideittia. In the latter case the 
holder's lien is first on the ship, next on the freight, and last on the cargo. The prere- 
quisites to the validity of the bottomry bond given by the master of a vessel are, that it is 
given in the absence of the ship owner and at such a distance from his home, combined 
with such circumstances as to make it impossible to consult him in relation to it without 
injurious delay ; that the money, repairs, or supplies for which the liond is given are 
necessary for the ship to complete her voyage. In the case of two or more bonds given 
on the same voyage, the last one takes precedence for payment, and so on in retrograde 




2t) patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionaey. 

iBonilli. Preserved beef put up in air-tight cans and carried in large quantities by 
naval vessels. Seamen call this " BuUy Becf^' and " Soup-and-Bidly " — the latter 
hecause the meat and the liquid contents of the can are used for making soup in the ab- 
sence of fresh beef. 

Bound. In reference to a vessel's destination. 

Bow. The forward part of a vessel on either side. (See Apple Bows, Bluit- 


Bow G-race. Chafing gear made of rope and placed around a vessel's bows to pre- 

A'ent them from being chafed from contact with ice. 
Bow Liighthouses. The towers placed on each bow of the vessel, and inside of 

which is contained the lamp for illuminating the colored glass window. These towers 

are a great improvement over the side-light lanterns. They are also known as Skle- 

liglit Castles and Side-light Towers. 
Bow Sea. A sea coming from a direction so as to break against the vessel's bow. 
Bowled, A mast or yard is said to be howed when it is set up so taut as to spring it. 
Bowsers, The anchors that are canied at the cat-heads. (See Best Bots'ee.) 
Bowline. A noose made in a rope with a certain kind of a knot. (See engraving.) 

A rope attached to the bridle on the leach of a square sail for the purpose of hauling 

the leach forward so as to sail as close as possible to the wind. When sailing this way 

a vessel is said to be on a bowline. To steady out a bowline is to haul it taut. 
Bowline Bridle. Ti'he span extending between the two cringles on the leaches of 

a square sail, and to which the bowline is secured. 
Bowline C ring le. Eyes worked in the belt-rope on the leaches of square sails, and 

in which the bowline bridle is made fast. 
Bowline Knot. A loop-knot made in the end of a rope. (See engraving.) 
Bowline I^izard. A short rope pendant with a thimble spliced in each end, and a 

part of the bowline bridle. 
Bowline on a Bight. A double bowline. (See engraving.) 
Bow Line or Bow Fast. The rope leading over the vessel's bows to another ves- 
sel or wharf, and by which the forward part of the vessel is made fast. 
Bow^ling'. A vessel is said to be howling along when she is sailing rapidly with a free 

Bowse. To haul. 
Bow^Sprit. A strong spar projecting outward over the stem of a vessel, and on which 

all, or a part, of the head sails are extended, according to the rig of the vessel. 
Bowsprit Bitts. Pei-pendicular timbers . extending above the deck, and between 

which the heel of the bowsprit is secured. 
Bowsprit Cap. The iron band fitted to the outboard end of the bowsprit, with a 

ring on top for the jib boom to run through. (See Cap.) 
Bow^Sprit Shrouds. The ropes leading from the side of the bowsprit cap back to 

the bows of the vessel where they are set up, and which stay the bowsprit sideways. 

(See Bobstays.) 
Box Dock. (See Dock.) 
Box-hauling. To wear a vessel short round instead of making a long sweep. (See 

Boxing the Compass. Calling the names of the thirty-two points of the compass 

in order. (See engraving.) 
Brace. Eudder gudgeons are sometimes termed braces. The rope leading from the 

yard arm, and by hauling on which a yard is turned around at various angles to the 

keel. (See Countee-bbace.) 
Brace Aback. To lay the yard so that the sail will throw against the mast. 
Brace Ahox. To lay the head sails aback and keep the after sails full. 
Brace in. To lay the yard more thwartships. 
Brace Pendant. (See Pendant.) 
Brace to. To slack the lee head braces so as to permit the ship's head to come quickly 

to the wind. 
Brace Up. To lay the yard nearer fore-and-aft. 

Patterson's ir.LusTEATED nautical dictionary. 



28 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 

Brace up Sharp. To lay the yard as nearly fore-and-aft as possible. 

Bracelets. A common term for liandcufFs or hand irons. Garters is a name applied 
to leg irons. 

Brails. Ropes used for gathering fore-and-aft sails into the mast ; spankers are pro- 
vided with brails. There axe foot, throat, sa\A peak brails. 

Brake. The lever used for working a deck pump. 

Breach. When whole seas roll over a vessel it is said that they make a ctciir hreacli ; 
when the seas sweep the deck of masts and bulwarks they are said to make a dean breach. 

Break Bulk. To commence to unload. 

Break Ground. When the anchor is lifted from the bottom it is said to brcalc 

Break Off. When the wind comes more ahead so that a vessel is obliged to go oft' 
from her course in order to keep the sails full, it is known as hreaJniu/ off. 

Break Shear. Said of an anchored vessel when she tends the ^\Tong way so as not 
to lie well for keeping- clear of her anchor. 

Break Up. A vessel breaks up when she is torn in pieces by the waves ; a stonn 
breaks up when it ceases. 

Breaker. A small cask for containing water, carried in boats under the thwarts. 

Breakers. A sudden breaking of waves against a steep shore, or agahist a coral-reef, 
rocks, etc. (See Suef.) 

Breakwater. A natural or artificial barrier across the mouth of a harbor which pre- 
vents the seas outside from rolling into it. 

Breaming'. Burning off' the marine growth from a vessel's bottom. 

Breast Backstays (obsolete). They were set up in the channels to sujiport the 
mast when on the wind. 

Breast-band. A band of canvas passing across the breast of the leadsman to pre- 
vent him from falling overboard. 

Breast Fast or Breast Liine. A rope used for securing a vessel's side to a 
wharf or to another vessel. 

Breast Hooks. The knees placed across the stem and apron for the purpose of 
uniting the bows. 

Breast Kail. The rail that runs across the forward part of the jxiop deck. 

Breast Rope. A rope passing across the leadsman's breast to prevent him from 
falling overboard while sounding. 

Breasting- a Sea. To meet the sea bows on. 

Breech. The outer angle of a knee timber ; the bottom of a block, where the stand- 
ing part of the tackle is made fast to the block ; the after-end of a gun. 

Breeches Buoy. A life-saving contrivance for getting people ashcire from a wreck. 
It is in the shape of the ring life-buoys which are generallj- carried at the stern of stean:- 
ships and large sailing vessels, with the addition of a' canvas shape suspended to the 
ring like the upper part of a pair of breeches — hence the name. 

Breeching-. The rope passing through the cascabel of a gun and employed to pre- 
vent the recoil beyond a certain limit — the ends of the breeching- have eyes and are se- 
cured by pins (called breeching holts) in the ship's side. 

Breeze. (See Land Beeeze and Sea Beeeze.) 

Bridgre. A platform which extends across the deck on steam vessels, and which is 
raised considerably above the rail of the ship. It is for the convenience of the officer 
of the watch, from which altitude he superintends and manages the vessel. 

The Steering Bridge has reference to the bridge on which is placed the steering 
wheel. Some steamships are provided with two bi-idges, one above the other, and 
when this is the case the lower bridge is made the steering- bridge. 

Bridle. (See Bowline Beidle.) A span of chain or rope, formed liy having the 
ends secured. The hauling power is applied to the bight of the bridle. 

Bridle Ports. The foremast ports on the gun deck of a man-o'-war. 

Brig-. A vessel with two masts, both of them square-rigged. (See Beigantine, 
Heemapheodite Beig, Jackass Beig.) The cage or prison lielow decks in which 
offenders are confined. 

]?attee8on's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


Sundries -* 

30 Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionaky, 

Brigantine. lu olden times a brigantine was a two-masted vessel, square-rigged on 

the fore, and scliooner-rigged on the main, with this addition, that she carried a light 

square topsail on the mainmast. In these days a brigantine dispenses with the square 

main topsail so that no difference exists between the rigs of a brigantine and an herma- 
phrodite brig. (See HBEii aphrodite Beir.) 
Bright Work. An expression used in reference to the brass fixings about decks, 

such as binnacles, belaying pins, capstan heads, etc. 

Brif/ht work also refers to tlie woodwork which is kept scraped instead of being' 

paiirted over. 
Bring by the Lee. To fall off so much when running free as to bring the A^ind 

around on what was a moment before the lee quarter. In the position the sails will be 

aback, and the vessel, if a square-rigger, will be in great danger. On a fore-and-after 

it would be jibing tlie vessel. 
Bring to. To lie-to ; to heave-to ; to come to an anchorage. 
Bring up. A vessel is said to bring up when she casts anchor. 
Bring, Up all Standing. When a vessel comes to anchor suddenly and without 

first taking in her sails. 
Broach. When, as sometimes happens, the crew break into the ship's stores, they are 

said to iroacJi them. Broach is a mild term for fliicrliui. 
Broach to. To fly up in the wind. 
Broadside. The side of a vessel from the cutwater to the end of the overhang ; a 

simultaneous discharge from all the guns on eitlier side of a vessel. 
Broad Water. A large expanse of water connecting with and close to the sea. 
Broken -backed. When a vessel droops at both ends, owing to weakness, or from 

having been pounded on the shore, she is said to be hrolicn-bnclxed. Also when a vessel 

is in such a condition so tliat the line of her sheer is undulating', she is said to be 

Broken Water. The breaking of waves as on a shoal ; the vertical leaping and 

tumbling action of water occasioned by a meeting of tides or currents. 
Brought to. When a vessel is lufl'ed into the wind. 
Bruising Water. A vessel is said to be bruising wafer when she pitches heavily 

into a head-sea. 
Buccaneer. A freebooter ; a pirate. 

Bucco. A designation for a swaggering, bullying ship officer. 
Bucket I^anyard. The rope-handle of a bucket. 
Bucklers. A block fitted into the hawse-hole ; a tompion for the half ports when 

there is no gun. 

A blind buckler is a solid piece of wood to be used when there is no chain in the 


A riding buckler has a space in it to accommodate the chain. 
Bulge. (See Bilge.) 
Bulk. (See Laden in Bulk.) 

Bulkhead. Partitions dividing various pai-ts of the vessel. 
Bull. A small keg. (See Bull the Buot.) 

Bull the Buoy. A vessel is said to bull the buoy when she thumps against it. 
Bullock Slings. Strong, broad slings of canvas used for hoisting live cattle in and 

out of a vessel. 
Bull's Eye. An egg-shaped piece of wood having a hole in it for a rope to reeve 

through. A bull's eye has no sheave, but it is strapped the same as a block. (See 

Deck Bull's Eye.) 
Bulwark Netting. A framework of ratline stufi" seized in diamond shape, and used 

instead of bulwarks. 
Bulwark Rail. The rail on top of the bulwarks, and bolted through to the top of 

the bulwark stanchions. 
Bulwarks. The fence built around the vessel over the covering board (plank shears). 

Bulwarks are sometimes of wood, and again of iron. They are secured to the bulwark 

stanchions, which in tm-n are bolted on to the timbers. 




1. — Tripping Line. 
■3. — 3'o(o Line, 
i — Pour-part Bridle. 
i. — Tripping Line Ring. 

5. — Roping Fore and Aft the Brag. 

%.— Mouth of Drag. 

7. — L'on Ring around Mouth of Drag. 

8. — Place where Hawser is lent on to Drag. 





32 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Bum Boats. Market boats which come alongside of a vessel in port with vegeta- 
bles, frnit, etc., to dispose of to the crew. 

Bumper. A log fender hung over the side. 

Bumpkins. This word is spelled in two other ways, namely: hoomUn and bumJcw. 
They are short horizontal spars projecting out from the vessel's sides to board the fore 
tack to, and from each quarter to secure the main brace blocks to. 

Bunker (See Coal Bunkers.) 

Bunt. The middle of a square sail that lies on top of the yard when the sail is furled 

Bunt Gasket. (See Gasket.) 

Bunt .Tigger. A purchase used for lifting the bunt of heavy square sails to the yard 
in fmimg. 

Bunt Whip. A whip employed for lifting up the bunt of light square sails to the 
yard in furling'. 

Bunting or Buntine. Woolen stuff of various colors out of which flags are manu- 

Buntline Lizard. A piece of rope having two legs with a thimble spliced into 
the end of each, and made fast to the topsail-tye ; through the thimbles the buntlines 
reeve, "the fonner acting as fairleaders. 

Buntlines. Ropes toggled to the foot of square sails, and used for lifting the foot of 
the sail to the yard. The buntlines lead through blocks above the yards, thence down 
on deck. 

Buoy. A floating shape anchored to the bottom to mark out a channel ; also floated 
over a shoal, or near a rock, as a warning to mariners. The following names distin- 
guish the various styles of buoj^s in use : Can, Spar, Bell, Nun, Cask, and WhisiUng, 
which axe defined under their respective headings. (See Beacon.) 
A hiioy is said to ivafch when it floats upon the water over its anchor. 
To stream a biio/j is to drop it into the water before the anchor leaves the cat-head. 

Buoy Rope. The connecting rope between the buoy and its anchor. 

Burgee. A swallow-tailed piece of bunting. 

Burton. A tackle used for various purposes. 

A single Spanish hurton is made of three single blocks. 
A double Spanish hurton is made of three double blocks. 

Bushing. A piece of metal set into a wooden block sheave to prevent wearing 
away the wood where the pin runs through. 

Butt. Tlie ends of deck and outside planks where they meet are tenned butt ends. lo 
start a butt means that one of the plank ends has become loose. This sometimes hap- 
pens to the outside planking when the vessel is straining and laboring heavily. 

Butt End First. When, after a period of calm, a sudden and violent wind strikes 
the vessel, it is said to come butt end first. 

Butter Box. A sailoi^'s name for a Dutch seaman. 

B llttock. The rounding of the vessel's body abaft, which is bounded by the fashion- 
pieces, and at the upper part by the wing-transom. 

By the Board. Over the ship's side ; overboard. 

By the Head. A vessel is said to be by the head when she draws more water for- 
ward than she should do to be in proper trim with relation to her draught aft. 

By the JLee. When a vessel in going free has fallen ofi' so much that the \Yind has 
been brought around the stern and taken her a-back. (See Being by the Lee.) 

By the Run. To let go altogether instead of slacking away gradually. 

By the Stern. A vessel is said to be by the stern when she draws more water aft 
than she should do to be in her proper trim with relation to her draught forward. 

By the Wind. Same as Full and By. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 




— — '\ 


■i A 

3 \ 


1 \ 





]. — Rudder. 

2.— Stern Post 

3. — Stern of Vessel. 

4. — Rudder Post or Stock-. 

a. — Pintles. 

b. — Wood-lock. 

c. — Oudjteons or Braces, 

d. — Rudder Port. 

e. — Heel or Sole Piece. 
L— Rudder Head. 


A, — Spar. 
'B.— Blade. 
C — Mouse. 
T).— Weight. 

■Fig. 1. 

F. — Ouys. 
G. — Trunk. 
R.—Ba/rrel of Wheel. 
I. — Spar lashed on Rail- 

Fig. 3. 

J. — Chain to he used when Rudder 

cannot he unshipped. 
K. — Place where Chain is secured. 

34 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 


Cabin. That part ol' a vessel in which the officers live. The captain's cabin is a 
separate room. 

Cable. A rope or chain secured to the anchor. 

Cable-laid JRope. A nine-strand left-handed rope, laid up against the sun. 

Cable Tier. The place either in the hold or betu'een decks in which the cable is 

Cable's Leng'th. About one-tenth of a mile — 100 fathoms of 6 feet each. 

Caboose. Also called galley. A house on deck where the cooking is done. ■ (See 

Caclie. A hole dug in the ground in which articles are placed for safe keeping, then 
the hole is covered. 

Cairn. A pyramid of stones erected to serve as a landmark. 

Calk. (See Caulk.) 

Call. The silver whistle or pipe used by tlie boatswain and his mates, and which is al- 
ways bloA\n to attract attention before tlie verbal order is given l)y them. 

Call Away. The preface of an order issued by an officer to a boatswain, or one of his 
mates, to get a boat ready to send away from the ship, such as : cidl (iwa)i the giij ; call 
awaii the cutter. When the order is called along the deck the first word is omitted, and 
the cry made as follows : uwaii gig ; awaij cutter. 

Calm. That state of the -weatlier when there is an absence of wind. 
Flat calm. Not a breath of air stirring. 
Dead Calm. Same as flat calm. 
Fall Calm. That condition of the weatlier when the wind ceases. 

Calming Oil. (See Quelling Oil.) 

Cambered. Said of the flooring of a vessel when it is higher in the middle than at 
either end — towards the stem and stern. 

Camel. A peculiar mechanical device for lifting a vessel over a liar ; invented by the 
celebrated Hollander De Witt in 1688, and introduced into Russia by Peter the Great, 
and now in use at St. Petersburg for lifting deep draught ships over the bar of the 
harbor. The machine is composed of two watertight half-hulls constructed in such a 
manner as to permit them to be attached in a fore-and-aft direction to a vessel. The 
camel is filled with water until it sinks to the required depth, secured with chains to the 
hull of the vessel, then the water is pumped out, the camel rises and lifts the vessel. 
Camels vary in size from 50 feet to 150 feet in length, and from 10 feet to '20 feet in 
breath, and have been known to lift a vessel 11 feet. 

Camferiiig. (See Chamfbe.) 

Can Buoy, A buoy formed like a cone, and found floating over shoals and obstruc- 
tions in navigation. 

Can-hooks. A short length of chain having a flat iron hook at each end, and used 
for hoisting and lowering casks by attaching the hooks to their chimes. The purchase' 
is hooked to the centre of the slings. 

Canal. An artificial water-course for light-draught vessels. 

Canal Boat. A flat-bottom vessel specially constructed for the navigation of canals. 
Canal Pass. A permit obtained from the State authorities at the entrance of canals. 
This pass must be shown at the various locks upon demand. 
Clearance. The canal pass is often referred to as a clearance. 

Clumge Bridge. The tow-path shifts from one side to the other, and where this 
occurs a bridge spans the canal for the mules to cross over. 

Double Header. Two canal boats in line, one pushing or pulling the other. 
Free Canal. When no toll is demanded nor charges made for the pass. 
Gate Sluice. The blade which opens and shuts on the bottom of the lock gates, and 
is controlled by a lever in the hands of the lockman. The opening and shutting of 
this blade floods and drains the lock. 




Fale)tC Sheccoes 

Liffiuun oilae Sheaoe 

Iron Sheave 

Bolts (If Fins 

Four Shecuie Block 

^MlofaBlock Sim/leBbck^ "^'^'^R^^ ^^'^ 

Sister- Block 

Tretle Block. Donf>le Block 



■^6 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Heel-path. The opposite side of the canal from the tow-path. 

Liirl;. Tlie mechanical structure used on canals for raising and lowering a vessel 
from one level to another. 

Loch Gates. The gates to a lock which may lie opened and closed, and by means 
of which the lock may be flooded or drained and the desired level obtained. 
Lcrel. The stretch of water between two locks. 
Lowering Loch. A lock which lowers a boat to a new level. 
li'ii.sinij Loch. A lock which raises a boat to a new level. 
Tiitr-prith. The roadway for- the mules drawing the boats. 
Tow'nuj Canal Boat. A canal boat drawn by mules. 
Siii(/le Header. A single canal boat, either steam or towing. 
Steam Canal Boat. A canal boat propelled by its own steam. 

'Canoe. A light, narrow boat, built generally' of cedar, and propelled by paddles and 
fore-and-aft sails. 

'Canvas. The material of which sails, awnings, etc., are made. 00 is the coarsest 
and strongest. It ranges from 00 to No. 10. Sails lighter than No. 10 are made of 
Ravens, which runs from 8 oz. to 15 oz. to the yard. The standard width canvas for 
yaclits' sails is fourteen inches, but as narrow as six inches is often used. . 

"Cai). A leather, canvas, or metal thimble-shape placed over the ends of standing rig- 
ging, such, for instance, as the brass acorns on the ends of the lanyards of the lower rig- 
ging. A block of wood containing both a square and a round hole, and used for con- 
fining two masts to one another. The square hole is fitted over the lower or topmast 
head and strongly secured, and the round hole permits the topmast or the topgallant 
mast to run through it. The bowsprit cap is situated at the outboard end of the spar, 
and secures thejibboom to the bowsprit. 

•Capsize. To overturn. To caxmse a coil of rope is to turn it over. 

■Capstan. A barrel-like machine placed perpendicularly on the deck. It is of great 
power and is used for heaving and hoisting, etc. Also used on naval vessels to lift the 
anchor from the bottom. (See Jeer Capstan.) 

'Capstan-bar. A wooden bar to ship into the capstan head (bar holes) and by which 
the latter is hove round. 

'Capstan-head. The top part of the capstan. 

Captain. The title for the commander of a good-sized vessel. The commander of a 
small vessel is termed shipper. 

'Captain's Boy. The flunkey appointed to wait exclusively upon the captain, keep 
his room tidy, etc. 

'Careen. When a vessel lies over on her side, either in sailing or from being hove 
down to undergo repairs, she is said to careen. (See List.) 

'Carg'O. The goods, merchandise, or wares with which a ship is loaded. 

Cargo Derrick. (See Derrick.) _ 

'Cai'gO Jack. A jack used for lifting or forcing heavy cargo into place, such as a 
bale of cotton, etc. (See Jack.) 

Cargo Port. (See Lumber Port.) 

CarlingS. Short pieces of fore-and-aft timber placed between the beame. 

■CariJenter. An officer on board ship whose duty it is to have care of the hull of the 
vessel, masts, yards, blocks, rudder, steering gear, decks, etc. 

Carrick Bend. Used for bending two hawsers together. (See engraving.) 

Carrick Bitts. The windlass bitts. 

'Carry Away. To break or part anything, such as a spar or a rope. 

"Carvel-built. A manner of building boats so that the planking is flush, or smooth 
sided ; the opposite to clinker or clinched built, where the edges of the planks 

Cask Bnoy. A barrel buoy. Sometimes a cash buoy consists of a ban-el placed 
over the head of a stake driven in the bottom. 

'Cask Sling'. A length of rope having either a hook or an eye in one end, and used 
for lifting a cask on its bilge. (See engraving.) This differs from a barrel sling, 
which see. 

Patterson's u-lustkated nautical diotionaky. 




Cast. To pay a vessel's liead off, eitlierto port or starboard, in getting under way — cast 
to port, rast to starboard. 

Cast Loose. To unfurl ; to tlirow the gaskets off a sail ; to untie, etc. 

Cat. A whip made of leather or rope ends used to inflict punishment. Also called 
cat-o''-iiiiH'-t((lls ; the tackle by which the anchor is hoisted to the cat-head. 

Cat Block. The doubh- or threefold block forming part of the tackle used in hoisting 
tlie anchor to the cat-head. 

Cat Boat. An open, or half-decked, one-mast sailing boat with the mast stepped in 
the eyes. This vessel has only a gaff mainsail, no head-sail being carried. 

Cat Crane. An iron overhanging beam stepped like a boat davit, and used in place 
of a cat-liead for catting the head. 

Cat Davit. (.See Cat Head.) 

Cat, Harpill. Short lengths of rope used for binding in the rigging abreast of the 
topsail yards, in order that those yards may be braced up as sharp as possible. 

Cat Head. Horizontal timbers projecting from a vessel's bows, and to which the an- 
chor is raised (^citttrd) and secured after it has been hove up. (See Cat Oeane.) 

Cat Hook. A large hook fitted to the strop of the oat block, and whicli is hooked 
into tlie ancliiiv ring, when catting the anchor, to lift the latter to the cat head. 

Cat the Anchor. To lift the anchor ring to the cat-head and secure it there. 

Catamaran. A small light-draught vessel, having two separate hulls of canoe shape, 
which are joined by cross-beams from one deck to another, and rigged with fore-and- 
aft sails. 

Catch a Crab. To make a false stroke in rowing. 

Catch a Turn. To take a turn with a rope quickly. 

Cat's Paw. The slight ruffling seen on the surface" of the water during calm 
weather, V)eing caused by transient flaws of wind ; a twist put in the bight of a rope, 
forming two small eyes. close together, and into which the hook of a tackle is slipped in 
order to get a strain on the rope for any purpose. 

Cattle Slings. (See Bullock Slings.) 

Caulk. To drive oakum into the seams of a vessel to prevent leaking. 

Caulking Il'On. A chisel-shaped instrument used for driving oakum into the seams 
of a vessel. 

Caulking Mallet. A small wooden maul used in caulking decks. 

Cautionary Signals. These are of two classes, known as " Cautionary Signal " 
and "Cautionary Off-shore Signal." 

The Cautionary Signal displayed in the daytime is a red flag with a black square in 
the centre ; in the night-time it is a red light. This is a general cautionary signal, and 
has reference to an approaching storm from any direction. 

Tlic Cautionarij Off-shore Sigiidl displayed in the daytime is a white flag with a black 
square in the centre, shown above a red flag with a black square in the centre ; in the 
night-time it is a white light shown above a red light. This is a signal indicating that 
the approaching gale is expected to blow off-shore, or from the land. These storm sig- 
nals are displayed at all the principal ports of the Atlantic and G-ulf coasts, and on the 
Great Lakes. Unless the approaching storm area registers a velocity of at least 25 
miles per hour the signals are not displayed. 
Cavil. A length of timber, like a long cleat, bolted on to the bulwark stanchions in a 
and-aft direction and used for belaying ropes to. 

Cavil Heads. Timber heads when used as cacits. 

Ceiling. The lining or inside planking of a vessel. 

Centre-board. The board which works on a thwartships pin up and down in the 
centre-board trunk, passing through a fore-and-aft narrow opening in the keel of the 
vessel. When the board is hoisted all the way up its lower edge is flush and parallel 
with the keel. When down the board drops a distance below the keel according to 
the size of the vessel. It is lowered to overcome the sideways drift (leeway) of the 
ship when she is close hauled. 

Centre-board Trunk. The hollow wooden wall from the keel up in which the 
centre-board slides up and down. 

patteeson's illubtbatkd nautical dictionaky. 


lUef-Kmt. Fyureo/EyhtKnot. SingleBaid. Carrick Bend^. Ske^-S/uwA- 

Bowhne Boxdine^upontheBigU. RollayHitrA. Marbrw- Hitch. 

40 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 

Certificates of Competency. Diplomas issued to masters and mates certifying 
to their excellence as seamen and navigators. 

Chafing G-ear. Rope, canvas/ etc., placed upon rigging, spars, etc., to save them 
from being chafed. 

Chain. Connected links of metal. 

Cliain Cable. The cable of a vessel when it is composed of inm links. 

Chain Locker. (.See Lockbk.) 

Chain Pipe. A leading pipe to the locker for the cable. 

Chain Plates. (See Chains.) 

Chains. Strong, narrow plates of iron bolted to the ship's timbers through the side. 
To the upper end of these plates dead-eyes are secured by an iron strop. The ship'^ 
channels are also called chains, as the fore-chains, main-chains, and mizzeu-chains. 
(See RuDDEE Chains.) 

Chamfer. To take ofi' the angle or edge of a timber. 

Chandlery Stores. (See Ship Chandler.) 

Channels. Plank secured edgewise to the outside of a vessel, and to A\-hich the 
upper parts of the chain plates with their dead-eyes are secured. Channels are. used in 
order to obtain more spread for the lower rigging. (See Chain.s.) 

Chapeling. When taken aback in a light breeze the ship may be worn completely 
around until she arrives on her original course without bracing the yards. This is 
known either as chiqjcling or liiiilding a chappel. 

Chart. A marine map delineating some part of the sea and the sea coast, giving in- 
fonnation as to the rooks, shoals, lights, soundings, and all that is necessary to assist 
the mariner in shaping the course of his vessel. (See Part III.) 

Charter Party. The name given to a contract in writing between the owner, agent, 
or master of a vessel, under a certain specified condition, for the conveyance of the 
goods of the freighter to some particular place or places. A charter ])arty also speci- 
fies the nature of the voyage, the terms on which the cargo is carried, etc. 

Chase. One vessel pursued by another. 

Chasse Maree. A French lugger. 

Check. To slack off a little on a rope or brace. 

Cheek Blocks. Half of a shell containing the sheave bolted on to a spar, the hit- 
ter acting as the missing clicel;. 

Cheeks. Those projections which are bolted to the sides of the mast and upon which 
the trestle-trees rest. Also a name applied to the two sides of a block. 

Cheerily Oh ! Heartily ; with good will. 

Chess Trees. Pieces of oak, bolted to the topsides of tlie vessel, conttiining a 
sheave, and used for hauling home the main tack (gone out of use.) 

Chimes. That part of the staves of a cask where they project beyond the heads. 

Cllinse. To drive oakum or cotton into a tight seam witli a thin caulking iron. 

Chip liOg. (See Log.) 

Chock. A wedge employed to prevent a bodj- from rolling or moving. 

Chock-a-block. When two blocks of a tackle have been drawn as close together as 
possible. Same as hlocJi-nnd-hJoch and two Uocks. 

Choke. A rope is said to choke in the block when it fouls and will not render. 

Choj) Sea. A quick, tumbling sea — short waves. 

Chops. Where the waters of a channel and the sea meet, for instance, the Chops of the 
English Channel. 

Circular Storms. The name given to revolving storms, sucli as West India hurri- 

Cistern. The well in the hold of fishing vessels in ^^■hich the catch is preserved 
alive. This well or cistern is supplied with water from the sea through a flood-cock 
pipe connecting the cistern with the outside of tlie vessel. 
Clamps. An iron shape which works on a hinge and is used to confine a spar, such as 

a studding-sail boom. 
Clap on. To make more sail ; to lay hold of a rope and haul awaj'. 
Class. The degree of excellence pronounced upon a merchant vessel, according to her 



Cable laid Hope . Slu-ouJ lead Rope timusei- laiti Hope . fl^iislt Kt/e^ 

Cat's Paw 

42 pattekson's illustrated nautical dictionakt. 

construction and tlie material used, American vessels are classed as A 1, A 1 J, A If, 
A 2, A 2 J, and A3. Vessels classifying under Al and AIJ are considered fit for the 
transporta;tion of all kinds of cargo and for all voyages ; those classifying under A If 
and A 2 are considered fit for carrying all kinds of cargo on Atlantic voyages, and 
such cargo as molasses, oil and sugar on long voyages ; \\'liile those classifying under 
A 2 J anil A3 are deemed fit for for the coastwise trade only in the transportation of wood 
and coals. The class is given for a certain term of years, and expires hy limitation, 
necessitating a new examination or survey of the vessel in order to re-establish the 
class or secure a new one, and in order .to maintain the class assigned the vessel must be 
submitted to occasional surveys not less than once in two years, and must be re-sm-- 
veycd for a class in the event of collision, running ashore, loss of masts, etc. 

Claw. To work the vessel off a lee shore is to claiv her off". 

Clear Hawse. (Sec Open Hawse.) 

Clearance. AVhcn a vessel is I'cady for sea the customs oificials must be provided 
with a detailed manifest (see Manifest) of the ship's cargo, which will be sworn to j 
then, if the port charges of tlie vessel liavo been paid, and her inward cargo properly 
accounted for, the collector will furnish her with a cletinciicc document, without which 
she must not attempt to leave port under penalty, except American A-cssels under coast- 
ing license, which are allowed to sail within certain districts in the United States 'with- 
out entrance or clearance, provided they have domestic cargo on board. 

Cleat. A piece of wood bolted to a stanchion or to the deck and used for belaying 
ropes to. 

Cleucker. (See Clikkee.) 

Clew. The two lower corners of square sails and the after lower corner of a fore-and- 
aft sail. 

Clew Cringle. A shackle spliced into the clew of the sail which is the junction of 
the foot and leech. 

Clew clown. To let go the halliards and sheet of a gaff" topsail and man the clew- 
line ; the tack being kept spread, the sail necessariljr comes down when the clewline is 
hauled on. 

Clew^ (jrarnet. The rope by which the clews of a foresail and mainsail (courses) are 
hauled up to the yard. The cicir giinwt takes the place of a clewline on the courses. 

Clew^ np. To haul up the clew of a sail. 

Clewlines. The ropes that lift the clews of square sails to the yards ; tlie clewline 
bunches the gaff" topsail on a fore-and-aft vessel. 

Clinch. To <Tmch a bolt is to spread the end of it over a plate by riveting, so that it 
cannot be withdrawn from the plate. To clinch a rope is to stop a half-hitch to its o\ni 

Clinched. (See Clinkee.) 

Clincher. (See Olinkee.) 

Clinker. A style of building boats in which the lower edges of one plank overlaps 
the top edge of the one below it. 

Clip Hooks. Two regular-shaped iron hooks having one side flat, suspended (re- 
versed to one another) from a small iron thimble. By overlapping, these two shapes 
form one complete enclosing hook. These are also known as sisier lioolis. 

Clipper. A vessel with a sharp bow, and built with an idea of making great speed . 
Said to have been first linilt in Baltimore, Md., hence the term Baltimore Clipper. 

Close Hauled. AVhen a fore-and-aft vessel is sailing with her booms nearly amid- 
ships, or a square-rigger -with her yar<ls braced up as sharp as possible, she is said to 
bo chise-luniled. Th(! same anfull-itnd-li//, on the wind, on a taut bowline. 

Close Reefed. (See Eeep.) 

Clonds. Visible vapor suspended in the atmosphere. Clouds are classed under the 

following heads : cirrus, ciiimdiis, stratus, cirro-citmnhts, cirro-strntns, cnmnlo-stratns. 

and eiiiiiiilo-cii'ro-strafits, or nindjiis. 
Clove Hitch. Two jannning under and overlaying turns of a line around a spar or 

a rope, and much used in bending a heaving line to a hawser. (See engraving.) 
Clove Hooks. (Sec Clip Hooks.) 



GoucmoN Bens, 

44 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Clulb Haul. A piece of seamansliip perlbrnicd wliile endeavoring to claw off a lee- 
shore, and when it is feared that the \-essel will miss stays. The lee anchor is dropped" 
(the hawser leading from the lee quarter) after coming head to wind, and when the A-es- 
sel's head has paid off on the opposite tack the caLle is cut. 

■ Club Topsail. A topsail set living from the deck with the luff laced to a pole called 
a sprit, and the foot laced to a pole called a chih. 

Clubbiug-. To drift down with a current, having an anchor on the liottom. 

Coakiug-. (.See Part 11.) , , ■, 

Coal Bunkers. Apartments built in the sides of steam vessels opposite the boilers 
for stowage of coal. 

Coal Tar. A tar made from bituminous coal, used sometimes to smear ovei- a surface 
to prevent leaking, and for painting the fronts of boilers, etc. 

Coaling- Sllip. The act of filling up the ship's bunkers with coals. 

Coamings. Strictly speaking, coamings are the fore-and-aft framings in the hatchA\ays 
and scuttles, and the thwartship pieces are head-Jedges, but the name coamings is com- 
monly applied to the entire raised framework about the openings in the deck in order 
to prevent \\-ater from running below, as well as for strengthening the deck about the 

Coast Guard. A body of men, regularly officered, whose duty it is to prevent the 
smuggling of dutiable goods into a country. 

Coasting'. Sailing along the coast. 

Coastwise. Along the ocean shore. 

Coat. A ii/ast-cuat is a piece of painted canvas fitted around a mast where it passes 
through the upper deck to prevent the passage of water. 

Cock Bill. (See A-COCK-BILL.) 

Cock-pit. The depression in the deck abaft the after cabin. In cocJc-jjif vessels the 
steering wheel is generally found in the afterpart of the pit. 

Codline. A line made of eighteen threads. 

ColFer-dani. A mechanical device met Avith in hydraulic engineering for exposing a 
portion of the bottom of a harbor. A dam or enclosure is built of spiles driven in the 
mud, then the water is pumped out. 

Coil. \\"hcn a, YO-pe' is coiled down it is wound around and around, one turn on top of 
another, the mass being named a coil. 

Coir Rope. Ropes made from the fibrous husks of the cocoa-nut. Coir rope will 
float upon the surface of the water. (See Bass Rope.) 

Coleman Hook. A hook used on light sails in the same way as clip lioolis. 

Collar. The eyes in those ends of the standing riggingwhich go over the mastheads are 
sometimes called collars. Also a strap or grommet when used to seize a heart or dead- 

Collier. A vessel carrying coal as a cargo. 

Colors. The national ensign, which is alwaj^s flown from the stern of the vessel, either 
on a flagstaff or from the aftermost mast. 

Come. To come iqj in the wind is to luff; To come to is to anchor ; To conn: up on a 
rope is to slack it ; an anchor comes home when it is dragged towards the ship in heav- 
ing in the chain. 

Coming' to. Said of a ship when her head approaches the direction of the wind. 

Commodore-Captain. The senior captain in a steamship line — seniority of ser- 
vice, not age. 

Comi>anion. A wooden slide or cover over the cabin staircase. The cciAer to the 
forecastle hatch is iextaeA. forecastle slide. 

Comjjanion Ladder. A ladder leading from tlie main deck to the pooji. 

Companionway. The cabin staircase ; the steps leading below from the spar-deck. 

Compass. A magnetic instrument which indicates the magnetic meridian, or the mag- 
netic pole, and employed on board ship to obtain bearing of celestial and terrestrial ob- 
jects and to steer courses. (See Part III.) 

Compass Rose. (See Flower of the "Winds.) 

Composite. A composite vessel has an iron frame and wooden planking. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



Compreeseiit or Compressant. (S«e GooBosAiN-T..)' 

Compressor. An instrument that nips a eable and prevents it from running out. _ 

Compulsory Pilotage. A pilotage law exacting pilotage from vessels entering; 
and leaving port, wlietlicr they accept or refuse the serviees of a pilot. 

Conclvidillg Line. A small rope leading through the centre of the steps of a stern 
ladder or a Jacob's ladder. 

Conductor. A marine lightning-rod, being a copper wire' secured to and projecting: 
above the truck, and leading over the vessel's side to the water„ 

Conning. Directing the helmsman how to put the Avheel when running through »■ 

Consuls. Agents appointed by the government to reside in seaport towns of foreign 
countries, and whoso duty it is to guard the commercial interests of their nation. Con- 
suls are authorized to receive the protests of masters ;• to administer on the estates of 
citizens dying within the limits of their consulates who have- left no legal representa- 
tive ; to provide for destitute seamen of their own country and to send them home at 
government expense ; to reclaim deserters from and to discountenance insubordination 
on board vessels flying the flag of their countrv ', to discharge seamen for cause, and 
to investigate charges of irregularities preferred against the officers of a vessel by the- 
crew, and to afford the latter protection, etc. 

A Consul-General has jurisdiction over sevei-al consulates. Aids to consuls are- 
Consular Agents, Deputy Consuls, and Vice-Consuls. 

Convoy. One or more merchant vessels sailing in company with' and" imder the pro- 
tection of a man-of-war. 

Copper. A reddish, malleable metal extracted from various ores.. Thin sheets of it- 
are used for sheathing the hulls of wooden vessels below the water line. 

CoiJper-bottometl. Said of a vessel when her hull is sheathed with copper. 

Copper-fastened. A vessel is said to be copper-fastened when the bolts -with whiclij 
the vessel is fastened are of copper instead of iron. 

Coppers. The boilers, or large kettles, used for cooking. 

Cordage. A term applied in a general way to all the standiiig- and' running rigging. 

Corinthian. A term used to designate an amateur patron of yachting.. 

Corinthian Race. When the owner or some other amateur seaman acts as sailing- 
master, the crew also, in whole or in part, being amateurs^ 

Cornucopia Drag. (See Deag.) 

Cori>OSant. A volatile meteor sometimes seen about the masts and yards of a vessel 
just before and during storms. Sailors are very superstitious oonceroiiig these electri- 
cal quantities, believing them to be spirits, and that to be aloft when one of these fire- 
balls is playing around is very unlucky, and to be touched by one a sign that the man's; 
life is of short duration. Seamen have other names for this phenomena, among wliich 
are, St. Elmo's Lif/ht, St. Elmo's Fire, Comprccscnt, Compressant,. Fit role, and JacJc- 
o' Lantern. 

Corrected Time. The figures obtained after applying the time allo-\\'ance to the- 
actual time made in sailing over the course. (See Time Aelowax-ce.)^ 

Coston Signals. Colored fireworks of private patterns used for various signaling- 
on board vessels at sea. 

Counter Brace. To brace the head-yards one way and the after-yards another. 

Counter Sea. A sea which runs in a contrary direction to v\ii(A\ the wind is blowing.. 

Counters. The concave in the after-body of a vessel which forms the run. 

Co-urse. That point of the compass toward A\'liich the vessel's head ds pointed when/ 
under waj'. 

Course Signals. The blasts lilown on the whistle l)y steam vessels to indicate to 
to one another the respective courses to be pursued. 

Courses. The sails upon the lower yards of a vessel, thus the foresail is the fore- 
course, the mainsail the main course, and the cross-jack the miszen cotirse. 

Covering Board. Same wplank shear. 

Coxswain. The person who steers the boat and is in charge of same in tlie absence- 
of an officer. 

























Coxswain's Box, The space between tlie backboard of the boat and the stern. 

Cralj. A wooden macliine ^^-\ih three claws, used in launching ships. 

Crab Winch. A small winch resting on light iron standards. (See engraving.) 

Cracker Hash. Made by breaking up a quantity of sea biscuit, soaldng them in 
water im til soft, then spreading some slush (grease obtained from the skimmings of the 
cook's cojjpers) over the mess and baking it in the o\'en — a great breakfast dish on 
lioard a man-o'-war. 

Cradle. A framing built upon launching ways and in which the ship rests -while she is 
being launched. 

Crance Iron. (See Ceaxze Iron.) 

Cranes. A machine used in raising or lowering great weights ; a derrick. (See Cat 

Crank. .V vessel is said to be cnmh or tender when she; lieels over unduly under sail 
so as to be in danger of capsizing. This may arise from insufficient constructural sta- 
bility or to the manner in which the cargo or ballast is stowed. 

Cranze Iron. The iron band on the bowsprit end to which the bowsprit shrouds and 
bobstays are shackled. 

Creeper. An iron instrument having four claws like a grajjuel and used for dragging 
over the bottom in search of lost cables, anchors, etc. 

Crew List. Before sailing on a foreign vo3rage, or on a whaling voyage, the master 
of a A-essel must make a list of the names of the oiBcers and crew com])Osing the ship's 
company; this list to specify alsn the respective places of birth and residence, and to 
give a description of the men individually. 

Crimp. A term applied to a well-known individual who plies seamen with liquor un- 
til they are intoxicated, then ships them on some vessel and robs them of their advance 
money through false claims. 

Cringle. A short piece of rope spliced into and forming an eye on the bolt rope on 
the luflF, head, tack, clew, and leach of gaif sails, into the head, foot, and leaches of 
square sails, and into the head, tack, and clew of jib-headed sails. An iron ring, 
called a thimble, is contained within the eye to prevent chafing. (See Reef 

Cross Bars. Bars of iron bent at each end ; they are used to turn the shank of an 

Cross Jack. The .lower yard on the mizzen mast of a ship. It is pronounced as 
though spelled crog-ie. Some merchant ships carrv a sail on the eross-jacl;, but on 
men of war such a sail is never found. 

The cross-jacTc draces are the braces not only which are employed to swing the cross- 
jiick yard, but the name refers collectively to the braces of all the mizzen yards. 

Cross Sea. A sea that runs contrary to the direction of the wind ; a confused, ugly 
sea, very dangerous for low-sided vessels. This kind of a sea is very trying to a ship 
as it makes her labor heavily. 

Cross Tl'ees. Pieces of oak running thwartships which are supported by the cheeks 
and trestle trees, and on which the tops on the lower masts rest ; they spread the top- 
gallant rigging' at the topmast head. 

Cross Yai'ds. To send yards aloft and drop them to the horizontal, and secure them 
with their gear. 

Crossing the Line. When a ship sails over the equator she is said to cross the line. 
(See Neptune.') 

Crow-foot. A number of small lines suspending an awning, and whicli are either 
spliced into or hooked to little thimbles on the awning backbone ; these lines reeve 
through an euphroe, to which is bent or hooked the awning halliards, by which the 
canopy is triced np. 

Crowd. To crowd sail vpoii a vessel is to set everything the ship can stagger under ; 
or, all the sail that the vessel has. 

Crowding. When one vessel interferes with another's course by luffing or by bearing 
away, the former is said to crowd upon the other's course. 



50 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Crown. The crown of an anclior is the lowest part directly beneath the shank, or- 

where the arms are welded to that portion of the anchor. 

To single croivn a Inyit is to lay the ends of the strands over and then under each 

other above the knot. 

To double crown a knot is to repeat the process of siiir/le crowning, following the parts. 

of the latter with the strands of the rope. 
Crow's Nest. A look-out perch at the mast-head of whalers. It is made of a barrel 

minus the head, so rigged as not to interfere with the sails, and provided with a tele- 
scope for the use of the seamen who occupy it. A crow's nest is also carried by arctic 

exploring vessels. 
Crutch. The stanchion, forked at its upper end for a spar to rest in ; the .after-boom 

rests in a portable crutch when the vessel is at anchor with no sail set. 
Cuckold's Knot. (See Cuckold's Neck.) 
Cuckold's Neck. The knot by which a rope is seciu-ed to a spar, the two parts of 

the former crossing one another and seized together. 
Cuddy. A small cabin or pantry. 
Cunning. (See Conning.) 

Curio. A sailor's name for curiosities brought from a foreign country. 
Currents. A progressive motion in certain places of the water of the ocean ; defined, 

streams traversing the surface of the sea; ocean rivers. (See chart engra^-ings.) 
Custom House Measurement. The legal tonnage of a vessel determined by 

the surveyor of customs. (See Tonnage.) 
Cut Splice. A splice made with two ropes — one a short length. The latter has both 

its ends spliced into the bight of the former, thus fotming a kind of eye splice. (See^ 

engraving. ) 
Cut-water. The foremost part of the stern that divides the water when the vessel is 

Cutline. The space between the bilges of casks when stowed chime-and-chime. 
Cutter. A name given to steamers in the revenue service. Also medium-sized boats 

carried at the davits. A one-masted vessel rigged almost like a sloop, the difference • 

beinff mainlv in the construction of the hulls. 


Dago. Strictly speaking the term " Z)ar70 " refers to the children of Spanish parents- 
born in the State of Louisiana ; but English and American seamen apply the designa- 
tion to all Portuguese and Spanish sailors. 

Dandy. Same as a yawl. 

Dandyfank. A kind of pudding made by men-o'-war's men. 

Darbies. A term applied to handcuffs. 

Dasher Block. A small block at the end of the after-gaff, used for reeving the en 
sign halliards. 

Davit Check. (See Davit Gxjy.) 

Davit GrUy. A light wire rope secured in the outer eye on the side of each davit, . 
and set tant on the rail by a lanyard so as to keep the davits at right angles to the 
keel. The davit cJicck or spreader (a chain) crossing horizontally from davit to davit 
prevents them from turning too far when the guys are set up. Sometimes a light sjiar- 
called a strongback is used for spreading the davits instead of a chain. 

Davit Spi'eader. (See Davit Guy.) 

Davit Strongback. (See Davit Guy.) 

Davits. Lengths of timber or iron having blocks shackled to, or sheaves in, the upper- 
ends, and which project over the stern and side of a. vessel, being employed to hang; 
boats to. (See Fish Davit.) 

Patterson's illusteatku nautical dictionaky. 



52 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 

Davy Jones. A title applied to a mj^tliical sea devil, otherwise called Jimmy 

Davy Jones' Locker. Infernal reg-ions at the bottom of the sea where D(mj 
Jones holds court. 

Daylight. Wlien two bodies fail to come into ])erfect contact, so that a small opening 
liet\\'een them is seen to exist, they are said to slioir daylight between them. 

Dead Calm. (Bee Oalm.) 

Dead Eye. A solid circnlar block without sheaves, but containing three holes 
through the flat, and a score or groove cut round it for a strap. It is i'ound on the ends 
of chain plates and shrouds and stays set up with lanyards. 

Dead Flat. The broadest part of the ship — the midship bend. 

Dead Freigllt. When a merchant agrees to supply a full cargo but is unable to do 
so, the unfilled space should be measm-ed, the freight it could earn be calculated, and 
a claim made upon the merchant for so much " dead freight." 

Dead Lights. Round thick glass windows in the side of the vessel. These panes are 
generally framed in brass, and work upon hinges, so as to obtain air below when cir- 
cumstances permit of them being opened. Also heavy wooden shutters to fit in to the 
stern ports A\hen the glass sashes are taken out. 

Dead Rise. The rise of a ship's floor from a level. 

Dead Rope. A rope that does not reeve through any block or pass over any sheave. 

Dead Water. The eddy of the wake under the vessel's counter. 

Dead Wind. A head wind. Wind dead ahead. 

Deaden the Way. To impede a vessel's progress through the water. Dragging 
a sail or athwart-rigged spar after a vessel. An old trick resorted to to deceive pirates 
and the enemy. The idea was to show a great press of sail as though the vessel was 
endeavoring to escape and thus to bring the chasing vessel within reach of the for- 
mer's guns, all unsuspicious of her intentions. 

Deck. The platform laid upon the deck beams. 

The upper, main or spar deck extends the entire length of the vessel. 
Tl/e qaarfer dech extends from the mainmast aft. 

The poop decJi covers the poop cabin, which extends from the mizzen-mast aft. 
llie boder deck is the one on river and harbor steamers on which the boilers are 

Tlie hurricane deck is a light upper deck, generally covered with painted canvas, and 
to be found only on steam vessels. 

TJie saloon deck and the hurricane deck are the same. 

The promenade deck is another name for the hurricane deck. 

Deck Bnll's Eye. Thick shapes of glass let into a hole cut in the deck for giving 
light below. 

Deck Cargo. That portion of the vessel's cargo which is carried on the upper deck. 

Deck Horse. (See Hoese.) 

Deck Lights. Shapes of heavy glass let in the deck to give light to the various 
parts of the vessel below. 

Deck Pipe. The hole in the deck through which the cable leads. 

Deck Pnnip, A hand-pump used for washing down decks. 

Deck StoiJper. (See Stopper.) 

Deck Tackle. A heavy double purchase used about decks for heavy work. 

Deep-sea Lead. The lead attached to the deep-sea lead line and weighing from 
forty to eighty pounils. It is armed in the same manner as the hand lead. 

Deep-sea Lead Line. This line is 100 fathoms in length, and is marked as fol- 
lows : 

At 10 fathoms with a tucked strand having one knot. 
" 20 " " " " " " two knots. 

" 3(1 " " " " " " three knots. 

And so on to 100 fathoms. Between these even ten-fathom marks a strip of leather 
may be used to represent 15 fathoms, 25 fathoms, 35 fathoms, etc. 

-Deep Water. Meaning the same as Mac wafer. 




Te non- 




-54 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Deep-water Sailor. A seaman of the long voyage. 

Demurrage. When a vessel is detained in port in loading or unloading beyond a 
limit specified in her charter party she is allowed so much denmrrage money per day — 
such detention, however, being the delay for which the charterer or his agent is respon- 

-Derelict. A vessel abandoned at sea. 

Derrick. A spar supported by guys, with a block at its upper end forming part of a 
tackle by which cargo is loaded and unloaded. ' 

Despatch. In signing a charter party it is customary for a clause to be inserted to 
the effect that the vessel is to he loaded or discharged -with despatch, the same being gov- 
erned by the custom of the port where she may be. In some countries it also means 
the facility afforded at the custom houses in clearing a vessel with more than customary 
promptness, and for which an additional fee is sometimes charged. 

Deviation. A voluntary departure without necessity from the regular and usual 
course of the specific voyage for which the vessel is insured. In such a case the re- 
sponsibility of the underwriters terminates with the commencemont of the act. 

Devil's Claw. A strong iron hook used as a stopper for the cable. 

Devil's Table-cloth. The white fleecy cloud which often settles over Table Moun- 
tain at the Cape of Good Hope ; it is the forerunner of a gale from the southeast. 

Diag'Olial-built. A manner of building boats in which the planking runs diagon- 
ally, the inside planks running in a contrary direction to the outside planks, their 
edges meeting. 

DiaiilOlld Knot. An ornamental knot made with the strands of a rope and used 
on man-ropes, etc. Diamond knots are made both single and double. (See engraving.) 

Dingey. The smallest boat carried by a vessel, and is used for all kinds of rough and 
dirty work. 

Dipping Lug Sail. One which has to lie shifted to leeward of the mast each time 
the vessel is tacked. 

Dipjjing the Colors. The act of lowering the national ensign (which is flown at 
tlie stern) and hoisting it again as a salute, or in return for a salute received. 

Dismantled. When a vessel is unrigged — stripped of her spars and upper masts. 

Disniastetl. The state of a vessel when her masts have been carried away — gone 
(iver the side. 

Disi>atcll Boat. A fast steaming vessel used in the navy for carrying dispatches 
two and from the commanding officer of a vessel or fleet. 

Distress Signals. Colors hoisted upside down ; guns fired, and fireworks set off' 
promiscuously are all signals of distress. 

Ditty Bag. A small bag used for the same purpose as a diiti/ hor. 

Ditty Box. A small box with a hinge lid used by men-o'-war's men to keep sewing 
gear and such like in. 

Dock. A place where ships are loaded and unloaded ; the water space between two 
wharves. (See Dey Docks.) 

Docking a Ship, The act of placing a vessel in a dry dock. Also used in con- 
nection with making a vessel fast to a wharf. (See Berthing- a Ship.) 

Doctor. The title given to the cook on merchant vessels. 

Documenting. The doniiiicnting of vessels has reference to Itcgisters, Enrollments, 
and Licenses which legalize the several trades, etc., in which they may be employed. 

Dog. A short iron bar with a ring in one end and a sharp fang in the other; the latter 
being driven securely into a piece of timber, and the block of a tackle hooked to the 
ring of the dog so as to drag the timber along, etc. 

Dog Shores. A piece of timber placed at the forward end of the launching ways to 
hold the ship until ready for launching. 

Dog Vane. A kind of weather-cock generally made of bunting, for showing the di- 
rection of the wind. 

Dog Watches. (See Watch.) 

Dog's Ear. The small bight made in the leech-rope of a sail when it is reefed or 
made up. 

patt'ekson's illustrated nautical dictionaev. 








5d patteeson's illtjsteated nautical DICTIokAEY. 

Dolphin. A post on a ^^■l)a^f (not a spilu head) to wldcli hawsers are made fast; a. 
spar driven in the sand on a beach for making a mooring line fast ; a strap of plaited 
cordage around a. mast to support the puddening ; a fender secured permanently below 
the gunwale of a large boat ; a wooden buoy acting as a mooring. 

Dolphin Striker^ The lower spear-shaped ending of the martingale. .Sometinies- 
the dolphin stiil^cr and mart'mguh are spoken of collectively, when either one of the two 
above names arc applied. (tSe(^ Maetincale.) 

Double Block. A block containing two sheaves. 

Double Diaiiiourt Kiiot. An ornamental knot worked with the strands of a rope 
and used on man-ropes, etc. (>Sec engraving.) 

Double Topgallant Sails. (See Topgallant Sail.) 

Double Topsails. (See Topsail.) 

Double Wall Knot. A knot put on the end of a rope. (See engraving.) 

Doubling'. To sail around or pass be3rond a point of land. 

Douse. To lower a sail ; to put out a light ; to cover with water. 

Down Helm. An order to put the helm to leeward so as to bring the vessel up to 
the wind. 

Down Killick. jMeaniug the same as down anchor. The expression doini killick 
is made use of at times by the men manning the windlass brakes, who cry ■■ down kil- 
lick" as they l)ear the brake-handle down, and " upiydliclc" as they bear it up. 

Downhaul. A rope used for hauling down jibs, staysails and studding-sails. 

Drabler. A piece of canvas laced to the bonnet of a sail in the same manner as the 
bonnet is laced to the sail itself. It is employed in order to obtain more drop. 

Drag. A bag-net used for dragging the bottom for specimens or for lost articles. An 
instrument made of canvas and rings or spars, with a long hawser attached, led through 
the weather ha\\"se pipe, to throw overboard in heavy weather to keep the vessel's head 
to the sea These contrivances are known by the names of Cornucopia, Spar, and 
Kite Drags, according to their shapes and manufacture. 

Dragging tlie Anchor. To trail the auclior along the bottom by reason of the 
vessel having stern way on her. The failure of the anchor to hold the vessel. 

Draught. The depth of water contained l)et\\een the water's edge and the bottom of 
the keel, expressed in feet and inches, is called the rcsscTs draught. 

Draw. When a sail is distended by the wind it is said to draw ; a vessel draws so 
many feet of water; to move away is to draw J'roiu ; to approach is to draw upon ; to 
draiv awaij or let draw is to aUow the weather jib or staysail sheet to be slacked off 
after tacking ship, so that the sail may be sheeted down to leeward. 

Drawing String. The rope whicli runs along the leach of foresails, mainsails, and 
jibs, being spliced into the head cringle, and leads down through the space in the 
tabling betAveeu the bolt rope and the sewing of tlie seam. It then leads out through 
an eyelet-hole in the clew. It is used to strengthen the leach and prevent that part of 
the sail from slapping when the leach is too slackly roped, or when the body of the sail 
is shrunken \ij dampness. 

Dreadnaught. (See Feaenaught.) 

Dredge. A machine belonging to a mud-digger for scooping up in a great hod or 
tank the bottom of rivers, harbors, etc., for the purpose of deepeningthe channel. 

Dressing Ship. Displaj-ing flags at the mastheads; also making a span of them 
from jib-boom end, over the mastheads and down to the outboard end of the spanker- 
boom (tins latter is called rainbow dressing). Otherwise having a strhig of flags from 
the mastheads down to the deck. 

Drift. The length of rope over and above that which is utilized. Also the set of a 
tide or current, and a vessel's lecAvav. 

Drift-lead. A hand-lead dropped over the side when at anclior to ascertain if the 
vessel is dragging by observing the trend of the line. 

Drive. To hit home a bolt, etc. ; a ship diires when scudding before a gale, or 
drives to leeward when under no control of the rudder or her sails. 

Driver. A term sometimes applied to the spanker. The name is derived frcjui the 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 









large square sail which in olden days was set on a yard on the end of the spanker- 
Drop. The depth of a square-sail amidships from head to foot ; applies to courses 

which do not hoist, but are dropped. 
Drop Anchor. To let go the anchor. To anchor the vessc4. 
Drop Astern. The retrograde motion of a vessel ; when a vessel goes backwards 

through the water. (See Fall Astekx.) 
Drop Down. (See Fall Down.) 
Dl'ubbing'. Working with an adze. 
Drum Head. The same as Capstan Head; the top of the capstan where the bars 

are shipped. 
Dry Dock. An artificial basin into which ships are floated, then the entrance to the 
basin closed by a gate and the ■(\-ater pumped out, leaving the vessel resting dry, her 
keel on keel-blocks, and her sides supported by bilge-shores. Also a huge platform 
which is sunk so as to allow a vessel to be floated over it, then the dock raised by 
diiferent appliances, lifting the vessel entirely out of water, and supported as explained 
above. Dry docks are described under the following heads : 

A Grucbig Bocli, strictly speaking may be either a basin or platform, but the name 
is employed principally in connection with hasiit or stationary docks. The word 
"graving" means the cleaning of a vessel's bottom, and this may be done as well on 
a floating as on a basin dock. 

A iSrcfioiiuI JDocJc is a platform on which a vessel is raised out of water by a series 
of air-tight boxes. 

A Floating Bock is another name for a sectional dock. 

A Balance Bock is a platform so-called owing to the means provided for retaining it 
perfectly level by pumping water into or out of the side chambers as required. 
A Box Bock is the name sometimes given to a basin dock. 
A Basin Bock is the name at times applied to a stationary dock. 
A Stationary Bock is a basin dock. 
A Portable Bock is a floating dock. 

A Screw Bock is constructed specially for small vessels, being a platform which is 
is raised and ]oA\ered by means of large iron screws connecting the platfonn and the 
stationary frame above it. 

An Hydraulic Bock is a platform which is lifted clear of the water by means of 
chains passing over pulleys in the side frames of the dock and connecting with a 
hydraulic engine. (See CtKIDIEON ; Wet Dock.) 
Dry Hot. A disease to \\'liich timber is subject, causing rapid decay. 
Dublb. To smooth or round a timber with an adze. 

Duck. A tenn often applied to the cotton material of which a vessel's sails are made, 
but in reality duck is a finer weaving than cotton canvas, and is made up in garments 
for use in hot climates. 
Dudeen. A sailor's name for a favorite tobacco pipe. 
Duff. A sea-pudding made from a paste of flour and water and boiled. 
Plant Btiff is the above Avith the addition of raisins. 

RaUrond Buff refers to a duff' in which the raisins are si.i few and far between that 
sailors say they find one only at each station. 
Dunnage. Loose -wnod and other material placed on the flooring for the cargo to 
rest on ; also pieces of wood, mats, etc., jammed between barrels and other cargo to 
prevent motion. 
Dutch Galliot. A Holland-built merchant vessel having a flat floor and rounded 
or pudding-shapeil ribs, and carrying' the mizzen-mast stepped wav aft. 

pattebson's illtjstkated nautical dictionakt. 



trcstlA tj-eex 

Topmast ■«• m, 
a'os.t. bvex ■ 



Earing. A rope whicli secures the oringle of a sail in bending and reefing. (See- 
Reep Eaeing.) 

Ease Her. An order to the wheelsman when the ship is close hauled signifying- that 
the wheel is to be put up a little to let the vessel go off. 

Ease Off. To slacken ; to come up with. 

Ease the Ship. (See Ease Hee.) To throw the guns overboard. 

Easy Tliere. An order not to pull or haul strongly. 

Eating" to Windward. Making progress against the wind when close hauled. 

Edg"e Away. To gradually decline from the course, or from the shore. 

Edge in with. A gradual approach toA\ards the shore, or a vessel, or other object, 

Eiking or Ekeing. To make good a deficiency in the length of a timlier. 

Elbow^. ' When two crosses exist in a hawse, owing to the bad trending of a vessel. 

Elliott Eye. An eye in the end of a hawser containing a thimble. 

Elliptic Stern. A stern shaped in a manner to resemble the section of a cone ; an 
oval-shaped stern. 

End for End. Gloving anything so that it will assume a reverse position. 

End on. To advance head on against anj-thing, such as a vessel, or the shore, or 
other object. 

Engine-room Bells. The bell signals rung by the deck officers to the engineer 
in the engine-room to direct the movements of the engines. 

Engine-room Telegraph. A circular instrument placed on the bridge and else- 
where about the decks of steamships, and worked by a short lever connecting with the 
engine-room, and by the manipulation of which lever the deck officer transmits signals 
to the engineer. The upper half-circle of the instrument has printed on it the words- 
half speed ahead, stop, full speed astern, etc., and by moving the lever to one of these- 
the corresponding word or words is pointed to by an indicator on the engine-room dial. 

Engineer Signals. (See En-gine-eoom Bells.) 

Engineers. Engineers on board merchant ships are classed as Oliief First, Second, and 
Third Assistant. 

Enlarge. The wind is said to enlarge when it draws more aft- 

Enrollment. A marine document issued to a vessel of the United States by the- 
customs officials. Vessels of twenty tons and upward engaged in domestic trade, in 
the fisheries, or in foreign trade on the inland northern frontiers of the United States, 
must {if tliey are not under register) be enrolled. But an enrdled vessel cannot engage 
in foreign trade hy sea. The enrollment identifies the vessel in the following particu- 
lars : nationality, official number, ownership, vessel's name, home port, name of master,, 
year of building, place of building, name of the measurer, number of decks, number of 
naasts, rig of vessel, dimensions, and tonnage. The enrollment continues in force indefi- 
nitely, unless the rig of the vessel, or the tonnage of same, or tlie ownership changes, in 
which case a new enrollment must be obtained. Yachts may be enrolled, although it is- 
not compulsory. 

Ensign. The national flag. 

Ensign Halliards. The halliards by which the ensign is- hoisted, whether the lat- 
ter is shown at the stem or at the peak. 

Entering. To enter a vessel the master must report himself upon arrival to the cus- 
toms officials, and furnish them with a manifest setting forth all the details of his ves- 
sel's cargo, and to this paper the master must take oath, and the vessel shall not be- 
considered as being regularly entered until the manifest has been accepted by the col- 

Entrance. The lower part of a vessel's bow about the -water line.. 

Escutcheon. The place on the stern of a vessel where the name is either paintedi 
or raised. 

Establishment of the Port. (See Tide Estabxishmekt oe the Poet.) 

Patterson's illustkated nautical dictionary. 




Mast - hiad 


Topmast avsstrees 
Topmast "haul 
Topmast cap 
Lower yard- 

10. Topaattyani 

11. Toptnast studdingsail boom 
1Z. TopgalliuU stiidduuisaU ioom 
13. Lowa' rigging 

1^ H'.viflefl foremost shroud ) 

15 Slico'-ba.iUn 

16 Ratlines 
n Dead -eyes 

tS Lanyards 
It) Cham -plates 
io Topmast backstays 
U 1. ho'.'^er fuiiocks 
25. Topmast rigyiitg 
S.3. Topyallaii! fttitocks 
Hh. Sling ot' Ic^^-cr.yaril 
iS. Topsail tyc 
r/ Tcnuail iifis 
:.'S.LouxrJcof ropes 
X?. T^-'psad -foot -ropes 
3o Stirrups 
31. FUtni'sh Iwrsc. 
3Z. Quarter irons 
33. Yard -arm irons 

3i- hift /liili/lJAV 

62 Patterson's illustrated nautical diotionaet. 

Eviphroe. A length of wood having a number of parallel holes bored in it, and used 
to spread the legs of the awning crow-foot. 

Even Keel. When a vessel has no list, and is resting on the water so that the same 
proportion of the water line forward and aft is either submerged or elevated, she is said 
to float on an even heel. 

Eviirol. (See Eupheob.) 

Extension of Protest. (See Protest.) 

Eye-bolt. A bolt having an eye in one end driven through a vessel's side or deck 
until the shoulder around the 03^6 is flush with the wood ; it is used for hooking any- 
thing to, such, for instance, as a preventer stay, the standing part of a head sheet, etc. 
When there is a ring through the eye it becomes a ring-bolt. 

Eye-seizing. A seizing which is put on the strop of a block to form the eye and to 
jam the strop in the score of the block. 

Eye-splice. A loop formed in the end of a rope by short-splicing its own end. (See 
engraving-. ) 

Eyelet-holes. Small holes worked in a sail, and through which the reef points are 
thiTist for half their length, then sewed to the eyelet-liole ; also the holes for the robands 
to go through in bending the sail. 

Eyes. The loop in a shroud or stay that goes over the mast-head ; the hole in the top 
part of the anchor shank that the ring goes through ; the eyes of a ship are the hawse- 
holds ; lip in the eyes refers to the extreme forward part of the vessel either above or 
below declvs. 


Fag. To become untwisted ; bunting \% fagged when it becomes ragged. 

Fair Leader. A short length of wood with holes bored in it, or a block or thimble 

so placed as to give running rigging a fair lead, or to change its direction a little, such, 

for instance, as to make it parallel to the shrouds by gathering it into them through the 

fair leader. 
Fairway. The middle of a channel in a harbor or river. 
Fair Wintl. A mnd which enables a vessel to la}"- her course. 
Fake. A circle of rope in a coil ; one of the circles of the lead-line held in the 

hand in sounding. 
Fall. The rope of a tackle. 

Fall Aboard. To strike or encounter another ship or object 
Fall Astern. The situation of a vessel wlien she is out-distanced by another. (See 

Drop Asteen.) 
Fall Down. To sail or to be toA\'ed down a river nearer to its mouth. 
Falling G-lass. Said of a barometer when the mercury descends in the tube. 
Falling Home. A vessel's topsides are said to be falling home when they incline 

inboards from tlie perpendicular. Also said to be tuuMing home or tainhling in. (See 

Falling Off. Said of a vessel when her head goes off from the wind. 
False Keel. A timber bolted underneath the main keel of vessels in order to deepen 

the outside keel. 
Fancy Line. A line for overhauling a lee topping lift ; a line rove through a block 

seized on to the jaws of a gaff, and used as a downhaul for the spar. 
Fast. Secure. The rope used in securing a vessel to a wharf or to another vessel. 

There are hotv, head, breast, quarter, and stern fasts. 
Fathom. Six feet. 

Fay. To fit two pieces of wood close and fair together. 
Fearnaught. A thick woolen cloth coat. Sometimes called Breadnaught. 







64 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Feather. An oar is feathered in rowing by turning the blade horizontal after it leaves 

the watur. 
Feather-edged. Planks having one of their sides thinner than the other. 
Feel the Helm. A ship is said to feel her hdm when she is sensitive to the rudder 
Feeling her Way. .Sounding witli a hand lead as the vessel proceeds. 
Felucca. A vessel having lateen sails, and housed over only in part. It is of Arabic 

Fend. To keep off; to bear ofi'from ; to prevent touching. 
Fender Bar. A long fure-a /id-ajf fender hung over a ship's side just above the water 

line midships to prevent chafing' against a dock. 
Fender Piles. Piles driven into the bottom, their upper part extending a number of 

feet above the water, and forming the corners and ends of wharfs, ferry-slips, etc. 
Fenders. Shapes of wood, canvas or rope hung over a vessel's side to protect her 

from chafing against another vessel or dock. Boat fenders are small round shapes of 

canvas stuffed. 
Fetch. Meaning tliat a vessel will succeed in getting to a certain point vidthout 

another tack when she is being beat to windward. 
Fetch Away. To curry away ; to break ; to part. 
Fid. A block of wood or iron to support a topmast or topgallant mast by placing it 

through the fid hole in the heel of the mast and allowing it to rest on the trestle-trees. 

A conical-pointed piece of hard wood used as a marlinspike for splicing large ropes, 

opening the eyes of rigging, etc. 
Fiddle Block. An elongated sheel containing two sheaves, the largest one on top. 

(See engraving.) 
Fiddle Head. (See Head.) 
Fiddle Back. A framework fastened to the table to prevent dishes from sliding off 

when in a seaway. 
Fife Bail. The pin rail surrounding a mast. 

Figure Eight Knot. A knot made in the shape of figm-e 8. (See engraving.) 
Figure-head. A carved figure carried under the bowsprit by being bolted to the 

stem. (See Head.) 
Fillihus.ter. Of the freebooter class. 
Fill. The sails are said to fill when the wind blows into them so as to force the vessel 

Fill Ahack. When the wind blows on the forward surface of the sails so as to pre- 
vent tlie vessel's progress through the water. 
Fill Away. To brace the yards so as to receive the wind into the sails after the ves 

sel has been braced aback. 
Filler. A piece of wood inserted in a made mast to make good a deficiency. A com- 
position used on spars as a priming coat before they are varnished. 
Fine. A vessel has a fine entrance when she is sharp forward. 
Fire Bill. (See Fike Quaetees.) 
Fire Quarters. Stationing the crew in various parts of the vessel, and alloting to 

each man a certain task to be performed in the event of fire on board ship. When 

this is shown in writing and exhibited for the benefit of the crew it is called a Fire Bill. 
Fish. Til lift the flukes of the anchor on the rail so that the shank is horizontal ; to 

strengthen or reunite a spar by Vjolting pieces of plank over the break, then heaving a 

strong lashing of rope around the spar over the fish pieces. 
Fish Davit. The davit employed in fishing the anchor. 

Fish Front. The name of a strengthening slab on the front of a made mast. 
Fish Hook. The large iron hook used to catch the arm of the anchor, and by which 

the fluke is raised to the bill board on the rail. 
Fish Pendant. The rope to which the fish hook is secured. 
Fish Tackle. The ropes, blocks, hook, etc., used in fishing an anchor. 
Fishermen's Bend. Sometimes used for bending on the gaff topsail halliards, or 

the topmast stunsail (studding-sail) halliards. (See engraving.) 
Fist. To seize ; to lay hold upon. 

patieeson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 




66 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Flare Up. A distinguisHng light oamecl by a pilot vessel, or exhibited by a vessel 

being overtaken by another. 
Flaring'. 0])\)osed to fallhig honw. A vessel is s&id to \ia.Ye a, flaring bow when the 

topside inclines outside from the perpendicular. A flaring bow keeps the anchor well 

clear of the vessel's side when it is hanging at the oat-head, and also makes the vessel 

very dry forward by preventing the seas from breaking over the bow. 
Flash Light. A signal made for a pilot by flashing a white light above the bul- 
warks at short intervals. An alternate vanishing and appearing light in a lighthouse. 
Flat. To haul a sheet flat is to haul it down or in as close as possible. 
Flat Aback. Said of a square sail when the wind is blowing on its forward side so 

as to press the after-surface against the mast. 
Flat Calm. Not a breath of air stirring. 
Flat Knot. Known also as a reef knot and a square knot. It is used in tying reef 

points, etc. (See engraving.) 
Flat Seizing. A seizing put on anything without overlaying or riding turns. 
Flatten Down. Same sis flatten in. 
Flatten In. To haul in the head-sheets so that the head-sails will lie closer to the 

Flaw. A sudden gust of wind. 
Fleet. To shift anything from one place to anotlier ; to separate the blocks of a 

Fleet-ho ! Tlie order given to shift. 
Flemish Coil. To coil a rope down with each succeeding fake outside of and half- 

wajr covering the fake beneath it. This is also known as a French Fake. 
Flemish Eye. A kind of eye splice. (See engraving.) 
Flemish Fake. A number of turns of rope being concentric, or having a common 

centre, and lying flat on the deck instead of riding over each other. 
Flemish Horse. The small extra foot ropes at the ends of topsail yards. 
Flight. Where an abrupt rise exists in the lines of a vessel it is said to take flight. 
Floating Anchor. A name for a drag or sea anchor. 
Floating Breakwatei*. A line of connecting cribs anchored across a harboi-'s- 

mouth for breaking the force of the seas and preventing them from rolling into the 

harbor with natural force. 
Floating Dock. (See Dry Dock.) 

Flood. Cock. A kind of faucet which is connected to a pipe leading from the ves- 
sel's outer side inboard, and is used to flood powder magazines in the event of flre, etc. 

A cook for filling bath tubs, etc., is called a sea cock. 
Flood Tide. A rising tide. When it ceases rising it is high fide. 
Floor. The platform of a vessel over or on each side of the keelson. 
Floor Timbers. The timbers on which the flooring of a vessel rests. 
Flotsam. Wreckage floating on the sea ; goods found drifting about on the sui'faoe 

of the water. 
Flower of the Winds. Tire name once given to chart compasses. The diagram 

compasses printed on old charts were elaborated by a rose in their centre. This gave 

rise to the term compass roses as applied to chart diagram compasses. 
Flowing Sheets. When a ship has the wind between the beam and the quarter, 

so that she goes two or three points large, she is said to lia,ve fl.nving sheets. 
Fluid Compass. A name by which a liijnid compass is sometimes called. (See 

Part III.) 
Flukes. The triangular shape of iron welded on to the end of the anchor-arm. 
Flunky. The title given to the cabin waiters on a merchant passenger vessel. 
Flush Deck. A deck unbroken by deck houses, poop topgallant forecastle, etc.,, 

but presenting an even surface fore-and-aft. 
Flux. The rising tide. 
Fly. The part of a flag extending from the union to the extreme end. A name also 

applied to the compass card. (See Union.) 
Flying Dutchman. A name applied to the traditional spectre-ship which has been 

patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionaey. 






V)S patteeson's illdsteated nautical dictionaey. • 

met witk, according to the claimti of many seamen, to tlic eastward of the Cape of Good 
Hope. The legend runs that in the year a. d. inr)2 one Oornolins Vanderdecken, a 
Holland sliii)master, sailed fi-oni Amsterdam for Batavia in command of a Holland 
ship called the Bnmrc. The vessel reached Batavia, discharged her cargo, loaded, 
.and sailed for Amsterdam; but, after meeting A\-ith a succession of westerly gales 
which prevented the vessel not only from getting around the Cape of Good Hope, but 
■drove her away to the eastward, Captain Vanderdecken, while in a passion over the 
■delay, defied I'leaven, and, shaking his clenched fist at the skies, swore that he would 
ddulde the Cape in sjiite ot God Himself. From that day the phantom ship has been 
struggling to weather the Cape of Good Hope, but the mark of blasphemy against the 
Most High is on the vessel, and she is doomed, witli her Dutch skipper and crew, to 
sail hopelessly on forever, sometimes reaching, but never passing, the meridian which 
.calls for them a halt, before they are again driven back into the solitude of the South- 
ern ( )cean. Under that great span in the heavens, reaching from jioleto pole, they can 
never sail, for the Almighty has hung upon it in letters of righteous wrath : '' Tims far 
shnlt thou, go ami no fiuihcr." Seamen believe that to sight this vessel will bring 
them gales, shipwreck, and death. It is to be remarked that although at one time it 
was occasionally seen, the Flying Dirtchnian has not been reported now in some years. 

Flying Jib. One of the head-sails which sets outside the jib on the jib-boom. (See 

Flying Jib-boom. The light spar that rests on the jib-boom, and is rigged out 
ahead of the latter. (See Jib-eooii.) 

Flying Jib-boom Cruys. (See Jib-boom Guys.) 

F'lying Jib Netting. '(See Jib Nbttikg.) 

Flying Jib Stay. A stay forward the foremast on which the flying jib is set. 

JPlying Kites. Skysails, moonsails, and sky-scrapers, the two latter being obsolete. 

F'lying Light. Said of a vessel when she is crank for want of ballast or cargo. 

JFl'ying Sails. (See Set Flting.) 

Flying Start. This is the start now generally adopted by all yacht clubs in this 
country, and means that upon the firing of the preparatory gun the yachts are sup- 
posed to be under way and ready to manoeuvre for position, and ready to cross the line 
upon the firing of the second or starting gun. 

Fog. A moist vapor of greater or less density floating near the surface of the land or 
water ; a fine mist. 

Fog Sank. A heavy fog cloud lying on the horizon. 

Fog Bell. A bell on a light-ship, shoal, etc., rung in foggy weather to warn vessels. 

Fog Kuoys. Buoys placed on shoals, having an automatic whistle attached, which 
gives forth a \\-arning noise, the vertical rise and fall communicated from the motion of 
the waves generating the necessary power to supply the bellows of the whistle. 

Fog fiater. A term applied to the risen moon on account of its influence as a dissi- 
pator of fog, especially when at its full. 

Fog Horn. An instrument blown by steam, by caloric engine or b}'' bellows, from a 
light-house, etc., during foggy weather to warn mariners. A small fog horn blown by 
mouth is used on sailing vessels to warn approaching ships. 

Fog Signals. When under way at sea a steamship blows a prolonged blast on the 
steam whistle every two minutes ; a sailing vessel on the starboard tack blows one 
blast on the fog horn every two minutes, but if on the port tack two blasts, and if the 
wind is abaft the beam three blasts. All vessels at anchor ring the bell every 
minute. All vessels navigating baj's, rivers and harbors during a fog are obliged to 
sound their respective signals incessantly. A steamer majr signify to another the way 
she is putting her helm by the following : one blast to mean, I am putting my helm to 
port ; two blasts, I am jmtting my helm to starboard. 

Fog Siren. (See Siren.) 

Fog Whistle. A steamer's wliistle blown as a warning during fogs. 

Following Sea. A sea setting after the vessel ; a sea running toward the same 
point of the compass that tlie vessel is heading. 


70 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Following Wind. A wind blowing towards the same point of the compass that 

the vessel is heading. 
Foot. The lower edge of a sail ; that part of a mast near the deck. (See Fore 

Foot Board. A small portable thwartship piece of wood fitting into notches on top 

of the flooring in a boat, and against which the rower braces his feet. 
Foot Ropes. Lengths of rope made fast to and hanging under a 3'ard, or along the 

b(3wsprit, end of the "spanker-boom, and jib-boom, for men to stand on while bending, 

nnbending, reefing, and furling sail. Theses ropes were formerly known as horses. 

The bights are snpport(Ml or held up by stin-ups hanging from the spars. 
Footing. AVhen a green hand first goes aloft at sea he is followed up the rigging and 

lashed to the shrouds unless he pays a forfeit, and this is known a.s jxii/iiig his footing. 
Force Over. To drag a ship over a shoal by ramming it under a big spread of can- 
vas or a full head of steam. 
Fore. The forward part of a vessel ; anything in the direction of the head of the ship. 
Fore-and-aft. In the line of the keel; opposed to athwart ship; a schooner is 

called afon'-und-aft vessel. 
Fore-and-aft Sails. Sails which set upon gaflPs and booms and stays. 
Fore Cabin. A cabin in the forepart of tlie vessel, or a cabin just forward of the 

main cabin. 
Fore Chains. (See Chains.) 
Fore Deck. The forward part of the main deck. 
Fore Foot. The forward extremity of the keel, upon which the stem of the vessel 

Fore Ganger. The roping grafted on the handle of a harpoon and having an eye 

in its after-end for the harpoon line to be bent into. 
Fore Hatch. On sailing vessels generally the first hatch abaft the foremast, and on 

steamships the hatch forward of the foremast. 
Fore Hold. The forward part of the hold. 
Fore Hook. Also known as a breast hook ; a timber that goes across the stem, and 

which unites the parts of the bow and strengthens the forepart of the vessel. 
Fore Leach. The hiff of a fore-and-aft sail is often termed the, /ore Jeuch. 
Foi'e liOCk. A piece of iron slipped thwartships through a hole in the end of a bolt 

to prevent the latter from drawing. 
Fore Peak. That part of the vessel below decks which is close to the stem. 
Fore Rake. The overhang of the vessel boAvs forward of the forefoot. 
Fore Reach. A vessel is said to fore reach when, after being thrown into the wind, 

either in tacking or when coming to anchor, she shoots ahead. 
Fore Kigging. The shrouds and their ratlines of the fore lower mast. 
Foi'e Runner. The piece of bunting tucked in the strands of a log line (generally 

ten fathoms from the log chip) to mark the limit of drift line, and from which the knots 

on the line are marked. 
Fore Sail. The sail that on 9, square-rigger is bent to the fore yard ; but the sail 

that on a fore-and-after is spread by the fore gaff and boom. 
Fore Sheet Horse. (See Horse.) 
Fore Sheet Traveler. (See Traveler.) 
Fore Shoulders. (See Shoulder.) 
Fore Shrouds. The shrouds of the fore lower mast. 
Fore Stay. The hemp or wire rope leading from the foremast head to the stem, 

where it sets up. The foremast is stayed (supported) forward by it, and on this staj' 

the fore staysail is set. (See Stats.) 
Fore staysail. The first head sail forward of the foremast, setting on the fore stay. 

(See Staysail.) 
Fore Topmast Staysail. A head sail that sets upon the foretopmast stay. 
Fore Yard. The lowest yard across the foremast on a brig, brigantine, bark, bark- 

entine and ship. 


Modern Racing Canoes. 

Copyright 1890. by Harper & Brother?. 

1 Mutton Sails. 5- fatten Reefing Hails. 

2. Standing SaUs. 6. Moisting SaU 

3. Standing SaUn. J- Muttmi Standing Sails. 

4. Mutton' Standing Sails. 8. Jespei- Saih. 

9. Single Beef Hoisting Sails. 

Forecastle. The compartment in the forward part of a vessel, on or under the upper- 
deck, in which the seamen sleep and eat on mercliant vessels. 

Forecastle Deck. That part of the upper or spar deck which is forward of the- 
after fore shroud. (See Topgallant Foeecastle.) 

Forecastle Head. The forward part of the forecastle deck or topgallant forecastle 
near the knight heads. 

Foremast. The forward mast of all vessels. As sloops and cutters have but one- 
mast, it is always referred to as the mainmast. The term, however, is incongruous, and 
there is no necessity for its use. 

Foremast Hand. One of the crew not above the rating of a seaman. 

Foremast Officers. A designation for boatswains, carpenters and sailmakers on a 
merchant vessel. 

Forge. Same as Head Beach. 

Forward. Towards the forepart of tlie vessel. 

Fotlier. To stitch oakum over the surface of a sail and draw it under a vessel's bot- 
tom for the purpose of stopping a leak. 

Foul. A rope fouls when it jams in a block; a term used to express the oi:)posite of 

Foul Anchor. When the cable is twisted about the anchor. When the anchor of 
one vessel locks itself to the anchor of another vessel — both anchors being on the 

Foul Berth. When a ship is anchored in the way of another ship or some other ob- 

Foul Bottom. When a vessel',s bottom is covered with barnacles, grass or slime. 

Foul Hawse. When a vessel has two anchors down, and the cables get a cross or 
twist in them by the revolution of the vessel round her anchors, she is said to have a 
foul liawse. 

Foul the Water. When the vessel sails so close to the bottom that the mud is- 
disturbed and rises to the surface of the water. 

Founder. When a vessel fills with water and sinks she is said to founder. 

Fountain Dues. The amount charged a vessel for furnishing her with water while 
in harbor and filling her water tanks for sea. (See Water Dubs.) 

Four-fold Block. A block containing four sheaves. 

Four-fold Purchase. A purchase having two blocks, each containing four 

Fox. Two or more rope yarns twisted together. (See Spanish Fox.) 

Frap. After a vessel's bottom has been fothered, the sail is frapped by passing ropes 
under the sail and keel, and hauling them taut so as to keep the sail in place ; to pass 
a rope around a sail to keep it from blowing away. 

Free. To free a vessel of loaier is to pump her dry; a vessel sails free when she has a 
fair wind. 

Free-hoard. The distance from the plank shear, or covering board, to the water line. 

Freehooter. (See Pieate.) 

Freight or Freight Money. The amount paid for transportation of cargo. 

French Fake. (See Flemish Coil.) 

French Shroud Knot. A knot used for rejoining a shroud or a stay that has 
been carried away. 

Fresh Breeze. A breeze blowing from thirteen to fifteen miles an hour. 

Fresh G-ruh. Newly -killed, or canned meats and vegetables ; any kind of food not 

Fresh-water Sailor. A seaman whose experience is limited to lake and liver 

Fresh Way. When a vessel increases her velocity she is said to get fresh way, or 
to gather fresh may. 

Freshen. Tofreslien anything is to shift or renew it. 

Freshen the Ballast. To move the ballast about. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaet. 



1 . Mainsail. 

2. Stem {cutwater). 

3. Rudder. 

4. Tiller. 

5. Mainmast. 

6. Fm'estay. 

7. Main Boom. 

8. Main Oaff. 

9. Truck. 

10. Throat Halliards. 

11. Beef Cringles. 
13. Beef Points. 
13. Topping Lift. 


LeacTi oj Sail. 


Luff of Sail. 


Peak Halliards 


Main Sheet. 


Head of Sail. 


Foot of Sail. 




Mast Hoops. 


Tack of Sail. 


Throat of Sail. 


Peak of Sail. 


Clew of Sail. 


Freshen the Hawse. To veer out or to heave in a little cable so as to allow 
another part of it to be brought in contact with the hawse hole. 

Freshen the Service. To renew the service where it has become worn through 
or chafed. 

Friday. A day of the week once held in superstitious awe by seamen ; but with the 
advent of steam, which has robbed the ocean of most of its romance, the supernatui-al 
character or influences attributed to the day rapidly dissipated. Several American 
steamship lines have adopted Friday as the regular sailing day for their vessels. 

Frog Eaters. A sailor's name for French people. 

Frog Landers. A name employed by seamen when speaking of Hollanders, ow- 
ing to the character of their country, with its canals, dykes, etc. 

Frontier License. A license granted to a vessel of the United States by the cus- 
toms authorities authorizing her to engage in trade upon the northern inland frontier 
of the United States. (See License.) 

Full. Said of the sails when they are distended by the wind. 

Full and By. Sailing close to the wind but keeping the sails full. An order given 
to the helmsman to effect the foregoing. 

Full Spread. A vessel having all sail set is said to be under a full spread of can- 

Funnel. The smoke-stack of a steam vessel. 

Telescopic Funnel. A smoke-stack that telescopes so that all or most of it may dis- 
appear below the main deck. 

Furl. To roll up and secure a sail or awning. 

Furling Line. A small line used to bind a fore-and-aft sail to a gaff or boom after 
it is furled. Short independent lengths of rope used for this purpose are called stops, 
and when used for square sails, gaskets. 

Furniture. The rigging, spars, anchors, sails, boats, cables, etc., of a vessel is 
termed collectively \\ev furniture. 

Furole. (See Coeposanx.) 

Futtock Band. The iron band which goes around the lower-mast just under the 
top, and to which the futtock shrouds secm-e. 

Futtock Chain Plates. Iron plates secured to the side rims of the tops, with a 
dead-eye in the upper part for the topmast rigging to set up to, exactly the same as the 
chain plates of the lower rigging, and a hole in the lower end for the futtock shroud to 
hook in. 

Futtock Holes. Holes in the rim of the top on each side for the futtock chain 

Futtock Shrouds. Short shrouds extending from the lower ends of the futtock 
chain plates to the futtock band. 

Futtock Staff. A length of wood or iron covered with canvas or leather seized 
across the topmast rigging like a shear-pole. 


OaiF. A spar which projects abaft a mast, and to which the head of a fore-and-aft sail 
is bent. That part of the gaff which is near the mast is called the throat, and the outer 
end of the spar is named the peak. It is hoisted by throat and peak halliards. The 
jaivs are the two horns bolted one on each side of the inner end of the spar to keep it to 
the mast. The rollers are the little wooden wheels on the forward side of the mast, 
which are strung on a jaw span or jaiv rope made fast through holes bored in the for- 
Avard extreme end of the jaws. This span prevents the gatf from unshipping with a 
fore-and-aft motion, and the rollers do not permit the span to jam against the mast when 
the gaff is being hoisted or lowered. (See Railways.) 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 









Club Topsail. 

Club Topsail Sprit, 

Topsail Club 

Club Topsail Guy, 


Jib Topsail. 

Jib {Forestaysail and Jib 

in one). 

ClubTopsail Tack Line. 
Foresail or Forestaysail 




Jib Topsail Sheet. 


Topping Lift. 

Oaff Topsail Clewed Dotvn. 

Tack of Jib. 




Tack of Jib Topsail. 


iMff of Jib Topsail. 
Head of Jib Topsail. 
Jib Topsail Halliards, 




Leach of Jib Topsail. 


Main Oaf. 


Main Boom. 


Main Topmast. 


Foot of Jib. 


Leach of Jib. 

Clew of Jib. 

Reef Points. 

Tack of Mainsail, 

Clew of Mainsail. 

Peak of Mainsail. 

Throat of Mainsail, 

Main Cross Trees. 

Masthead Runner and Tackle. 

Head of Club Toiisail. 

Clew of Club Topsail. 

Tack of Club Topsail. 

Topmast Shrouds. 


Gaff Topsail. A fore-and-aft sail set over a gaff, the foot of the former being spread 
by the spar. 

Gage. (See Weathee Gage, Lee Gage.) 

Gain tlie Wind. To get to windward of another ship in sailing 

Galleon. A high-sided, armed ship, sometimes of four decks, once used as a treasure 
ship by the Spaniards. 

Galleries. Ornamental projections on the quarters of a vessel. 

Gallery Laddei*. Same as Stem Ladder. 

Galley. A flat-built vessel having one deck and being propelled by sails and oars. 
The place where the cooking is done (See Caboose.) 

Galli<>t. A galley having one mast and one sail, and propelled by 16 to 20 oars. 

Gallows. A framework above the main deck on which spare spars and boats are se- 
cured. This frame is known as ^\ell as gallows-hitts, gallows-tops, and gallows-frames. 

Gallows Bitts. (See Gallows.) 

Gallows Frames. (See Gallows.) 

Gallows Tops. (See Gallows.) 

Galvanized Iron. Iron having its surface covered with zinc. The iron is heated 
and treated to a bath of melted zinc, which, while it lasts, jirevents rusting, but the pro- 
cess of galvanizing robs the iron of some of its strength. 

Gammoning'. The rope or chain lashing which secures the heel of the bowsprit 

Gammoning' Iron. The iron band which secures the heel of the bowsprit. 

Gang. A set of standing rigging is known as a gang of rigging. 

Gang" Board. A plank with cleats nailed across and used as a rou^h gangway 
from the vessel to the shore. Also called gang-plank. 

Gang Casks. ' A small cask in size between a breaker and a barrel. It is used for 
bringing water on board in boats. 

Gang-plank. (See Gang Boaed.) 

Gangway. The opening through the bulwarks for people to pass in and out of a 

Gangway Ladder. The steps from the gangway extending down along the side 
nearly to the vessel's water-line. Also known as the " accommodation ladder." 

Gantline. A line reeving through a temporary single block hooked aloft. Also 
known as girtline. 

Garboard Strake. The first line of planking next to the keel, being rabbetted to 
the latter. 

Garlantl. A net in which provisions are kept, being triced up clear of the deck for 
safe keeping in relation to rats, cockroaches, and other vermin. A strop made fast to 
a spar by which to hoist the latter on board. 

Garnet. A purchase rigged on the mainstay and used in getting in and hoisting- 
out cargo. (See Clew Gaenet.) 

Garters. (See Beacblets.) 

Gaskets. Ropes employed to secure the square-sails to a yard, or the head-sails to 
the bowsprit and jib-booms, after the sails are furled. On some vessels the bowsprit is 
provided -^N'ith sti}2)s made fast to small iron screw-eyes on the sides of the spar, and 
these take the place of a gasld, but gaskets are always used on jib-booms and on yards. 
On the latter they are uauied according to their location, as : bunt, quarter, said' yard- 
anil gaskets. Harbor gaslets are neatly made of platted stuff or of bands of canvas for 
use when the vessel is in port. Sea gaskets are the ordinary lengths of rope. 

Gather. A vessel is said to ijatJier on another when slie is overtaking her. 

Gather "Way. Suid of a vessel when she commences to move through the water 
after leaving her anchorage, or after she has been lying-to. 

Gaub Line. (See Gob Line.) 

Gauge. (See Gage.) 

Gear. The name applied collectively to the ropes, blocks, tackles, etc., of any particu- 
lar spar, sail, etc. 

General Average. A oontribution made by all parties concerned in a sea venture 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



1. Lowermast. 

3. Topmast. 

3. Bowsprit. 

4. Main Boom. 

5. Qaff. 

6. Topsail Sprit. 

7. Spinnaher Boom. 

8. Tiller 

A. Mainsail. 

B. For estay sail. 

C. /«&. 

D. /S^«i Topsail. 

E. 7» J'c " 


9. Cross Trees. 

10. Shrouds. 

11. Topmast Shrouds. 

12. Topping Lift. Lift. 

13. Masthead Runner and 19 Spinnaker Boom Brace. 

Tackle. 30. Topmast Backstay. 

14. ForestoA/. 31. Beef Pennant. 

15. Topmast Stay. 33. TrwcA. 

16. Bohstay. 33. Ensign. 

17. Bohstay Fall. 24. Channels. 

18. Spinnaker Boom Topping 35. Mainsheet. 

36. Spinnaker Boom Quy. 

37. C7Z«M 0/ ^^rii Topsail. 

38. Tac^ (?/• ;S?5n« Topsail. 

39. TtosA Z«me or Pendant. 
30. /^?'«i Topsail Halliards. 

78 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionakt. 

toward a loss wliioli lias been sustained by the voluntary sacrifice on the part of the 
master of the property of some of the parties in the interest and for the benefit of all. 
It is called general average because it falls upon the entire ship's cargo and freight at 
risk, and wliich has been saved by the sacrifice. 

Particular average signifies the partial loss or damage which has happened to the 
ship, cargo, or freight in consequence of some unavoidable accident, and it is either 
borne by the individual owners or their insurers. 

Greneral Cargo. An assorted cargo such as is legalized for general transportation 
— gunpowder and explosives, heavy machinery, etc., excepted. 

Gig. The captain's particular boat. 

Gig's Crew. The oarsmen belonging to the gig. 

Gilguy. A sailor's name for anything he does not know the name of ; also the name- 
applied to a makesliift contrivance on board ship. 

Gimbals. A pair of rings one of which swings within the other, their respective axles 
being at right angles to each other ; one of the rings provide for the roll or heel of the 
ship, and its companion for the pitch of the vessel. The ship's compass is suspended 
within gimbals so that its face may always preserve a horizontal position. 

Gimblet. To giniblet an anchor is to turn it around when it is hanging from the cat- 
head or from the hawse pipe. 

Gill Block:. A block made entirely of metal. 

Gingerbread Work. Carvings and other fancy work about a vessel. Also ap- 
plies to unsubstantial fittings on board ship. 

Gingerly. To perform a task cautiously. 

Girding. A frapping for holding anything together. 

Girt. The situation of a vessel when her cables are so taut, owing to either the wind 
or tide, that she does not swing. 

Girtline. (SeeGASTLiNE.) 

Give Chase. To pursue. 

Give "Way, An order to a boat's crew to begin pulling. 
Lay out on your oars means to pull with more force. 

Give "Way Together. An order for all the oarsmen to pull in unison. 

Glass. A general name for the mercurial barometer and telescope. 

Glory Hole. The lazaretto is sometimes referred to as the glory hole. 

Glut. A piece of canvas having an eyelet hole worked in it and sewed into the mid- 
dle of a square sail near the head. A becket is made through this hole and the bunt 
jigger is hooked into it. 

Go About. A vessel goes about when she tacks. 

Gob liine. Another name for the martingale back-rope. 

Going Free. A vessel ^oes free when she has a fair wind. 

Going Large. A vessel goes large when the wind is abaft the beam. 

Go Ashores. A seaman's best suit of clothes. 

Gondola. A rowing barge used on the canals of Venice. 

Good Full. Keeping the sails a little more full than in fuU-and-by. 

Goose Neck. A kind of hook made of iron and fastened to the inner end of a boom 
having no jaws, also to the inner or lower end of a spinnaker-boom. The goose 
necJc confines the end of the boom by being secured to an u-on clamp or eye on the 
mast. Independent steps for spinnaker-boom goose necks are found on yachts, the- 
steps being fastened to the deck. 

Goose-winged. "When the clew of a course or topsail is hauled up and lashed to- 
its yard the sail is said to be goose-winged. (See "Wing and "Wing.) 

Gores. Angles cut slopewise at one or both ends of cloths in sailmaking, so asto- 
■widen or increase the depth of a sail. 

Goring Cloths. Pieces of canvas out on the bias and added to the sail. 

Grafting. A weaving of fish line around a ring or the strop of a block. In the lat- 
ter case it takes the place of parceling and service. 

Granny Knot. A capsized reef or flat knot. A knot apt to be made by a novice 
in seamanship. (See engravins;'.) 

pattekson's illpstkated nautical dictionary. 






Granny's Bend. A slippery hitch. 

Grapnel. A small anchor having four arms. (See engraving.) (See Grappling 

Grappling Irons. Four hooks radiating from a common shank ; to the ring in the 
upper part of the latter a rope being made fast, and the instrument used for the purpose 
of fastening vessels to one another. 

Grating, Lattice-work platforms used to cover hatches ; to take the place of bottom 
boards in a boat; the grating deck which covers the helm and tackles on the after-deck 
of a steamer, etc. 

Grave. To grave a vessel's bottom is to burn off the accumulation of marine growth. 

Graving Dock. (See Dkt Dock.) 

Great Circle Tracks. Lines trending east and west traced on charts, always con- 
cave to the equator, and which, allowing for the spherical figure of the earth, show the 
shortest route between two places situated to the eastward and westward of each other. 
(See Ohaets.) 

Great Eastei'n. The largest vessel ever built; designed by the great English 
civil engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunei, who was born in 1806 and died in 1859 ; 
built by Scott Russell at Millwall, on the Thames, for the Eastern Steam Navigation 
Company ; construction begun May 1, 1854 ; built broadside to the river on very flat 
pitch ways, necessitating the launch to be effected sideways; launching process com- 
menced November 3, 1858, and occupied three months, hydraulic power being em- 
ployed ; iron used in construction of hull ; length, 680 feet ; beam, exclusive of pad- 
dle-boxes, 82^- feet ; inclusive of same, 118 feet ; height of side to bulwark rail, 70 
feet ; freeboard from water line to covering board or plankshear, 37 feet ; draught, 27 
feet ; tonnage, 20,000 ; eight engines ; aggregate horse-power, 11,000 ; both screw 
propeller and paddle-wheels ; steam pressure, 25 pounds ; revolutions of screw 55 per 
minute ; revolutions of paddle-wheels, 12 per minute ; ten anchors ; one mile of chain 
cable ; six iron masts, the forward one a pole mast, on which was set a fore-staysail 
and a gaff foresail; second and third masts square-rigged; fourth, fifth, and sixth 
masts were pole masts like the first and carried gaff sails ; masts were named respec- 
tively as follows, beginning with the forward one : fore-staysail mast, fore-mast, main- 
mast, mizzen-mast, jigger-mast, and spanker-mast ; iron masts and yards ; 7,000 yards 
of canvas in the sails ; two large steam launches ; twenty large row-boats ; double 
bottom ; five smoke pipes ; wire standing rigging. The Great Eastern visited New 
York in 1860, and again in 1867, the latter time carrying passengers and freight from 
Havre, France. She was ever a financial failure, and was sold in 1864 by her original 
owners for £25,000. In 1888 she Was sold as junk and broken up for her iron. 

Great Guns. A violent gale. 

Greave. (See G-eave.) 

Green Sea. When a large body of water is shipped at one time it is called a green 
sea, taking the name from its greenish shade as viewed in the daytime against the light 
beyond the vessel. 

GregO. A name for a seaman's great coat. 

Greyhound. (See Ocean" Geeyhounds.) 

Gridiron. A framing of heavy beams for the ship to rest on when the tide is out, so 
that her bottom may be examined. 

Grij). An anchor is said to grij} when it holds. 

Gripe. When a vessel sailing close-hauled shows a tendency to come up to the wind 
against a weather helm she is said to gripe. The term is also applicable when a ves- 
sel steers very hard. 

Gripes. The iron fastenings for securing large boats to the deck ; bands of canvas 
with thimbles in their ends which pass over and under davit boats and are set taut with 
lanyards when the vessel is underwa3^ 

Grog. The name given to the spirit-ration once served out to the crew on board men- 
of-war. (Now abolished.) 

Grommet. A ring made of a single strand of rope by laying it three times round. 
(See engraving.) 

Patterson's illusteated natitical dictiokaey. 



-^ se 


3. Tack of Sail. 

3. Clew of Sail. 

4. Head of Sail. 

5. End of Spinnaker Boom. 

6. Foot of Sail. 

7. Spinnaker Outhaul. 

82 Patterson's ii-lustrated nautical dictionary. 

Gross Tonnage. (See Tonna&e.) 

Ground. A vessel is said to take the ground when she goes ashore. 

Ground Swell. An almost continnous swell along shore owing to the shallowness 
of the water. 

Ground Tackle. A term collectively applied to all the anchors, cables, anchor- 
purchases, etc. 

Ground Tier. The lowest tier of cargo in a vessel's hold. 

Ground Ways. Large pieces of timber laid across a dry-dock on which the blocks 
are placed. 

Grounding. Eunning aground accidentally, or putting the vessel on the beach for 
the purpose of repairing her. 

Growing. To enlarge ; to come into sight more and more ; gradual development of 
an object. 

Guard Irons. A sort of cage surrounding the carved work on a vessel's stern as a 

Guard Kail. A timber bolted on the outside of the covering board or plankshear 
on wooden steam vessels navigating harbors, lakes, and rivers, to act as a fender when 
lying alongside of other vessels, or when made fast to a dock. Sometimes a second 
guardrail is carried along the sides just above the water,, and this is termed a 6%e 
guard rail. 

Gudgeons. The metal braces bolted on the stern-post of a vessel, and through the 
eye in which the pintle of the rudder ships. 

Guess Warp. A hawser run out from the vessel to an object and secured for the 
purpose of hauling the vessel to it. 

Guest Rope. The name applied to the rope which is dropped into a boat coming 
alongside of a vessel, and to which the painter of the boat is bent temporarily. 

Gulf Stream. A great ocean cuiTent flowing out fi-om the Gulf of Mexico through 
the Straits of Florida, and progressing along the Atlantic coast, following its trend, 
and widening as it flows, until off New Foundland it separates, one branch flowing 
north-east toward Spitzenbergen, and the other branch continuing an easterly course to 
the coast of Europe where it recurves to the southward and finally joins the Great 
Equatorial Current and pursues a westerly course until it completes the circuit by 
again entering the Gulf of Mexico to be expelled anew through the Straits of Florida. 

Gun -tackle Purchase. A purchase made of a length of rope and two single 

GuUTPale. (Pronounced gun-nel.) The rail of a boat. 

Guy. A steadying rope. (See Jib-boom Guts.) 

Gybe. (See Jibe.) 


Hail. A vessel hails from the port to which she belongs ; to accost another vessel, pre- 
facing the word ahoi/ with the name of the rig of the vessel, as sehooner ahoy ! etc. 

Half Board. A vessel is said to make a half hoard when she luffs up into the wind, 
and then when her headway has almost ceased to go off again on the same tack. This 
is nothing more than a pilot's luff. 

Half Davit. The fish davit. 

Half Hitch. Formed by passing the end of a rope around its own standing part and 
bringing it then through its own bight. (See engravings ; see Two Half Hitches.) 

Half Mast. A flag is half-masted when it is hoisted but half way. 

Halliards. Also written halyards. Tackles used for hoisting and lowering yards, 
gaffs and sails. 

Hamhroline. A fine quality of seizing stuff, three-stranded, and tightly laid. 

Hammock. A canvas bed swung from hooks in the deck beams. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 






Main Lowermost and Hoops. 



Main Boom. 


Topsail Yard. 

Spinnaker Boom, 



Topmast Shrouds. 


Peak Halliards. 

Throat or Main Halliards. 

Boom Topping Lift, 

Masthead Runner and Tackle, 


Topmast Stay. 





Bobstay Fall. 



Jib Traveler. 



Jib Halliards. 



Fore Halliards. 



Jib Sheets. 



Fore Sheet. 



Bowsprit Shrouds. 





Jib Topsail Sheet. 



Spinnaker Boom Halliards. 



Spinnaker Boom Brace or Guy. 



Maintopmast Backstay. 



Beef Pennant. 



Main Outhaul. 



Yard Topsail Clew Line. 



Yard Topsail Sheet. 


Jib Topsail Halliards 


Yard Topsail Halliards. 


Main Sheet. 

Spinnaker Boom After Guy. 


Jigger Mast. 

Jigger Shrouds. 

Mizen Boom. 

Bumpkin and Bumpkin Shrouds. 

Mizen Halliards. 

Mizen Topping Lift. 

Mizen Sheet. 



Mizen Stays. 

A. Mainsail. E. Jib Topsail. 

B. Forestaysail. F. The Mizen. 

C. Jib. G- Midships. 
V>. Lug or yard Topsail (English). H. Forecastle} 

I. The Quarter. 

J. Stem, Cutwater. 

K. Truck. 

L. Reef Cringles. 

■84: Patterson's illtjsteated nautical dictionaey. 

Hatninock Cloth. The canvas cover over tlie hammock nettings to protect the 
hammocks from the weather. 

Hammock Nettings. The hollow space between the inner and outer bulwarks 
on the spar deck in which the hammocks are kept during the daytime. Also the net- 
work below decks in which hammocks are kept on board of monitors. 

Hand. To hand a sail is to furl it ; one of the men of the crew ; all hands, everybody 
on board ; hear a hand, to hasten ; lend a hand, to assist. 

Hand Hole. A small hole in the shell of a steam boiler to admit' of the latter 
being scraped and freed from salt scale and grease sediment from the condenser, etc. 
This hole is secured by a hand hole plate having bolts and nuts. 

Hand Lead. A conical shape length of lead weighing from 7 to 14 pounds, used for 
sounding in water of less than 20 fathoms. It has 9 marks and 11 deeps, the latter 
being the unmarked fathoms of the lead line. The following shows the order of the 
marking : 

At 2 fathoms from the bottom of the lead with 2 strips of leather. 

u g (( li a u u u u o u II It 

'• 5 " " " " " " " a white rag. 

" 7 " " " " " " " a red rag. 

'■ 10 " " " " " " " a round piece of leather. 

" 13 " " " " " " " a blue rag. 

" 15 " " " " " " " a white rag. 

" 17 " " " " " " " a red rag. 

" 20 " " " " . " " " a strand having two knots. 

About 6 feet above the lead a toggle is slipped between the strands of the lead line, 
the former resting across the fingers of the hand when swinging the lead preparatory to 
heaving it. The cavity in the end of the lead is to be filled with tallow or soap, so 
that a sample of the bottom may be obtained. 

Hand over Hand. To ascend a rope by putting one hand above the other alter- 
nately — the legs dangling. To perform anything rapidlj^. 

Hantl Tant. To pull a rope as tight as possible by hand. 

Hand nuder Hand. To descend a rope by dropping one hand below the other 

Handicap. After the firing of the starting gun in a race a certain number of minutes 
are allowed for the vessels to cross the line, and if they cross within the limit, the time 
of their crossing is counted as the starting time ; but if they do not cross within the 
prescribed limit the time of crossing is reckoned as the expiration of the limit, al- 
though they may not reach the line until long thereafter. This is known as being 
handicapped so mnnij minutes in the start. 

Handle. A ship handles well when she is obedient to her helm. To handle a ship 
ivell is to work her in a seamanlike manner. 

Handsomely. To do anything carefully or cautiously is to do it handsomehj. Slack 
away hnndsomeli/ is an order to let up easily. 

Handspike. A wooden bar like a capstan bar, used as a lever for moving heavy 

Handy. A vessel is said to be handy if she is quick in stays and always answers her 
helm quickly. 

Handy Billy. A watch tackle ; a name for the forecastle boy. 

Hang'ing' Block. Blocks used at the mastheads for the halliards of the head sails. 

Hanging' Stage. A plank hung horizontally over the ship's side for men to stand 
or sit on while painting ship, etc. 

Hanks. The rings of wood, rope or iron round a stay, and to which the luiF of the 
head sails is secured by robands. 

Harbor Du«s. (See Port Charges.) 

Harbor Gasket, (See Gasket.) 

Harbor Master. An officer whose duty it is to inspect the moorings of the harbor, 
to observe that ships are properly berthed, and to enforce the regulations provided for 
the shipping in the harbor. (See Port Warden.) 















86 patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionaet. 

Harbor Pirate. Same as Rivbe Pibate — see latter. 

Harbor Watch. (See Anchoe Waxch.) 

Hard-a- Weather. To put the tiller all the way over towards the windward side 

of the vessel. 
Hard Down. The helm is said to be hard down when it is put over to leeward as 

far as it can go. 
Hard Over. The helm is hard over when it is moved to its extreme limit. 
Harness. A name for the rigging on a vessel. 

Harness Cask. A conical barrel, having a locked lid and kept on deck, contain- 
ing a quantity of salt pork and salt beef for daily consumption 
Harpoon. A spear-shaped iron used for burying in the bodies of large fish. 
Hat Money. (See Peimage.) 
Hatch Bar. An iron bar which crosses the hatches and keeps them down by having 

both of its ends secured to the hatch coamings. 
Hatch Coamings. (See Coamings.) 

Hatch Rings. The iron rings in the corners of hatches for lifting the latter. 
Hatch Tackle. An ordinary' luff tackle, composed of a double and single block, 

and used for hoisting or lowering stuft' through th e hatches. 
Hatches. The covers for the hatchways. 

Hatchways. The openings in the deck to afford passage up and down for the cargo. 
Haul. To pull. The whid is said to haul when it ships around the compass with the 

sun, i. e., in the same way that the hands of a watch revolve. 
Haul Aboard the Tack. An order given to bring the weather clew of a course 

to the tack block when setting the sail. 
Haul Down. The order given to haul the bunting down from aloft, and from the 

truck of the flag-pole at the stern. 
Hauled Up. A vessel is said to be hauled up when her course is changed so that she 

will lie closer to the wind. 
Hauling Line. A line sent down from aloft to bend on to any article required for 

use, and by which the article is hauled up. 
Hauls Her W^ind. Said of a vessel when she is brought by the wind after sailing 

with the wind free. 
Hawse. A vessel rides to a hawse when she has her two bow anchors down ; the sur- 
face of the water just ahead of the vessel ; clear hawse or open hawse means that there 

is no cross in the cables ; athwart hawse means across the line of the vessel's keel just 

in advance of the vessel ; to freshen the hawse is to veer out or heave in a little cable 

so as to bring the strain or chafe on another part. (SeeMoOEiNG Swivel.) 
Hawse Bag. (See Jackass.) 
Hawse Block. A block of wood made to fit into a hawse pipe from inboard, and 

which is shipped at sea in order to prevent water from coming on board through the 

hawse holes. 
Hawse Bolsters. Pieces of oak plank bolted under the hawse holes in order to 

prevent the cables from chafing. 
Hawse Box. The woodwork to be seen just outside of the hawse pipe on a wooden 

Hawse Buckler. An iron plate to cover the hawse hole, taking the place of hawse 

hloelis and. jackasses. 
Hawse Hole. The holes in the bows of a vessel through which the cables pass. 
Hawse Pieces. The timbers in the bows of a vessel through which the hawse holes 

are cut. 
Haw^se Pipe. An iron pipe in a vessel's bows through which the cable runs. 
Hawse Plug. A block of wood made to fit into a hawse pipe from the outside so as 

prevent water from getting into the manger. (See Mangee.) 
Hawser. A large rope used for towing, warping, etc. 
Hawser-laid Kope. Same as cable-laid rope — see the latter. 
Haze. Punishing a man by keeping him at work upon dirty and unnecessary jobs. 

(See Ride Down a Man.) 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



1. Mainmast. 

2. Foremast. 

3. Bowsprit. 

4 Main Boom, 

5; Maintopmast. 

6. Foretopmast. 

7. Main (faff. 

8. Fore Gaff. 

9. Leach of Maintopmast Staysail. 

10, Foot of Maintopmast Staysail. 
10a. iMff of Maintopmast Staysail. 

11. Main Tapping lAft. 
18. Davit Fulls. 

13. Davits. 

14. Main Shrouds. 

15. iiTsre Shrouds. 

16. Forestay. 

17. Bowsprit Shrouds. 

18. iPtoreiOiJireasi Stoj/. 

19. Jt6 S7i«et. 

20. Bobstay. 

81. Fore-Peak Halliards. 


82. JlfaiJi-PeaA; Halliards. 

33. Main^Throat Halliards. 

24. Fare-Throat Halliards. 

35. Forestaysail bheet. 

36. Jf^ore Crosstrees. 

27. Jl/aiw. Crosstrees. 

28. Ji6 Traveler. 
39. Jj'b Halliards. 

30. Spring Stay. 

31. jfemippmast Staj/. 
33. Ensign Halliards. 
33. i'Vjre Channels. 
31. jlfain Channels, 

35. TOter. 

36. Jlfaim Sheet. 

37. Bee/Pewnanf. 
3S. Bee/ Points. 

39. Pri-iiaie Signal. 

40. Maintopmast Staysail Sheet. 

41. Ensign Hoisted on Main Baff. 

42. ifore Sheets. 

43. ifore Masthead Bunner and 


44. Jlfam Jfas^/iead i?un7ier and 

45. JWai'w Gflt^ TopsaiZ Sheet. 

46. ilfom Gojf Topsail Tack Line. 

47. ilifom GaJ' Topsail Halliards. 

48. Afam Go^ To]ysail Mast Hoops. 

49. Jftoi-e GaJ'' Topsail Sheet. 

50. i^bre Gcyf Topsai'i Halliards. 

51. i^ore Gay Topsail Mast Hoops. 

52. Fore GaJ' TopsaiJ Tacfc Line. 

53. Ciub Signal. 

54. Anchor (fished). 

55. Hawse Hole. 

56. Cabie. 

57. Jtfamtopmasi Staysail Halliards. 

58. JVfainfopmasi Stay sail. Clew. 

59. Junction of Maintopmast Stay- 
sail Head and Foot (the Tack). 
SoTne Staysails have a square 
foot like tlie Mainsail. 

A. Mainsail. 

B. Foresail. 

C. Forestaysail. 


D. Jib. G. 

E. Jfam ffof Topsail. H. 

F. Fore (7a# Topsail. I. 

iSee/ Cringles, 

J, Jliainiopmasf Staysails. 

88 Patterson's ili,ustbated nautical digtionaby. 

Head. The head of anything, as mast-head, timher-head, cqpstan-Jiead, head of a sail, 
etc. Also the carved figure under the bowsprit is called a figure-head, a carved scroll a 
billet-head, Ik carved board that turns in at the end like the head of a violin a ^(?f?fe- 

Head Boai'ds. The boards placed inside the hammock nettings at the forward and 
after ends. 

Head Cringle. The iron ring or shape spliced into the bolt rope at the junction of 
the leach and head of a fore-and-aft-sail ; but at the two upper corners of square sails. 

Head Ear-rings. The ropes which secure the two upper corners of a square sail to 
the yard-arms by alternate passings of the line through the head cringles and the spar. 

Head Ledges'. (See CoAMmas.) 

Head Line or Head Fast. A mooring rope leading ahead of the vessel. 

Headmost. The farthest in advance. 

Head Kails. Short low rails extending from the stem to the bows. 

Head Reach. The forging or progress ahead of a vessel when lying to. (See 
FoEB Reach.) 

Head Room. The height of the cabin from the floor to the roof ; the height of 
any place, such as the hold, the forecastle, the caboose. The cabin has seven feet of 
head room when it measures seven feet from the floor to the underneath part of the 

Head Rope. The rope to which the tabling on the upper edge of a sail is sewn. 

Head Sails. All the sails forward of the foremast. These are named differently on 
vessels of various rigs. They are known as forestaysails, fore-topmast-staysails, jibs, 
flying jibs, jib-o-jibs, inner-jibs, main-jibs, outer-jibs, jib-topsails, middle-jibs and stand- 
ing-jibs. ^Sce engravings of various rigs.) 

Head Sea. A sea coming from the same point of the compass that the vessel is di- 
rected toward. 

Head Slieets. The sheets of all the head sails. 

Head Stick. The small round spar about 15 inches long seen on the heads of some 
spinnakers and jibs. The triangle or apex at the head of the sail is cut ofi' straight 
across, and the edge tabled and worked with eyelet holes, then laced to the spar, 
in the centre of which the halliards are bent. Its use is to prevent the heads of the 
above sails from twisting, as they are very apt to do on account of their luff not 
being confined to a stay. 

Head to Wind. The situation of a vessel when she has been thrown up into the 
wind and all her sails are shaking. 

Head Way. The progress of a vessel through the water in a forward direction. 

Head Yards. All the j^ards on the foremast. 

Health Officer. The medical officer who inspects the ship and cargo, physical con- 
dition of crews and passengers when vessels first enter port, and who gives or with- 
holds permission to land according to the health of a ship or the presence of con- 
tagious disease. 

Heart. A block of wood shaped like a heart and stropped, having a hole through it 
for stays to reeve through. The strand running through the centre of a four-strand 

Heart Yarns. The strand running through the centre of some ropes. 

Heave Ahead. To advance the vessel by heaving in on the anchor chain, or the 
rope leading from the ship to some object ahead. 

Heave and Awash. A call to the men at the windlass, signifying that one more 
heave will bring the anchor ring to the surface of the water. 

Heave and Aweigh. A call to the men at the windlass to heave once more in or- 
der to lilt the anchor from the bottom. 

Heave and Paul. An order to the men to heave until the paul drops so as not to 
lose anything. 

Heave and Rally, Boys. An order and an encouraging cry to the men at the 
capstan or windlass. 




1, Balloon Jib Topsail. 
3. Mead of Sail. 

3. Ohio of Sail, from where 4. TacJc of Sail. 

Sheet leads to the Quarter. 5. Jib Topsail Stay. 

90 Patterson's illustkated nautical dictionakt. 

Heave Apeak To heave in on a cable until the anchor is right under the hawse 
hole, but resting on the bottom. 

Heave Astern. To move the ship backwards by hauling on the rope that leads 

Heave A"Way. An order to crew to heave round the capstan ; to heave on the 
windlass brakes, etc. 

Heave Down. To careen the vessel in order to repair the side of the vessel on or 
below the water-line. 

Heave Handsomely. An order to the crew to heave slowly. 

Heave Hearty. To heave strong. 

Heave In. To get in some of the cable. 

Heave in Stays. To piit the helm down and bring the ship in the wind so as to 
go about. 

Heave of the Sea. The send of the sea. The amount of distance that the vessel 
gains, or is retarded, or is driven out of her course by the propulsion of the seas break- 
ing against her. 

Heave Round. To revolve the capstan by means of the capstan bars. 

Heave Short. The cable is hove short when, independent of the depth of water 
where she may be anchored, the vessel is riding nearly over her anchor without any 
slack calile out. 

Heave Taxit. To heave in until the cable or rope gets a strain on it. 

Heave the Lead. To throw the lead overboard, and ascertain the depth of water 
where the ship is. 

Heave the LiOg. To throw the log chip overboard so as to ascertain the velocity of 
the ship. 

Heave-to. To bring a vessel's head to the wind, and manage the sails so as to keep 
her stationary. (See Lie-to.) 

Heaver. A wooden bar, like a capstan bar, for use as a lever. 

Heaving Line. A small rope bent on to a hawser and thrown out to a dock, etc., 
to be caught, and by which one end of the hawser, is to be pulled ashore to be se- 

Heaving Line Bend. (See Clove Hitch.) 

Heel. The lowest end of a mast ; the aftermost part of the keel ; the lowest part of 
the stern-post ; a vessel heels when she lies over on her side in sailing ; a vessel goes 
round on her heel when she wears ship short round. 

Heel Lashing. A lashing placed around the heel of a spar. 

Heel of the Post. The term applied both to the lowest extremity of the stem- 
post and the rudder post. 
Heel Roiie. A rope used in sending up and down spars. 

Heeled Over. A vessel is said to be heeled over when she is forced over sideways 
in sailing by the action of the wind on the sails and rigging. (See List and Ca- 


Heeling. A name applied sometimes to the square part of the lower end of a mast 
in which is the fid hole. 

Helm. A misnomer, as the term wrongly includes all the machinery by which a ves- 
sel is steered, comprising the rudder, tiller, wheel and power applied. Properly the 
word helm should relate only to the tiller. 

Helm Down. To put the helm towards the lee side, so as to bring the vessel's head 
up into the wind. 

Helm Port. (See Ruddbe Poet.) 

Helm Up. To let the vessel go off from the wind by putting the helm towards the 
weather side. 

Helm's a Lee. Signifying that the helm has been put over to leeward ; the verbal 
notice given to the men forward, and upon hearing which they lighten up the weather- 
head sheets so as to allow the vessel to come quickly to the wind, then while she is in 
stays they sheet down the head-sails on the opposite side. 

Helmsman. The man at the helm or wheel ; the man who is steering the vessel. 

Patterson's illitsteated nautical dictionaey. 




1. Squaresail Yard. 

3. Sead Gringles of Sadl. 

3. 8qua/resaM. 

4. Bonnet, 

5. Place where Bonnet is laced to Squaresail. 

6. Glew, where Sheet leads from. 

7. Tai'd Arms. 

8. Yard Guys. 

9. Squaresail Sheet. 
10. Slings of Yard. 

92 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Hemp Rope. Hemp is a plant, from the fibres of which a rope is made, taking 
its name from the same. 

Hermaphrodite Brig. A vessel that is square-rigged forward and schooner- 
rigged on the main. (See Beigantine.) 

Herring Pond. A name by which the Atlantic Ocean is sometimes refen-ed to by 

High and Dry. The position of a vessel when left entirely out of water by a re- 
ceding tide. 

High Tide. The highest point of the flood tide. 

Hitch. A manner of fastening ropes around a spar or other object. (See engrav- 

Hog. A rough broom for scrubbing the marine growth from a vessel's bottom. 

Hog Cliains. Chains with one end attached to the hog frames and the other end to- 
some particular part of the steamer in order to sustain it. 

Hog Frames. The two great flying fore-and-aft arches seen on shallow-draught in- 
land steamers, which prevent them from hogging. 

Hogged. When the two ends of a ship droop from the midship part, causing an up- 
ward arching of the keel, she is said to be hogged. This may be caused from structu- 
ral weakness, old age, or from pounding on a rock or on the shore. (See Sagged,, 
Broken-backed . ) 

Hoist. The length of the luff of a fore-and-aft sail — the distance in feel from the jaw& 
of the boom to the jaws of the gafi' when the sail is hoisted. Applies to the midship 
depth of those square sails the yards of which travel up and down masts. (See Drop.) 

Hold. The interior of a vessel below the lower deck. 

Hold the L/Uif. To keep the vessel's sails shivering. 

Hold the Wind. To keep the sails full. 

Hold Water. To check the progress of a boat by keeping the oars in the water 
with the blades vertical, and the oar itself at right angles to the keel. 

Holiday. When a piece of work is only imperfectly executed, such, for example, a& 
leaving patches of the old paint on a boat that has been scraped, these patches are 
called holidays. 

Hollow Sea. A curling sea like breakers on a shore. 

Holy Joe. A sailor's name for a parson. (See Sky Pilot.) 

Holy Stone. A large flat stone used for cleaning the ship's decks by dragging it to- 
and fro. (See Testament.) 

Home. Anything is said to be home when it is hauled out as far as it can go, as the 
clew of a gaff topsail when it is sheeted to the sheave hole in the end of the gaff'. 

An anchor comes home when it does not get a hold but drags along over the bottom 
in kedging instead of allowing the vessel to be walked up to it. The same applies to- 
a ship's anchor when heaving in the chain. 

Home Port. The home port of a vessel is that in which, or the nearest to which, 
the managing owner resides, established by law for the issuing of marine documents. 
When a vessel returns fr-om a foreign to any port in her own country such port is- 
known as a home port. 

Hood. The name of the rise in the quarter-deck which gives more head room to the 
cabin ; a covering of wood or canvas for a hatch, companionway or skylight. 

Horns. A name by which the jaws of the booms and the ends of the cross-trees are 

Horse. An iron bar or span fastened to the deck for the fore, main and spanker sheet- 
blocks of a fore-and-aft vessel to travel on, also for the traveler of the fore staysail. A 
deck horse is often wrongly called a decJc travelcvj as it is the ring which travels on the 
horse. English seamen refer to a deck horse as a Icefange. 

Horse's Manes. (See White Caps.) 

Hospital Ship. A floating hulk, used, as its name implies, as a hospital for seamen. 

Hosjiital Tax. Up to June 26, 18S4, a tax of forty cents per month was exacted by 
law from every person belonging to the crew of an American documented vessel, but 
on the above date the law was lepcealed. 

Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionary. 





1. Foretopmast or Jib Topsail 8. Fore Gaff Topsail. 

Stay. 9 Foresail. 

•3. Flying Jibstay.', 10. Maintopmast Staysail. 

3. Mstay. 11. Main Gaff Topsail. 

A. Forestay. 13. Mainsail. 

5. Flying Jib. 13. Jib Topsail furled on Jib 
%. Jib. Boom. 

1. Foresta/ystail. . 14. Jib Boom. 

15. Bowsprit. 

16. Martingale. 

17. Fm'6 and. Main Shrouds 

rattled down. 

18. Boistays, which secure the 

Bowsprit and i^revent it 
from lifting. 

94 patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionaet. 

Hounding. The Iwunding of a mast is all that is contained between the heel and the 

lower part of the head. 
Hounds. Projections bolted on to the masthead which serve as shoulders for the 

trestle- trees, and which in turn support the top. 
House. To house a mast is to lower it partly and secure its heel by, a lashing to the 

mast against which it is lowered. 
House-line (pronounced house-Un). A seizing stuff made of three small yarns and 

laid up left-handed. 
Houses of Refuge. Houses built along dangerous and non-inhabited coasts, and 

supplied with boats and provisions for the use of shipwrecked seamen who may have 

been cast ashore in their vicinity. 
Housing. The housing of a mast is all that is below the spar or upper deck ; the 

housing of a bowsprit is that part from the stem inboard. 
Hove Short. (See Heave Shoet.) 
Hove-to. (See Lie-to.) 
Hug. To hug the land is to keep close to it in sailing. To hug the wind is to keep the 

vessel by the wind. 
Hulk. A dismasted vessel. (See Sheee Hulk;.) 
Hull. The body of a vessel exclusive of masts, spars and rigging. 
Hull Down. "When only the spars of a vessel are visible above the horizon. 
Hurricane. A revolving wind storm of great violence, extending over an area from 

a few to hundreds of miles. 
Hurricane Deck. (See Deck.) 
Hydraulic Dock. (See Dock.) 
Hydrograpliical Surveying. (See Nautical Sueveyikg.) 


Ice. Water solidifies by cold at 32° F. Salt-water ice in salt water floats with only 
one-ninth of its mass above water, and fresh-water ice in salt water floats with one- 
eighth of its mass above water. A wide expanse of ice is called a, field, and one of 
smaller dimensions a, floe ; when a field is dissevered and broken into numerous pieces 
it is termed a pacli ; this, again, when of a broad shape is called a, patch, and when 
much elongated a stream. When it is possible for a ship to sail freely through float- 
ing ice, the same is termed drift ice, and the ice itself is said to be loose or open. 
When the ice is crushed into fragments it is known by the name of hrash ice. A por- 
tion of ice rising above the common level is called a hummoclc. The term sludge ap- 
plies to the soft crystals which the frost forms when it first attacks the rufiied surface 
of the ocean, and when this sludge separates into small patches by the agitation of 
the water these patches are called pan calces. 

Ice Anchor. A peculiar iron shape used for anchoring a vessel to the ice. 

Ice Axe. As its name implies, an axe used for chopping ice. It has an extremely 
long head. (See engraving.) 

Iceberg. A floating ice mass of great magnitude being detached from glaciers on 
the shores of the polar seas. Icebergs have been seen which were five miles in length 
and 300 feet in height from the water-line. (See engraving.) 

Ice Boat. A fore-and-aft sail is supported by beams resting on iron-shod runners, 
which are connected like the hulls of a catamaran. These boats are capable of great 
speed, at times shooting along under such tremendous headway as to outstrip for a 
brief interval the wind itself. 

Ice-hound. Being prevented from sailing by being surrounded by ice. 

Ice Blink. A shimmering whiteness about the horizon caused by the reflection of 
light from a field of ice. 

Ice Dock. A basin, either natural or sawed out with ice-saws, sufficiently large to 

patteeson's illdsteated nautical diotionaet. 




Sohooner under Jih, Forestaysail, whole Foresail and double-reefed Mainsail. 

96 Patterson's illtjsteated natttical diotionaet, 

haul the ship into. This is often done by navigators in the polar regions in order to 
avoid being nipped between two closing floes. 

Ice Drag. An iron instrument used for planting in the ice ahead of the vessel and 
warping her along. (See engraving.) 

Ice Lane. (See Ice Lead.) 

Ice Lead. A temporary oliannel of water leading into or through an ice field, but 
which is liable to close at any moment with the motion of the ice acting under the in- 
fluence of the tides aud winds. 

Ice Master Ol" Pilot. A person employed on board of vessels navigating the po- 
lar seas whose duty it is to give counsel to the captain in regard to ice navigation. 

Ice NijJ. The meeting of two floating bodies of ice. When a vessel is caught be- 
tween two such bodies she is said to be flipped. 

Ice Saw. A large steel saw used for cutting a channel through ice, varying in length 
from 10 to 25 feet. 

Ice Vein. (See Ice Lead.) 

Imaginary JLine. A line supposed to exist between the race committee's boat and 
the flag boat or other object, and across which the vessels must go after the firing of 
the starting gun. 

Impressment. To seize for public use ; to use compulsion in getting crews for 
public vessels ; to force seamen on board a vessel of war against their wish to serve on 
board such vessels. (See Peess Gang.) 

In. On board. 

In Boats. The order to get on board all the boats not carried at the davits. Up 
'boats is the order to hoist the boats to the davits. 

In Bows. The order given to the bow oarsmen of a single-banked boat, but the two 
bow oarsmen of a double-banked boat, signifying that he or they are to cease rowing 
and ship the oar or oars, standing ready with the boat-hook to catch hold of the dock 
or vessel's side, as the case may be. 

In Sail. The order to clew up a square sail or to drop the peak and throat of a fore- 
and-aft sail. 

In Stays. The situation of a vessel after her helm has been put down and she has 
come up into the wind preparatory to going about on the other tack. 

In the Wind. When a ship is so close to the wind that all her sails are shivering. 

In Board. Within the hull. 

Indiaman. A name given to the large sailing ships once belonging to the East In- 
dia Company, but now a general title for all vessels engaged regularly in trade 
with the East Indies. 

Indraught. A strong current setting through a strait, such as the Straits of Gibral- 
tar, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediterranean Sea. 

Inland Waters. Rivers, harbors, bays, gulfs, seas, lakes and sounds. 

Inner Jib. The head-sail next forward of the fore-staysail on some merchant sail- 
ing vessels. (See engravings of various merchant rigs.) 

Inshore. A vessel is inshore of another when the former is the nearest to the land. 

Inside Course. A sheltered or land-locked course over which vessels race. 

Instruments of Navigation. (See Paet II.) 

Insurance. (See Marine Instjeance.) 

International Code. The code of signals adopted by all maritime nations for 
communicating with vessels at sea, stations along shore, etc. The " Code" consists of 
the following flags and shapes, and from which 78,642 combinations can be made : 1 
hurgcc, i pennants, and 13 square flags. An additional bunting, used both as a "Code" 
pennant and an answering-signal, is provided. 

Invoice. A statement in writing giving the particulars and prices of each and every 
parcel of goods in the cargo, together with the amount of freight, duties, and charges 

Inward Charges. Inward pilotage, towing into harbor, etc. 

Irish Pennaat. The loose end of a rope hanging out of a sail or from a yard in a 
slovenly manner. 



Three-masted fore6aftSchooner. 

13 F^iigjii 17. Fore- -sail 31 'Milieu 25 Mi'milodm. topping Uft 

li- Jib 18. Fore gaff topsail, Zl. Mvxen^gaff topsail 26 Fon^peakhdUarcL 

15 Innepjvb 19 Ndin sail 33 Fore hocwtoppingltft 27 Maui peak haUiani 

16- ^taysaii 2o Main gaff topsail 24- MarnlioomtoppingTifl ?8 Mi ien peak Jialluinl 

1. For&-mast 
?- Main -mast 
'5 ^U'icii mast 

5. Main topmast 

6. Ml %cn, topiruist 

7. Fare -boani 
3 Main -hooni.- 

9 Mviav-iootn 

to. Fore-gaff 

11 Maui-gaff 

n. Mimi-gaff 

98 PATTBESON's illustrated nautical DICTIONAET. 

Iron-bound. Blocks are said to be iron-hound when they have a metal strop. A 
coast is said to be iron-hound when it presents perpendicular cliffs of rock. 

Iron Horse. The deck-horses for thp stay-sail and other fore-and-aft sheet travel- 
ers. (8ee House.) _ BlinCF 

Irons. A ship is said to be in irons when, after being thrown up into the wind in 
tacking, she refuses to cast one way or the other, in which position she will speedily 
get sternway on her, and be in a dangerous situation, hence it is important that she 
should be boxed off at once. (See Abox.) 


Jack. A universal name for a sailor. The union of the national flag. (See Uniokt.) 
A horizontal bar of iron at the topgallant masthead, placed there in order to give 
spread to the royal shrouds. A portable piece of machinery employed in moving heavy 
weights, and much used on board ship when stowing cotton, as the action of the jack 
may be regulated for pressure, leverage, screwing, etc. Also known as a jack screw. 

Jack Block. A block kept hooked aloft through which to reeve the topgallant and 
royal yard ropes when those spars are sent up and down. 

Jack Cross-trees. Iron cross-trees such as are to be seen at the head of the top- 
gallant mast. (See Jack.) 

Jack-in-the-Basket. A basket placed on the top of a pole to mark a shoal or 
cluster of rocks. 

Jack Nasty Face. The name given to the cook's helper. 

Jack o' Lantern. (See Corposant.) 

Jack Rope. The foot of some fore-and-aft sails is secured to the boom by a line 
called a jack rope, running fore-and-aft through the eyes which are screwed in on top 
of the spar, and through the little thimbles sewn on the bolt rope on the foot of the 
sail at everj' seam. 

Jack Sci'ew. (See Jack.) 

Jack Staff". A short staff, or flag-pole, shipped at the bowsprit cap, and on which 
the jack is displayed. 

Jack Stays. Long strips' of wood or iron bolted on to the top of a yard to bend the 
head of a square sail to, and to the under part of a gafl^ for the head of a fore-and-aft 
sail. Formerly jack stays were lengths of rope stretched along a spar. 

Jack Tar. A universal name for a seaman. 

Jackass. A cornucopia-shaped canvas bag stuffed with oakum, and thrust into the 
hawse pipes when at sea to prevent the seas as they break against the vessel's bows 
from flowing inboard. 

Jackass Brig. A brigantine-rigged vessel that carries the fore-topmast and the 
fore-topgallant mast in one spar. 

Jack's Quarter Deck. The forecastle deck. 

Jacob's JLadder. A ladder with rope sides and wooden rungs, used for getting into 
the lower rigging on vessels with very high bulwarks, and for getting up to the jack 
cross-trees — the ladder hanging abaft the mast. 

Jammed ou the Wind. A vessel is said to he jammed on the wind when she is 
sailing close-hauled. 

Jamming'. To enclose anything between two bodies so that it is immovable. 

Ja'W Rope. The span attached to the jaws of a gaff, and sometimes to a boom, on 
which little hard wooden wheels called rollers are strung like beads. (See Gaff.) 

Jaws. The inner ends of a gaff, also of some booms, being pieces bolted on to the sides 
of the spar. Also knoAvn by the name of horns. 

Jawing Tackle. The power of speech. To clap a stopper on one's jaw tackle is to 
cease talking. 
























100 Patterson's illusteated natitical diction aey. 

-Jeer Bitts. The bitts to which the jeers are belayed. 

■Jeer Blocks. Double or treble blocks belonging to the jeer falls. 

Jeer Capstan. The capstan placed midships and between the fore and mainmasts 

for general use. 
Jeer Falls. The ropes rove through the jeer blocks, which together form the jeers. 
Jeers. A heavy purchase for hoisting and lowering the lower yards. 
Jetsam. Goods thrown from a vessel and found floating upon the sea or cast up on 

the shore. (See Jettison.) 
Jettison. The act of heaving overboard the cargo of a vessel in order to save the 

Jetty. A kind of dyke constructed of timber, earth, stone, etc., at the entrance to 

river harbors, for the purpose of concentrating the water, and thereby deepening the 

channel. The largest system of jetties in the United States is at the mouth of the 

Mississippi Eiver in the Gulf of Mexico. 
Jewell Blocks. Small blocks at the yard-arms for the studding-sail halliards to 

reeve through. 
Jew's Harp. The peculiar-shaped shackle which connects the cable with the anchor 

Jib. A triangular sail which sets on a stay forward the foremast. 

Jib-boom. A spar supported on and rigged out beyond the bowsprit through the 
bowsprit cap. (See Jib-boom Guys.) 

Jib-boom G-uys. Eopes for steadying the jib-boom sideways, leading from the 
end of the spar through the whiskers on the end of the bowsprit, and thence to the 
boA\'s of the vessel where they are set up. 

Flying jih-boom guys act in the same way for the flying jib-boom. (See Maetin- 
GALE Stays.) 

Jib-headed. The term applies to the cut of the sail, and means that the head of it 
is shaped like that of a jib. 

Jib Netting. A safety netting under the jib-boom, which is seized to the jib-boom 
guys and the whiskers. 

The flying jib-booninetting is rigged under the flying jib-boom, being seized to the 
flying jib guys. These nettings are seldom met with outside of naval vessels. 

Jib-O'-jib. A triangular sail carried on some merchant schooners which sets on the 
last stay forward of the foremast. 

Jib Stay. A stay forward the foremast on which the jib is set. 

Jib Topsail. A triangular sail which sets on a stay forward the foremast. 

•Jib Traveler. The large iron ring that the tack of a cutter's jib is made fast to. 
The ring goes around the bowsprit, and runs in and out on the spar by means of an 
outhaul and an inhaul — this jib is always set flying. 

Jibber the Kibber. To decoy a vessel ashore by exhibiting a ship's side light on 
the beach. The light is carried along the margin of the water, the man holding it 
giving a sinking and rising action to it as he walks along in imitation of a vessel's mo- 
tion. A ship's captain seeing this light inshore considers that there is plenty of sea- 
room, and in consequence his vessel may become stranded by entertaining a false idea 
as to his position. 

Jibe. To shift the booms from one side of the vessel to the other in sailing ; to bring 
the wind' on what was the lee side, and allow the booms to swing across the deck and 
the sails to fill on the new tack. 

Jigr. An extra purchase made fast to one end of the throat and peak halliards. The 
bight of the halliards is rove through the blocks, and the two ends are led down on 
deck, one on each side of the mast. One of these ends is the regular hauling part, 
and the other end has a purchase to it which is called the jig. 

Jiggamaree. A designation for an abortive contrivance, or an unseamanlike piece 
of work performed on board ship. 

Jigger. A handy-billy tackle used about decks ; a sail that sets on a jigger-mast. 

Jigger-mast. The aftermost mast on a four-masted vessel ; the small mast carried 
at the stern on vawls. 

pattj;rson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 








Jim nay Squarefoot. A sailoi-'s name for the devil. 

Joliiiny Crapaiid. A term applied to French seamen, meaning Johnny Toad. The 
armorial bearings of France once had throe toads, which were exchanged for the three 
flowers-de-hwe, and it is undoubtedly from the former that the jocose term was derived. 

■Jollimy Newconae. A term applied to a novice on shipboard. (See Johnst 

Johnny Raw. A sailor's term for a green hand on board ship. (See JoHiOfT 

Jolly Boat. A small boat used for all kinds of work, such as for marketing, wash- 
ing' the ship round, etc; It is to a merchant vessel what a dingey is on board men-o'- 
war and yachts. 

Jolly Jumpers. A name for the fancy sails which tradition tells us were carried 
on the very lofty ships of ye olden time. They were supposed to set above the moon- 
rakers, which in turn were set above the sky-scrapers. 

Jonall. A member of the crew, or one of the passengers, who is accredited with bring- 
ing ill fortune to the vessel in the way of accidents, head gales, calms, etc. Parsons 
and women are considered the most perfect specimens of this order, and the super- 
stitious Jack Tar of olden days deemed it a particularly unfortunate omen if he was 
obliged to sail in such dangerous company. The idea entertained was, that, as the 
Evil One was continually following up parsons and women in order to tempt them, his 
spirit presence could not fail to be attended with all kinds of misfortune for the vsssel. 

Jump of a Sea. A short, quick sea. 

Jump the Masts. A vessel is said to jump her masts out of her when, from the 
terrific natm'e of the sea, her masts go overboard. 

Jumper. A rope leading from the outboard ends of the whiskers to the martingale 
to prevent the former from steeving — from leaving a horizontal line by jumping up- 

Jumper Stay. Extra stays leading from the lower mastheads to the sides of the 
vessel, where they are set up with tackles. 

Jumping a Ship. When seamen desert a ship they are said to jump it. (See 
PiEE Head Jump.) 

Junk. A Chinese vessel ; also old rope, canvas, iron, etc. 

Jury Anchor. When guns or other heavy weights are used as anchors they are 
termed jury anchors. This has been done on a lee shore to assist the anchors already 
down or to take the place of those lost. 

Jury Mast. A temporary mast rigged up at sea to the stump of a mast that has been 
carried away. 

Jury Rudder. A temporary rudder rigged at sea in order to steer the vessel in the 
event of injury to the rudder proper. 

Jute. The fibre of an East Indian plant, and in use for making rope, matting, etc. 

Jute Rope. A rope made from the fibre of a plant grown in the East Indies. 


Keckling". Old rope used as chafing stuff around cables. 

Kedge. A small all-iron anchor used for kedging a vessel. 

Kedge Rope. The rope used with a kedge anchor. 

Kedging. Moving a vessel by carrying out in a boat a kedge anchor with a hawser 

bent to it, and, after dropping the anchor ahead of the ship, hauling away on the 

rope so as to bring the vessel up to the place where the kedge was thrown overboard 

from the boat. 
Keel. The first timber laid down upon the keel blocks in building a vessel, and the 

haclc-'bone of the ship, supporting the entire frame. The keel runs the whole length of 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 




~CHA83e -"WAREE- 

104 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 

the vessel, the stem and stern post being set into it, and being in reality continuations 
of the keel. When the latter is composed of several pieces, owing to the length of the 
vessel, the pieces are soarphed and bolted together. 

K.eel Blocks. Blocks which the vessel's keel rests on in building, or when she is 
on a dry dock. 

Keel Haul. A punishment at one time practised upon heavj^ offenders in the English 
and other foreign navies. Heavy weights were attached to the culprit, then he was 
hauled under the vessel's bottom from one yard to the other by means of whips. 

Keelson. A timber bolted on top of the keel inside the vessel, and running parallel 
with it. (See Bilge Keelson and Sister Keelson.) 

Keelson Capping. (See Keelson Riders.) 

Keelson Riders. Timbers bolted on top of the main keelson, and parallel to it, in 
order to strengthen the keel. This is also known as keelson capping. 

Keep A'way. To put the helm .up ; to alter the course of the ship so as avoid an- 
other ship or some danger. 

Keep Her Full. An order given to the helmsman to keep the sails full of wind. 

Keep Off. An order to the helmsman to keep the vessel's head more away from the 

Keep the Liand. To steer along a coast so as not to lose sight of the shore. 

Keep the Luff. (See Hold the Luee.) 

Keep the Wind. (See Hold the Wind.) 

Keep Your Luff. An order to the helmsman to keep the ship close to the wind so 
that the sails will tremble slightly. 

Kentledge. Pig iron ballast laid alongside of the keelson. 

Ketch. A small pleasure vessel ; a bomb vessel. 

Kettle Bottom. A vessel is said to be kettle-bottomed when she has a flat floor. 

Kevel. (See Cavil.) 

Kevel Heads. (See Cavil Heads.) 

Key. An iron pin slipping crosswise through a hole in the end of a bolt to prevent it 
from drawing out. 

Key Bolt. A bolt fitted with a key. 

Kid. A small wooden tub in which the beef and pork ration is carried into the fore- 

Killock. A stone anchor used in small boats. 

King Spoke. That spoke of the steering wheel (usually distinguished by a mark) 
which is directly over the barrel-hub when the rudder is amidships. 

Kitchen. The place below decks where the cooking is done. When the cooking is 
done in a house on deck the latter is called caboose or galley. 

Kink. A twist in a rope or cable. 

Kite Drag. (See Drag.) 

Kites. (See Flying Kites.) 

Knee Staple. The staple employed in fastening the false to the main keel. 

Knees. Pieces of timber having two arms, and used for connecting the beams of a 
vessel with the timbers. 

Knife Lanyard. A cord worn around the neck and attached to a ring in the han- 
dle of a knife, which prevents it from falling from aloft and insures it against loss. 

Knight Heads. The timbers next to and on each side of the stem. 

Knittles. (See Nettles.) 

Knock Off. An order to stop work. At noon in port the crew are knocked off for 

Knocked Down'. Said of a vessel when, by the force of the mnd acting upon her 
sails and spars, she is careened to such an extent that she does not recover herself. 

Knot. To make a bunch in a rope. (See engravings.) A division mark placed on 
a log line which answers to a mile of distance on the ocean. In other words, the divis- 
ions on the log line are made to be of the same proportion of a sea mile (6,080 feet) as 
the 30" glass is to an hour, viz., the one hundred and twentieth part. Hence the 
120th of a sea mile is iJO feet and 8 inches, which will be the distance apart for the 
knoti< on tlie line used with a 30" glass. (See Lou.) 

Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionary. 



/ Fore -mast 
Z. FoTc-topmast 

3 ■ Fore topgallant -mast 

4 Fort' royal rruist 

5 Maiiv mast 

6 Mam^ topmast 

8 Flying-jib 

S Outer-jib or MoMjii 

lO. Iruur-jib 

i1 Fore- -topmast stay saii 

1%. FoTi-sml 

13. Lower topsaiL 

V Maui topgallant mast 1^. Tipper topsail 

15 TopgaUant-sait 

16. Royal 

n 'Main staysail 

18 Middle^- stay sail 

13. Main topmast staysail 

2o. Main topgallant staysail 

Z1 Mainsail 

2Z. Gaff-topsail 


24- Lower topsaxLyard 
25 Unpcr topsail yard 
26. Topgallant yard- 

Z7. RoyaLyarcT 
28. Bowsprit 
23. Jib-boonv 
3o Flying jih- boom- 

Si. l^arUngale-boom. 
32. Mamboom 
35. Main-gaff 

106 patteeson's illustrated nadtical dictionakt. 


Li's of Navigation. Lead, lookout, lights, latitude and longitude. (See The 
Three L's.) 

liabor. A vessel is said to labor -vvhen she strains heavily in a violent sea from 
rolling and pitching. 

liacing'. The rope used to lash the head of a fore-and-aft sail to a gaff; to secure a 
bonnet to a sail, etc. (See Latchings.) 

Liaden in Bulk. Cargo carried loose in a vessel, such as wheat, corn, salt, etc. 

Lagan. Sinkable articles thrown overboard and buoyed so as to be recovered. 

Laid UJ). < )ut of commission ; not in use. 

Land Breeze. On the coast in the tropics a breeze begins to blow from the shore 
(land breeze) after sunset, and lasts until sunrise, when a breeze commences to blow 
from the sea (sea breese), and lasts until near sunset, being replaced again at that time 
by the land breeze. 

Laud Fall. To see the land when coming from sea. A good landfall signifies that 
the land sighted is the exact point navigated for. 

Laud ho ! The cry made when the land is first discovered. 

Land-locked. Surrounded by land. 

Land Lubber. A sailor's name for a man who passes his life on land. 

Landing Stl'ake. The second line of planking on a boat from the gunwale. 

Landsman. A designation for forward men on shipboard below the grade of ordi- 
nary seamen. A man who has had little or no sea experience. 

Lanyards. A rope rove through dead eyes in setting up rigging ; a rope made fast 
to anything for securing it, as the lanyards of the davit guys. (See Kniee Lan- 
yard and Bucket Lanyard.) 

Lap Streak. An expression used in boat-building, signifying that the planks of the 
boat overlap. 

Larboard, The left-hand side of a vessel in looking towards the bow (now obso- 
lete). The word port takes the place of larboard. 

Larbollues. A name once given to the men of the larboard watch. 

Large. A vessel goes large when she has the wind free. (See Flowing Sheets.) 

Lark's Head. A knot made by doubling the bight of a rope, passing it around a 
spar, or through a ring or hook about a foot, then bending it down towards you and 
spreading it out, and slipping a toggle through the four parts— across tlie two outer 
and under the two inner. To finish with take a half hitch around the standing 
part with the loose end hanging down so that it will not slip when a strain is put on it. 
(See engraving.) 

Lasb. To bind anything with ropes or chain. 

LatcllingS. The rope loops on the head of a bonnet and by which it is laced .to the 
foot of the sail. 

Lateen. A rig similar to that of the lugger, excepting that the sail is triangular. A 
long yard which hoists obliquely to a mast forms the luff. 

Launch. A large boat. When a vessel is slid off the ways into the water. To 
haul a spar along the deck is to launch it along. 

Law of Storms. The science of the phenomena relating to violent winds. 

Lay. The direction in which the strands of a rope are twisted ; the preface of an order 
for the men to come or to go, as lay aft, lay forward, lay aloft, lay out, etc. (look 
under respective headings.) A percentage of the profits paid to the officers and crew 
of a whaling vessel instead of salary. 

Lay a Course. A vessel lays tier course when the wind allows her to point toward 
the jjlace of destination. 

Lay Aft. The order to the crew individually or collectively to proceed towards the 
stern of the vessel. 

Lay Days. A certain number of days agreed upon between the shippers and the 




/ Flying-jCi 

Z M 

3 B>rc topmast staysail 

4 Tare -sail 

5 Lower-fore-tvpsaiZ 

6 Upper- fore- -tapscdZ 

7 Rrc topgalUmi sail 

8 Yovc -rcryal 

5 Naui tcpTnast staysail 

la HuMle. staysails 

11 l^AJi-topgallantstaysaiL 

1Z. I'hA.tvrqyaLsU^scal 

13 Mauv-sail 

/4. Lowermam. topsail 

15. Uppepnain topsail 

16 'MainAcpgaliantsaxL 

n }birvr<jfal 

18. Hiufv staysail 

1f> W-^attoprnast sbysaH' 

2o Spanker 

21. Gaff-topsail 

%%. Forcinast 

23 Fare-topmast 

2k. Fare-topgallant mast 

25. Fore. rcyaL mast 


27. Main, topmast 

28. Main- topgaHantmast 
2^ MoJTt royal mast 

So. Niiun -mast 
31 Mi-^en topmast 
33. Lower fore topsailyard- 
34 llpperfore- topsailyanl 
35. Fore topgallantyard- 
% Fore royaLyard- 
37. Naifiyard 

38 Lowe^moKitopsaxlyard- 

Qi) Tt ■ . 7 1 

39 TJpper-mainiopsailyarcl 
hc KaitvtopgaUantyard- 
4/ Nam- royal yard 
42. ^yanker-boom- 

43 Spanker-gaff 

44 Bowsprit 

45 iJih-booin&^Flytxig-jih-boom 

108 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

master, or the agent of a vessel (shown in the charter party) for loading or discharging, 

and be^^ond which a stipulated per diem demurrage is to Le paid to the vessel. (See 

Demurrage.) Sundaj^s and holidays do not count unless the term running days is 

inserted, in which case all days count. 
Liay Fovwarcl. An order for the crew to proceed towards the bows of the vessel. 
Liay on Your Oars. An order to the boat's crew to cease rowing, but to keep 

their oars shipped in the thole pins or rowlocks, the blades out of water and horizon- 
tal, the oar itself kept at right angles to the keel. (See Oars.) 
Lay Out. An order to the men in the slings of the yard to go out on the yard-arms. 
Liay Out on Your Oars. An order to a crew to pull the boat faster through the 

Lay tlie Land. As a ship recedes from the shore she is said to lay the land. 
Lay-to. (See Lie-to.) 
Laying Down a Vessel. To delineate the different parts of a vessel upon the 

mold-loft floor. When the lines of a vessel are chalked out on the floor from the 

draft the builder is said to lay doiun the lines of the ship. 
Lazarette or Lazaretto. A low-headroom space below the main deck on the 

afterpart of the vessel where provisions and spare gear are stowed. 
Lazy Grliy. A name sometimes applied to the hoom-guy or loom-pendant. 
Lazy Jacks. The lengths of rope rove thrgugh thimbles seized on to the boom top- 
ping lifts and made fast to the boom. When the sail is lowered they prevent the folds 

of canvas from falling on the deck. 
Leacll. Tlie edge of a square sail at the sides, but the after-edge of a fore-and-aft 

sail. Oftentimes the luff of a sail is called the forward leach, and the leach proper is 

termed the after-leach. Among English seamen this is universal. 
Leach Line. A line made fast to the leach ropes of sails, and passing up through 

blocks on the yards to haul the leaches up liy. 
Leacll Rope. The roping on the after-edge of fore-and-aft sails, but the roping on 

the sides of square sails. 
Lead. (See Hand Lead and Deep Sea Lead.) 
Leader. (See Faieleader.) 
Leading Block. (See Snatch Block). 
Leading Part. The part of the tackle that is hauled upon. 
Leading Wind. A wind which permits a vessel to lay her course with sheets 

Leadsman. The seaman who heaves the lead to ascertain the depth of water. 
League. Three miles. (See Marine League.) 
Leak. A hole in a vessel's hull which admits water. To spring a leak is to strain the 

vessel so that some of her planking separates sufficiently for the water to find entrance 

into the vessel. 
Leaper. The name given to a sea which breaks over the bow of a vessel. 
Ledge. A cluster of rocks a short distance below the surface of the water. 
Lee Boai'd. A board arranged to fit to the lee side of flat-bottomed boats, in order to 

prevent leeward drift, by acting as a centre-board. 
Lee CJ-age. Being to leeward of another ship or object. 
Lee Helm. A vessel carries a lee helm when the tiller is put over towards the lee 

side of the vessel. 
Lee Lurch. A sudden roll of the vessel to leeward. 
Lee Shoi'e. The land to leeward of the ship, or the shore towards which the wind 

is blowing. 
Lee Side. The opposite side to which the wind is blowing ou. 
Lee Tide. A tide that runs in the same direction as the wind is blowing ; tide and 

wind in harmony. 
Lee-way. The amount a vessel loses by being forced sideways through the water 

owing to the pressure of the wind on the vessel's sails, side, and rigging. 
Lee Wheelsman. The assistant to the helmsman. The lee-wheelsman stands on 

the lee side of the wheel. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaet. 



/i. Jiain staysail. 

2. Main tcpmast staysail 

3. Hiddle stavsail 

4", Main topgallant staysaH 7 Miiun topmast staysail 
5 . Mam ivyal staysail 8. Mixen topgallant staysati 

6. Mi-ki-n staysail 9 Mixen royal staysail 


Iieech. (See Leach. 

Lieefange. (See Deck Hoesb.) Also a rope made fast to the clew cringle of a jib 

in order to haul it flat amidships while the bonnet is being laced. 
Leeward. (Pronounced as though spelled lu-ard.) The lee side. The opposite to 


L/eft-liantled Rope. Eope laid up against the sun ; i. e., twisted from left to 

lieg. When a vessel sails close-hauled she is said to make a leg, and the terms long leg 
and short leg apply to the comparative distances sailed on different tacks. 

Let Draw. (See Deaw.) 

IJet Fall. An order given to a boat's crew to let their oars fall from the perpendicu- 
lar to the horizontal. It follows the order " up oars." Also an order to the men on 
the yard to let the sail drop. 

liibel. To seize a vessel under admiralty process at the beginning of a suit. A ves- 
sel may be libelled by the crew, or officers under the rank of captain, for non-pay- 
ment of wages, for damages, etc. ; but the master cannot libel the vessel for the wages 
which may be due him. 

License. A marine document issued to a vessel of the United States by the customs 

A vessel of five tons and upwards {unless under register), emjjloyed in domestic trade, 
in the fisheries or in foreign trade on the inland northern frontiers of the United States, 
must be licensed. 

Yachts must be licensed if of five tons or upwards, or be subject to light money fees 
of fifty cents per ton at each port of arrival. All licenses expire by limitation at the 
end of one year, when they must be renewed. 

Officers' licenses are certificates of competency issued by the U. S. Local Inspectors 
of Steam Vessels to masters, mates, pilots and engineers, and authorizing them to per- 
form their several duties. These licenses must be renewed yearly. 

A ivrecliing license is issued specially. (See Ameeican Shipmastees' Associa- 


Lie Along'. A vessel is said to lie along when heeled over by the weight of the 
wind on her sails. 

Lie-to. To stop the progress of a vessel through the water by reducing sail and keep- 
ing her so close to the wind that she will make little or no headway. The helm is 
generally lashed to leeward on a sailing vessel so as to prevent the ship from falling 
off too much, and the after-sail set prevents her from coming up too close to the wind ; 
thus she is kept continually see-sawing through two or three points of the compass. 
Steamships generally lie-to under steam, just turning the engines over fast enough to 
keep steerageway on the vessel. Some steamships lie-to head on, and others take 
the seas on the bow. 

Life Boat. A boat built to be specially seaworthj-. Air-tight tanks in either end of 
the boat and along the sides insures it against sinking, though the body of the vessel 
be filled with water. 

Life Buoys. There are several kinds of life buoys. One style is that of a ring cov- 
ered with canvas, enclosing a cork stuffing ; another that of two connecting metallic 
cylinders, provided with a red fire to be burned at night when dropped overboard, and 
a red flag whereby to keep it in sight in the daytime. The red fire is ignited before 
letting the buoy go by the simple means of an attached percussion cap and hammer 

Life Car. A tank used by the Life Saving Service for bringing shipwrecked people 
ashore. It will hold from four to six persons, and is closed trom the inside when loaded 
so as to be water-tight while being hauled through the breakers. 

Life Kite. A kite made of thin sticks and muslin on board of a wrecked vessel as a 
means of getting a line ashore. After the kite has been settled on the land to leeward 
of the ship and secured by the people there, a stouter line is bent on to the kite line 
and hauled ashore ; to this a hawser is bent on and also hauled ashore. 

Life Lines. Ropes stretched along the decks to lay hold of, and by which the crew 






*-.' ONi M>" ■* "^i' ^ ►>! =« a^ 

o S: -S-i 5^ 

112 patteeson's illustkated nautical dictionaey. 

may save themselves from being washed overboard during heavy gales when the ves- 
sel is shipping seas. Also horizontal ropes stretched between the yard lifts and th& 
mast, about four feet above the yard, as a support for the men on board a ship of war 
when manning yards. 

liife Preserver. Forms of canvas-covered cork made either as a jacket or belt for 
sustaining the weight of a person while in the water. 

liife Raft. A pair of segar-shaped sheet iron cylinders connected on the same princi- 
ple of a catamaran, with thwartship slats to sit on and attached thole pins in the sides 
for the use of oars. This contrivance is also known as a halsa. 

Life Saving Station. Buildings erected along the coast and provided with life 
boats, mortar apparatus, etc., for succoring shipwrecked seamen and passengers. A 
station crew under an officer live in these houses during certain stormy months in the 
year, and patrol the beach regularly on the lookout for vessels in distress. 

Ijift. A rope extending from a yard-arm to the mast to support the yard, and by means 
of which the yard may be topped up, etc. ; when a vessel is kept so close to the wind 
that her sails shiver they are said to lift. Fog lifts when it rises from the surface of 
the sea or land. The weather ///"fs when it clears. (See Topping Lift; Quaetee 

Liigllt. To lift anything along is to light it along. When the jibs are to be slacked 
off a little the order is given light up or lighten up the head sheets. When a square 
sail is being reefed the men light out to windward and haul out to leeward. 

liifflltlioiise. A tower erected on the coast line, or upon rocks or over shoals, which 
acts as a beacon by day to warn mariners, and at night the large lantern at the top of 
the tower is brilliantly lighted, throwing its beams in some cases twenty miles seaward. 
The various lighthouses are distinguished by the tabulated character of their lights, as 
red, white, fixed, flashing, etc. 

liight Money. A tax of fixty cents per ton levied upon vessels under certain con- 
ditions by the customs authorities. 

liight Sails. All the sails above the topsails, also the studding sails and flying 

liigllt Ship. Vessels anchored in the vicinity of shoals to mark the danger, and 
provided with distinguishing shapes at the mastheads for the daytime, and powerful 
lights for the night time. (See Flyixg Light. 

liigliten. To lighten a vessel is to throw cargo overboard. To lighten up the head 
sheets is to slacken them off a little. 

Liighter. A flat-bottom boat for transporting merchandise about harbors and rivers. 
It is generally provided with a loose-footed sail hoisted on a gafF, and one head-sail . 

liig'htning' Conductor. A copper wire fastened to and extending a short dis- 
tance above each truck, thence leading down along one of the stays and overboard. 

Liiniber Boards. Small portable boards fitted to the flooring in the hold, and 
which are removed when it is required to clear the limbers. 

liiniber Cliain. A small chain rove through the limber holes, and which is used ta 
clear them of dirt, by pulling it back and forth, thus giving passage to the water. A 
rope sometimes is used in place of a chain. 

liimber Streak. The plank in the flooring of the hold which lies next to the keel- 

Liimbers. The holes cut in the lowest part of the floor timbers and near the keelson,, 
so as to allow water to pass through them fore-and-aft along the line of the keelson to 
the pump well. 

liime Juicer. A term applied to English seamen owing to the Board-of-Trade law 
concerning the serving out of lime juice to the crews of vessels under the British flag. 

liines. Hopes used for various purposes on board ship and known as head-lines, bow- 
lines, breast-lines, quarter-lines, stern-lines, bunt-lines, clew-lines, leach lines, spilling- 
lines, towing-lines, hauling-lines, tripping-lines, etc. Also one or more vessels belong- 
ing to a particular firm and engaged in regular trade between two or more ports, as 
the Red "JD" Line. 

Lines of a Vessel. Drawings which show the lines of a vessel comprise three sep- 

Patterson's illustbated nautical dictionaey. 









* ,i 

j'^ ^ 

s I i ~ 





2 -5 

■-S .g 

£ .= 

2-5 =3 c: K -^ 

-= -J S: "» ~ S 

5 « 

■^^ "^ 

S "- 

3 a fi 

s. 3 -s 5 a i 

K^ s: ;^ O t-5 

<:i -r- «^i c*n >f- 1^^ 

"< c-f cs< Oi r. c*j 


^ V &: 

■«; ^ s! 

g 8 

- *» B si 5 

S Q- a. n. 3 -« 

§■^1" ^ 3 J r:J 

■., ii a ~ S 

^ S* S fc :;l 

IT t; f- =- « - 

*■{. >o 'o '^ °o ^, 

Qj— G^TQ^'^^^D i;::^^ 

114 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaet. 

ate plans, depending one upon the other, and which must correspond in all particulars 
and be used in conjunction. These three plans are known as the shear plan, body 
plan, and half-breadth plan. The first shows the outline of the longitudinal vertical 
section ; the second shows the vertical cross-sections, and the third shows the longitu- 
dinal transverse section of the vessel at the deck-line, the water-line, and at other sta- 
tions on the same plane as the water-line. 

liiuing' Cloth. Extra pieces of canvas sewed on the back of square sails to take 
the chafe. 

List. When a vessel's masts are inclined from the perpendicular, or her decks from 
the horizontal she is said to have a list, provided that the inclination is caused by an 
unequal distribution of the cargo, or deck weights, or by the coal bunkers on one side 
of the vessel holding more coals than those on the opposite side. But the word list 
does not apply to the inclination of a vessel when she is borne over by the wind in 
sailing. (See Caeeen" and Heeled Over.) 

liisting'. A narrow strip cut from the edge of one of the ship's planks so as to ex- 
pose the timbers inside. This is sometimes done when examining a vessel. 

liizai'd. A length of rope having one or more thimbles spliced into it and used as a 
leader for ropes. (See Buntline Lizard.) 

Liloyds. An English society of underwriters who establish the classes of vessels. 
This society was formed in 1601. (See Class.) 

LiOad Water Liine. The line of flotation or immersion when a vessel is loaded. 

LiOb. A stupid fellow on board ship. 

LiObby. The name of the forward passageway in the cabin. 

Loblolly Boy. A sick-bay nurse ; also called Sai/maw. 

liObscouse. A bash composed of meat and sea-biscuit, with or without vegetables. 

Lock. (See Canal.) 

Locker. A chest or small apartment used for stowing away articles of ship's stores, 
as the pi lint-locker and boatswcdn's locker ; or the cham-locker where the cable is 
stowed. (See Davy Jokes' Locker.) 

Lofty Ship. A vessel with high masts. 

Log. The old-fashioned log is an apparatus employed for ascertaining the ship's rate 
of sailing. It consists of the log-line, log-chip, reel, and two sand-glasses, of 14 and 
28 seconds respectively. (For descriptions of various kinds of logs see Part II.) 

Log Board. Same as log slate. 

Log Book. A journal kept by the mate in which is entered the position of the ship, 
the winds, currents, state of the sea, courses, leeway, and all matters of importance in 
relation to the vessel. 

A harbor log records the state of the weather, the tides (if the vessel is at anchor), 
the work or business being carried on, etc. (See form of log page.) 

Log Slate. The slate kept on deck for the mates to enter on it a record of the ves- 
sel's speed, sail carried, etc., during their watch. 

Loggerhead. A small bitt in a whale boat, around which a turn of the harpoon- 
line is taken. 

Logging the Ship. Ascertaining the ship's speed by heaving the log. 

Long Board. A long stretch upon one tack. 

Long Boat. The largest boat carried on a merchant-man, and is provided with 
mast, sail, oars, rudder, and tiller, and is carried on deck when the vessel is at sea. 

Long-legged. A vessel having a great draught of water. 

Long Sea A uniform motion of long waves. 

Long Splice. Joining two ropes together by interweaving their strands, so that no 
bulge exists. (See engraving.) 

Long Stroke. When it is desired that the boat's crew should send the boat through 
the water faster bj' putting more strength into their rowing, they are ordered to take a 
long stroke, or bend your backs, or rip her through. 

Long-tailed Swinger. One of the names by which molasses is called on ship- 

Longers. A name given to the casks which are stowed next to the keelson. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 












■s '5 "*> S 
g^ a. a. g &,'^ g g^ 

■ cv( CN: 'S^ "^^ on 








1 S 




^ Si 


55 svi 


OS « f^ 



. c c . c , S ^ ^ « 5 V 

5 «= 

313;3lS JiS J;d 

116 Patterson's illustbated nautical dictionaey. 

LiOngshoreman. A dock laborer or a member of a stevedore's crew. 

Look Up. A vessel is said to look up when by the changing of the wind she is 
enabled to point closer to the place of her destination. 

Lookout. The man on watch stationed at the bows to observe and report upon the 
presence and movements of other vessels, etc. (See Ceow's Nest.) 

Loom. A vessel looms in a fog, or at night, when she appears indistinct to the ob- 
server. The part of an oar which is inside the rowlock in rowing is called the loom 
of the oar. The loom of the land is known as the dark shading often seen above the 
horizon before the land itself appears. 

Loose. To unfurl a sail is to loose it. 

Lost the Number of his Mess. When a seaman dies he is said to lose the 
number of his mess. 

Low Tide. The lowest point of the tide, 

Lower. To settle away ; to ease down. 

Lower Hold. The second space beneath the spar deck in the interior of a vessel 
having two decks. 

Lower Mast, The first mast above the deck; the mast which is stepped in the 
keel ; foremast, mainmast, mizzenmast. 

Lower Rigging. The shrouds and the ratlines belonging to the lower fore, main, 
and mizzen masts. 

Lower Shrouds. The shrouds of the lower fore, main, and mizzen masts. 

Lower Topgallant Sail. (See Topgallant Sail.) 

Lower Topsail. (See Topsail.) 

Lower Yards. The fore-yard, main-yard, and cross-jack. 

Lubber. A clumsy fellow ; a green hand on shipboard. (See Ltjbbbe's Hole.) 

Lubber's Hole. An opening in the top next to the mast, and through which the 
shrouds pass after going over the lower mast head. It is sufficiently large for the 
passage of a man. To get into the top through the lubber's hole instead of climbing 
over the top-rim by the futtock shrouds, is considered very unseamanlike, and anyone 
performing the first act is called a lubber by his shipmates. 

Lubber's Point. The black vertical line which is painted on the inside of a com- 
pass bowl, and which represents the vessel's head to the helmsman. It seems strange 
that such a name, implying more or less contempt, shoald have been given to this 
mark, as it is an indispensible guide to the most experienced helmsman. 

Lviff". The forward edge of fore-and-aft sails ; often called the forward leach. A 
vessel is luifed by putting the tiller to leeward and bringing her to the wind. The luff 
of the bow is the place where the rail begins to curve towards the bow. (See Keep 
THE LtrPE and Speing the Luff.) 

Luff Oringle. The iron ring or shape spliced into the bolt rope of a gaff fore-and- 
aft sail at the junction of the head and luff. Jib-headed sails have but three cringles, 
head, tack, and clew. 

Luff of the Bow. (See Luff.) 

Luff Tackle. A tackle formed of a length of rope and a double and single block. 

Luff upon Luff. One luff-tackle applied to the fall of another luff-tackle. 

Lug Foresail. A sail which takes the place of the regular working foresail on a 
schooner. It is out long on the foot so as to sheet about six feet abaft the mainmast, 
and is sometimes bent on to the fore-boom as far as the spar goes. 

Lugger. Vessels on one, two and three masts with quadrilateral or four-cornered 
fore-and-aft sails bent to a hoisting yard, the luff being about two-thirds the length of 
the leach. 

Lumber Port. A square port in the bows of some vessels through which the long 
lengths of lumber are taken in and discharged, and for which the hatches are useless. 
Also known as cargo ports. 

Lvirch. A sudden, quick rolling of the vessel. 

Lying to. (See Lie-to.) 



Cv, '-0 Qg s: f=2 (i- =^ s^ f^ -^ *< '^ '^ 

^- C^( CO -"l- '^ ■-* ' 

o~ 'NcsiSSfcSSSi 

118 Patterson's illttsteated nautical dictionary. 


Mackeral Sky. Small rounded patches of clouds. 

Made. A made mast is composed of different pieces, likewise a made block. Topmasts 

and topgallant masts are whole spars — not made. 
Magnus or Manner's Hitch. A round turn around a spar, the turn itself being 

jammed b}' a half hitch. (See engraving.) 
Main Chains. (See Chains.) 
Main Hatch. The hatch between the fore and main masts, just forward of the 

Main Hold. Tliat j^art of the interior of a vessel which is in the vicinity of the main 

Main Piece. The piece of timber of which the rudder head is composed. 
Main Rigging'. The shrouds and ratlines of the main lower mast. 
Main Sail. The sail that on a square-rigger is bent to the main yard, but the sail 

that on a fore-and-after is spread by the main gaff and main boom. 
Main Shrouds. The shrouds on the main lower mast. 
Main Stay. The hemp or wire rope leading from the mainmast head to the foremast 

near the deck, where it sets up. The mainmast is stayed (supported) by it, and on 

this stay the main staysail is set. (See Stays.) 
Main Topmast Staysail. A triangular sail that hoists between the fore and 

mainmasts, both on square-rigged vessels and on schooners. (See engravings of each 

showing the sail set.) 
Main Yard. The lowest yard on the mainmast of a brig, bark or ship. 
Mainmast. The mast next abaft the foremast on a vessel carrying two or more 

masts, but the name given to the single mast carried by sloops and cutters, etc. (See 

FoEE Mast.) 
Mainsail Haul. The order given to the crew to swing the main yards around when 

tacking ship — properly speaking, main topsail haul, as the mainsail is clewed up before 

Make Sail. An order to the crew to set the sails. 

Make the Land. The first appearance of the shore. (See Landfall.) 
Make Water. When a vessel leaks she is said to make ivater. 
Making Colors. At 8 a. m. the vessel's ensign (also the club pennant and private 

signal, if a yacht) is hoisted and displayed, and this is known as making colors. 
Making Sail. Spreading the sails. 
Making Sunset. At sundown the colors are struck (hauled down), and this is 

known as making sunset. 
Making the Course Good. In running before the wind a vessel will yaw more 

or less ; that is, the ship's head will swing both to left and right of the compass 

course. To make the course good the helmsman endeavors to keep the deviations 

equal, so that the middle point will be the course given to him to steer. 
Mall.' (See Maul.) 
Mallet. A caulking mallet is a wooden maul with a short handle, and a long head, 

iron bound. 
A serving mallet is a wooden maul with a groove cut lengthwise in the top of the 

head so as to fit into a rope when the latter is being served. 
Ma»n-rope Knot. A knot made in the ropes used for ascending and descending a 

vessel's side. (See engraving.) 
Man JElopes. The ropes hanging down a vessel's side from the rail, and which are 

used to assist in ascending and descending. 
Man the Yards. To send seamen out to stand on the yards. This is done when 

firing a salute for and in the presence of great official notability. 
Manavalins. Bits of pie, cake, and pudding left over from the officer's meals ; the 

scourings of the cabin table. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical diction akt. 









"• UJ 
UJ C5 

<: - 
CO o 

2 1- 












120 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 

Manger. A space just abaft the hawse holes, partitioned by a coaming or manger 
board, wliich crosses the deck, and prevents water shipped through the hawse pipes, 
when the vessel is at anchor and pitching, from flowing along the deck. 

Manhole. A hole in a tank or boiler, or in the deck leading to a coal bunker, large 
enough to admit the bodj' of a man. 

Manifest. A document which is signed by the master and submitted to the customs 
authorities, showing to what port or ports the cargo is destined ; giving an itemized 
account and description of the contents of all the packages on board, together with 
their distinguishing marks and numbers, also the names of the respective shippers and 
consignees. The manifest must be made out, and dated and signed by the master, at 
the place or places where the goods, or any part of the goods, are taken on board the 

Manilla Rojie. The finest and most expensive quality of rope made (excepting 
cotton and silk). It is made from the fibre of the wild plantain. 

Marine Documents. (See Ship's Business.) 

Marine Glue. An English gutta-percha composition used instead of pitch or putty 
in caulking decks. 

Marine Hospital Service. A national institution for the benefit of disabled 
and sick merchant seamen, having hospitals in the principal seaport cities, and medical 
officers in all seaports to administer gratuitous medicine, medical advice and services, 
and to afford shelter to sick seamen. 

Marine Insurance. A contract entered into between the owners of a vessel or 
her agents, or the master on one side, and an insurance company on the other side, 
whereby the latter, in consideration of a certain sum of money, insures or idemnifys 
the vessel, or the cargo, or both, against the perils of the sea for a certain voyage, or 
for a certain length of time. The written instrument in which the contract of marine 
insurance is embodied is called a policy of insurance. 

Marine ILeague. A certain distance seawards from the coast over which a govern- 
ment has jurisdiction, according to international law. This distance is considered tC' 
be the limit of range of effective artillery. 

Marine Railway. (See Wats.) 

Marine Surveying. (See Nautical Surveying.) 

Mariner. An experienced seaman. Sometimes the term is used in a broader sense 
to include all men who follow the sea as a profession. 

Mariner's Compass. (See Compass.) 

Mai'itinie. Pertaining to the sea. 

Mark Boat. A distinguishing boat at the turning point in the course over which 
vessels are racing. 

Market Boat. A small boat, such as the dingey used by the stewards to bring 
off marketing. 

Marks and Deeps. (See Hand Lead.) 

Marl. To hitch marline, spun yarn, etc., around the parcelling in order to keep it in 
place while it is being served. 

Marline. (Pronounced mar-lin.) Two yarns laid up left-handed and used for fine 
seizing. It is finer than spun yarn. 

Marline-spike. A pointed iron instrument used in splicing to separate the strands 
of a rope and as a heaver in putting on seizings. 

Marline- spike Hitch. A peculiar but simple way of catching the marline-spike 
in the seizing stuff, whereby it may be hove taut. 

Marling Hitch. A simple hitch used in marling. 

Mari'y. To sew the ends of two ropes together temporarily so that there will be no 
bulge, and so that it will render through a block. This is done when reeving new 
signal halliards, as it saves a climb aloft. 

Martingale. Sometimes called martingale boom. A short spar hanging down from 
an eye-bolt in the bowsprit cap for giving spread to the headstays. The martingale 
ends at the spear on the lower end, which is termed the dolphin striker. (See Jib- 
boom Guys.) 





132 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 

Martingale Back Ropes. (See Back Ropes.) 

Martingale Stays. Lengths of rope booked or seized to the outer part of the jib- 
boom and leading to the lower end of the martingale, where they set up. They steady 
the martingale and keep the jib-boom from jumping. 

Mast Coat. (See Coat.) 

Masthead. The top part of a mast; that part of a mast from the cross-trees to the 
cap. To masthead a man is to send him aloft to remain a certain time for punishment. 

Mastlieatl Light. A bright white light carried in front of the foretopmast head by 
steamships wlien under way. 

Mast Hole. A hole in the deck of a vessel, or in the thwart of an open boat, for the 
mast to go through. 

Mast Hoop. A wooden hoop that goes around a mast and to which the luff of a 
fore-and-aft sail is seized by robands. These hoops travel up and down the mast when 
the sail is hoisted and lowered. 

Mast Rope. A rope used in swaying up or in striking (sending down) a mast. 

Mast Winch. (See Winch.) 

Master. The title of a merchant ship captain. In order to command a vessel of the 
United States the master must be a citizen thereof. 

Master Mariner. A captain in the merchant service who has passed a successful 
examination in seamanship, navigation, etc., before an authorized board of shipmasters, 
and received from them a certificate of competency. 

Master's Manifest. (See Manifest.) 

Masting. Determining the position in which the masts of a vessel are to be placed; 
also the mechanical process of stepping the masts. 

Masts. Spars rising above the deck of a vessel perpendicularly, and which support 
the yards, booms, gaffs and sails. The lower masts extend from the keel, where they 
step, to a height above the upper deck, and are secured sideways by shrouds, and fore- 
and-aft by stays. (See Topm:asts, Topgallant Masts, Eotal Masts and Skt- 
SAIL Masts.) Masts are either w/io?e or wa&. 

Mat. A mat woven from strands of old rope, and used to prevent chafing. 

Mate. An officer under a master. There are first, second, third, and fourth Mates. 

Matthew Walker Knot. A knot named after the originator. It is used on 
dead-eye lanyards. (See engraving.) 

Maul or Mall. A heavy iron hammer, employed in driving bolts, etc. 

Meal Flag. A square flag hoisted at the starboard spreader, or in the rigging, to 
signify that the officers are at the mess table. 

Meal Pennant. A red flag hoisted on the port side of a vessel, signifying that the 
forward hands are at moss. 

Meet Her. Ajo, order to the helmsman directing that he should put the tiller so as 
to check the swing of the vessel's head. 

Mend. To mend the furl is to partly refurl the sails after they have been tied up 
slovenly, or have become untidy looking from various causes. 

Mei'niaid. A fabulous sea woman having the body of a human from the head to the 
waist, and the form of the after-half of a fish below the hips. 

Merchant Service. The mercantile marine. 

Merchant's Shii>i)ing Act. In the year 1854 what is known as the Merchant's 
Shipping Act was passed in Great Britain, which requires all masters and officers of 
British merchant vessels to be examined and to hold certificates of competency issued 
in accordance with the provisions of the act before they can clear a vessel from any 
English custom lionse. The certificates are issued by the British Board of Trade. 

Merchantman. A vessel employed in transporting freight and passengers. 

Meshes. The openings between the cords in a net of any kind, as a fish net, board- 
ing netting, etc. 

Mess. A number of officers or forward hands who eat together. 

Messnian or Messboy. The one who waits on the officer's table on a merchant 

Messmate. A member of the same mess on shipboard. 

Messenger. An endless rope used for heaving in a cable by a capstan. (Obsolete.) 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


f\£d.ii C -J^^w^s 



1. Topm,ast Stay. 

2. Jib Stay. 

3. Fore Stay. 

4. Forecastle Awning Oantline. 

5. Foremast. 

6. Smokestack. 

7. Fore Qaff Vangs. 

8. Midship Awning Qantline. 

9. Mainmast. 

10. Quarter Deck Awning Oantline. 

11. Main Gaff Vangs. 

13. Main Standing Oaf. 

13. Fore Standing Oaf. 

14. Spring Stay. 

15. Maintopmast Stay. 

16. Foretopmast. 

17. Maintopmast. ' 

18. Olub Flag. 

19. Private Signal. 

30. Ensign. 

31. Awning Crow's Foot. 
23. Topmast Shrouds. 

124 PATTP:ESON"s illustrated J^AUTICAL DiailONAKY. 

Middle a Rope. To double a rope in two equal parts. 
Midship Beam. The timber at the broadest part of the ship. 
Midshipman. A cadet both on board merchant, revenue and naval vessels. 
Midshii)maii's Hitch. (See engraving.) 

Midships. (See Amidships.)' 

Mildew. Black and green spots on sails caused by dampness. 

Minister. A diplomatic agent of the government representing it, and attending to 

its interest abroad. 
Mirage. An optical phenomenon arising from excessive refraction. ' From this cause 

the image of a ship is sometimes observed inverted in the sky, and again the image of 

an object which is below the horizon is seen above it. 
Miss Stays. When a vessel fails to go around in tacking she is said to miss stays. 
Mizzen. The after fore-and-aft sail; the spanker. 
Mizzen Chains. (See Chains.) 

Mizzen Must. The aftermast on a three-masted vessel. 

Mizzen Rigging. The shrouds of the mizzen lower mast, together with their rat- 
Mizzen Shrouds. The shrouds on the mizzen lower mast. 
Mizzen Stay. The hemp or wire rope leading from the mizzen masthead to the 

mainmast near the deck, where it sets up. The mizzen mast is stayed (supported) by 

it, and on this stay the mizzen staysail is set. (See Stats.) 
Mold LiOft. The large room in a shipbuilder's establishment used for laving down 

the lines of a vessel by delineating them by chalk marks on the floor. 
Molded Breadth. The breadth of a vessel to the outside of her frame timbers'at 

the widest part. 
Molding. The process of marking out a vessel's timbers by the employment of the 

molds made in the mold loft. 
Molds. A pattern by which the frames of a vessel are shaped. 
Monk Bag. A small money bag purse hung around the neck by a string, and much 

worn by seamen. 
Monkey Block. A small block containing one sheave and stropped with a swivel. 
Monkey Rail. A light rail raised above the regular quarter rail of the vessel ; an 

extra height given to the rail around the quarters. 
Moonsail. A small sail once carried by very lofty ships. It set above the skysail. 
Moor. A ship is moored when she has two anchors down. 

Mortice Block. A block made out of a single piece of wood by having a hole chis- 
eled through it for the sheave to turn it. 
Mortar Apparatus. A small gun used by the Life Saving Service to shoot a line 

over a stranded vessel so that the crew may be brought to shore by means of a 

breeches buoy or life car. 
Mother Carey's Chickens.. A name applied to the stormy-petrel by sailors, 

who have a superstitious reverence for the bird, believing that to harm them will 

bring ill fortune to themselves and their ship. 
Mouse. A kind of washer put over a chain or rope to prevent the latter from slipping 

further through an aperture. 
Mousing. Small stuff, like rope yarns, seized across a hook so that it may not unhook 

by the lowering or canting of the block. 
Mud Digger. A flat-bottomed boat fitted with machinery for dredging out harbors 

and rivers. (See Debdge.) 
Mud Scow. A large, open, flat-bottomed boat (a companion to a mud-digger) for 

receiving the contents of the great iron scoop. 
Muffle. Oars are muffled when soft chafing gear is fastened around their looms so that 

they will not creak and knock in the rowlocks. 
Mushroom Anchor. An iron shape used for moorings. It is bowl-shape, with 

an iron upright rod welded in the centre, having an eye at the upper end to fasten the 

chain or rope, which in turn is connected with the mooring. 
Muslin. A term sometimes applied to sails. 
Muster. To assemble the crew. 







Steam Whistle. 




Fire Buckets. 


Quarter Beck Awning Furled. 


Fire Hose. 


Forward Awning Furled. 


Broadside Ouns. 


Awning Stanchions. 








Main Shrouds. 



■ 30. 

Boatswain's Beck Chest. 




Gangway Ladder. 


Smokestack Guys. 


Crow's Foot. 


Ewphroe-forward Awning, 


Pin Bail. 


Boat Davits. 


GoaVbunher Plate, sometimes 


Ba/vit Ouy. 

Manhole Plate. 


Boat Gripes. 

126 patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionaey. 


Naked. A vessel is said to have a naked bottom when her copper is stripped off^ — 

Name Board. The place on the stern of a vessel where her name and home port 
are painted or shown. 

Naphtha Fuel Launch. A small propeller carrying a regular steam boiler, bnt 
using naphtha for fuel instead of coal. 

Naphtha Liaunch. A small boat propelled by the explosive force of naphtha. 

Nautical Mine. One knot, 6,082.66 feet. 

Nautical Surveying. The delineation of rivers, harbors, and sea coasts, border- 
ing shores, and such natural and other objects as may serve to show the existence of 
channels, shoals, rocks, etc. This is also known as Hydrographical Surveying. (See 


Naval Dock. A place provided with all descriptions of naval stores, timber, ship- 
building material, etc. 

Naval Hoods. (See Hawse Bolstees.) 

Naval Officer. An officer of the customs ; an officer on board a man-of-war. 

Naval Reserve. Either a national or State body of seamen or artillerists on the 
same footing as State militia, and who are subject to duty in case of emergency. At 
the present writing (1891) the United States naval reserve is in its infanc}'. 

Naval station. Anavj^yard; a place possessing natural advantages in the way 
of depth of water, shelter, etc., and which is used as a rendezvous for vessels of war. 

Naval Stores. Pitch, resin, turpentine, oils, etc. 

Navigable. Water of sufficient depth to permit the passage of vessels. 

Navigation. Conducting of a vessel from one port to another. (See Paet III.) 

Navigator. An officer whose special duty it is to have care of the chronometers, 
compasses, charts, etc., who takes sights of the sun, moon, and stars, from which he 
calculates the ship's position, shapes the course, etc. ; all, however, under the authority 
of the captain. 

Neap Tides. A name given to the lowest tides which take place four or five days 
before the new and full moons. (See Speing Tides.) 

Neaped. A vessel is said to be neaped, or be-neaped when she is aground at the 
height of the spring tides.) 

Near. Close to. When a vessel is close-hauled she is sometimes said to be sailing 
near the wind. 

Neptune. A mythical god of the sea. When crossing the equator for the first time 
a forward hand, in former days, was conducted blindfolded to a seat consisting of a 
piece of board laid across a tub filled with water. He was informed by his messmates 
that Father Neptune would be along shortly to interview him and give him a pass to 
cross the line. Shortly after this a tremendous bellowing would be heard from over 
the bows ; the blindfold would then be removed, and the poor greeny treated to a 
view of the most astonishing looking object coming from over the bows. A tre- 
mendous rope-yarn beard, deck-swab hair that had been dipped in green paint and 
dried for the occasion, a spare royal, or some other light sail for a robe, a trident in 
one hand and a speaking trumpet in the other, completed the tout ensemble of this 
mythological deity, who roared his questions into the victim's ears through the trum- 
pet. Neptune would then decide that the applicant required shaving, so the face of 
the sufferer would be covered with Stockholm and then scraped off with an iron barrel 
hoop. Next the victim would be congratulated for passing the ordeal, and again 
blindfolded; Neptune would disappear; the board pulled away from across the tub, 
and the final scene would be the newly initiated floundering about in the water to the 
intense amusement of all hands. 

Net Tonnage. (See Toknage.) 

Netting. A rope network used on board ship for various purposes, such as a bag for 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaby. 


Topsail-Schooner rigged Screw-Steamer. 

/. Fore^mast 

2. Fore, topmast- 

3- FoTc topgallant-mast 

4. 'Main, mast 

5. Mcu3v topmast 

6. MiuvtopgaUant'mast 

7. Fore-Tpoom- 
8 Fore- -gaff 

9- 'Maixi ioom^ 
10. Kavn. gaff 
11 Fore, yard. 
1Z Lower topsailyard- 
13. Upper topsail yard- 
7-4-. Topgallant yard 
15. Fore-'topmast staysail 
16 Fore staysail 

17 Loiter topsail 
IS Tipper topsail 
IS. TopgaUani-saxl 
2o. Boom-Fort- saH 
3,1. 'Kam- ^taysail 
Zt Main- sail 
;E3. Gaff- topsail 

24-. Fore- rigging 

2S. Mzin- rigging 

Z6. Fare-topgaUant. stay 

27. Fare- topmast sti^ 

2S. Fore- stay 

,29 Main- stay 

30. Main tapmaststay 

31. Main topgallant stay 
3Z. Fare- topmast backstays 
33. Fore topgaUani iacltstay 
34 Main, topmast iackstay 
35. Main- topgallant hackstay 

36. Farc-Ufl 

37. Topsail-lift 
33, Topgallant lift 
39. Fore-vang 

to Main- vang 

128 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 

seizing to the foot of the fore topmast and jib stays on board of a steamer, and into 
wliicli those fore-and-aft sails are stowed instead of being furled. Also the bulwark 
network which takes the place of panels on steam vessels. (See Hammock Net- 

Nettles. (See Reef Points.) 

Ninepin Block. A swivel block deriving its name from its shape resemblance to 
a ninepin. 

Nip. A twist in a rope. When two fields of ice jam together a nip is said to occur. 

Nippering. (See Racking. ) 

Nippers. A short length of rope used in securing a cable to the messenger (obsolete.) 

No Higher. An order to the helmsman not to bring the vessel any closer to the 

No Man's Liand. A space or article left uncleaned, unpainted, or otherwise un- 
cared for on account of not falling within tlie limits of the work assigned to individuals 
of the crew. 

Nock. The name sometimes applied to the forward upper corner of a boom sail. 

Noi'man. A fid through the rudder head to prevent its loss in the event of it getting 
unshipped; heavy iron pins in the windlass holes to prevent the fouling of the chain. 

Nose. The cutwater of a vessel is sometimes referred to as her nose. 

Nose-pole. A name sometimes given to the bowsprit. 

Nothing Off. An order to the helmsman not to allow the vessel to go any further off 
from the wind. 

Nun Buoy. A buoy tapering at each end. 

Nurse. An experienced officer, next in rank to the captain, who teaches the latter his 
business in relation to handling the vessel, navigation, etc., when the command has 
been obtained through influence or from the captain being the owner of the vessel. 

Nut. Projections on an anchor shank to secure a wooden stock to its place ; the round 
ball on the end of an iron anchor stock. 


Oar. A wooden instrument used to propel a boat. It consists of the hlade, loom and 

handle. The loom is the part from where the flat part (the blade) ends, to the small 

length of round wood at the extreme inboard end, which is the handle. 
Oai' Lock. The square, open hole cut in the wash streak of a boat, also known as 

row-lock. Where iron shapes are used rising above the gunwale they are called 

Oars. An order given to a boat's crew by the coxswain signifying that the crew are to 

cease rowing temporarily, and to feather their oars and keep them horizontal in the 

thole-pins or row-locks. 
Oakum. Old pieces of rope, called junk, untwisted and picked into shreds. It is 

used for caulking seams. White oakum is made from untarred rope like Manilla. 
Ocean Greyhounds. A term applied to fast steamships. 
Off and On. A vessel stands off-and-on when by alternate tacks she approaches the 

land and again recedes from it. 
Off- Shore Signals. (See Cautionary Signals.) 

Off the Wind. A vessel is off the wind when she is sailing two or three points free. 
Officer of the Deck. The officer of the watch who has charge of the ship. 
Officer of the Watch. (See Oeeicer of the Deck.) 
Official Number. All documented vessels of the United States are required by 

law to obtain from the Bureau of Navigation certain identifying numbers, which are to 

be marked on the main beam in the same manner as the tonnage. 

Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionary. 


Screw-Steamer Rigged as athree-masted Topsail Schoon 


/ . Fore-mast 1Z. 

3. Ncdn -Tiiast 13. 
J. Mixcn-mast li-. 

4. Fore topmast 15. 
J. Nam tupniast iS. 
G. Ml -Ml topmast 17. 

7. Fare topgallant mast IS. 

8. FoK -yard. If). 
3. Topsail -yard 2o. 

10. Topc/aUant -yard. 21. 

11. Fore hooni 2Z. 

Nain- hoonv 
Mixen hoarn. 
Forty gaff 
Fore topmast staysail- 
Fore stay sail 
Boom- fore. sail- 

Topgallant sail. 
Main, staysail 

Z3. MaJjvsail 

2li: Main gaff topsail 

Z5. Mv&av staysail 

26. Mi'Acn. 

21. Mixen. gaff topsail' 

2S. FoTcioomtoppinglift 

2y. Mam l>oom. topping lift 

30. Mizcnloom topping lift 

31. Fore- K>ang 
3Z. Main '^ang 
33. Mixai vang 

A. Fore rigging 

B. y[aA.n rigging 
C -rigging 
D Fore stay 

E. Fore topinast stay 

F Fore- topgallant stay 

G. Main stay 

H. MoA^i topmast stay 

J. Maiwtopgallantstay 

K. Mixen stay 

L. Nixen topmast stay 


Offing'. A distance to seaward. Beyond anchoring ground, but within sight of 

the land. 
01(1 Ice. A name applied to ice made in a previous winter. 
On. A ship is on a bowline or on the wind when she is close-hauled; one is on board a 

vessel when on her deck. 
On Board. (See Aboard.) 
On Sounding'.si. When the ship is sailing over a depth of water that can be 

measured with the lead and a line marked to eighty fathoms (within eighty fathoms.) 
On the Beam. Any object bearing so as to be at right angles with the line of the 

vessel's keel. 
On the Bow. The bearing of an object contained between the ship's head and in- 
clusive of fom- points (45°) to right and left. Thus we say, a shipbears one, two, three, 

and four points on the starboard ov port hoiv. 
On the Quarter. The bearing of any object contained m an arc of 45° measured 

from right-aft to four points (45°) forward on either side. (See On" the Bow.) 
One Gun Start. A preparatory flag signal is made, and usually about ten minutes 

later a single gun is fired, and the time of commencing the race is calculated from 

the time of firing. 
Open. A harbor is said to be open when it is exposed to the sea. A distant object 

not intercepted in any way to an observer is said to be open. 
Open Boat. A boat not decked over. 
Open Hawse. When with two anchors down the cables lead straight ahead to their 

respective bowers the ship is said to have an open hawse. Same as Clear Hawse. 
Ordinary. A vessel is in ordinary when she is laid up — out of commission. 
Ordinary Seaman. A sailor inferior in knowledge to a seaman ; the next lower 

grade to ordinary seaman is landsman, then boy. 
Organization. Appointing the petty officers and placing the vessel under efficient 

discipline, drilling the crew, etc. 
Orlop. The lowest deck of a line of battle ship. It is laid over the beams in the 

Out Foot. To sail faster than another vessel is to out foot her. 
Out- haul. The rope that hauls out the clew of some boom sails, the tack of a lower 

studding sail, and the head of a sail that brails in to the mast. 
Out Oars. An order given in boat service where trailing oars are used, signifying 

that the crew are to ship their oars, prepared for pulling. To ship them the men reach 

over the side of the boat, grasp the oars by the handle, throw them into the rowlocks, 

and lift the blades out of the water, holding them horizontal and at right angles to the 

keel of the boat, the blades feathered. In this position they await the coxswain's next 

Out of Trim. Said of a vessel when she does not sit properlj^ on the water. 
Out-point. For one vessel to sail closer to the wind than another is to out-point. 

Also known as sailing higher. 
Outboard. Attached to but outside the vessel. 
Outer Jib. The head sail next forward of the inner jib on some merchant sailing 

vessels. (See engravings of various rigs of merchant vessels.) 
Outrigger. A spar (sometimes of iron) projecting from the cross-trees to give 

spread to the backstays, or any spar rigged out to give spread to rigging, like the 

wliiskers or whisker-laooms on the bowsprit, the spreaders on each bow for the jib 

sheets, etc. 
Outlying. A reef or cluster of rocks are outlying when some distance from the shore. 
Outside Course. An open or ocean course. 
Outward Charges. Outward pilotage, towing out of the harbor, and any other 

expense that may be incurred in leaving port. 
Over All. The extreme length of the hull of a vessel from end to end on deck. 
Overbear. One vessel overbears another when from her stability she is able to carry 

a greater press of sail. 
Overboard. Over the side ; out of the ship. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


Brig rigged ScREW-SxEAMEf 

/ Fore -mast Vp/^ermauitopsailyard 17 Lowc-rfon^topsaU 

X.'^iinrmast 1o NawtopgaJloMt yard 18 Upper fore topsail 

2 Fore -yard, 11 Fore, boom 1S> Fore topgcdlant sail 

k-. Lowerjare.-topsailyard IZMaavbooTn Ho Lowcnnaui topguU 

5 Upperforc topsail yard i3.Fare.gaff 21 UpperrtuUn-topsail 

G ForctcpgaUantyard li: Mean gaff 22. Main Upgallaiit sail 

7 Main-yard 15 Fore' topmast- staysail 23 Miiin loom sail 
$■ LowerTtuutbtopsailycud 16. Fore- sail 

A . Fort, rigging E FoTtytopgallant stay J Fore topmast Vackstays 

B. Main-rigging F Mainstay K ForetopgaZlcaithaclistay 
C Fffrc-stay Q. Main topmast stay \ L Maui topmxist 'backstays 

^D. Fore topmast stay H. Main, topgallant stay M Main topgalUuii haclistay 

132 Patterson's illusteatbd nautical dictionaey. 

Overhang. The projection a vessel's stem from the stern post, or of a vessel's head 
from the stem. 

Overhaul. To examine ; to separate the blocks of a tackle by coming up with the 
hauling part and pulling one block away from the other. 

Overlap. An overlap is established when an overtaking vessel has no longer a 
choice on which side she will pass, and continues to exist as long as the leeward vessel 
by luffing, or the weather vessel by bearing away, is in danger of fouling. An over- 
taking vessel shall, as long as an overlap exists, keep clear of the vessel being over- 

Over-rake. When a vessel is at anchor in a heavy seaway and the waves break 
over her head they are said to over-rake her. 

Over-rigged. When a vessel has heavier gear than necessary. 

Over-risen. A vessel showing such a high side out of water as to be out of all pro- 
portion for her length and breadth is said to be over-risen. 

Over- sparred. When a vessel has heavier masts and yards, or booms and gaffs, 
than necessarj'. 

Ox-eye. A small cloud peculiar to the African coast, and which derives its name from 
its form resemblance to the eye of an ox. It presages a speedy and violent storm. 

Pacific Irons. Stun'-sail-boom irons are known sometimes as Pacific Irons. 
Paddle. A short oar having a broad blade, and used in propelling canoes. It does 

not set in a rowlock, but is held peipendioularly. 
Paddle Boxes. (See Paddle Wheels.) 
Paddle Wheel. The large wheels in the sides of some steam vessels, such as ferry 

boats and river craft, and by the revolutions of which the vessel is forced ahead or 

astern. These wheels are partly encased in what is known as paddle boxes. 
Paddy's Hurricane. When there is little or no wind, so that the pennant hangs 

down alongside the mast. Hence it is said that the wind in a Paddy^s Hurricane is 

"t<p and down the mast." 
Painter. A length of rope made fast to the inner side of the stem of boats, and used 

for making fast to anything in order to hold the boat. 
Palm. The inner side of the fluke of an anchor, also called the pea. A piece of stout 

leather which fits across the hand and is used.when sewing upon canvas, marrying a 

rope, etc. A small round iron shield on the outboard face of the leather is employed 

to drive the needle through the substance. 
Paper Soat. A boat made of papier-macM. Also a boat made by applying 

lengths of linen to a form and coating them with shellac. The frame of the boat is 

inserted after the shell is complete. 
PaTbvickle. To hoist or lower a spar or cask on its bilge by the bight of two sepa- 
rate ropes passed round it. One end of the ropes is secured and the other ends are 

used for slacking away or for gathering in the bight. 
Parcel. Long strips of canvas used in parcelling. 
Parcel a Seam. To lay a narrow strip of canvas over a seam that has been 

caulked to prevent it filling up with dust, etc., before it is payed (filled with 

pitch, etc.) 
Parceling. To wind long strips of canvas around a rope preparatory to serving it. 
Parlinient Heel. Said of a vessel when she is careened in order to get at her 

Parral. The rope or iron ring which confines a yard to the mast, but permits of a 

vertical movement ; in other words which acts as a traveler for the yard when being 

hoisted or lowered in setting or furling the sail. 

Patterson's ii-lusteated nautical dictionary. 







f- g t t- ti 

Pt, Et, Cih fen t*i 

v' S^^ e-'i' -rf "O 


Part. To break a rope or cable is to part it. 

Particular Average. (See General Average.) 

Partners. (See Part II.) 

Pass. To pass the word is to repeat. the order to the crew. To pass an earing, gasJcet, 
seizing, etc., is to secure the same. 

Passenger List. The names of both cabin and steerage passengers en transit. 

Passport. A document carried by a merchant vessel in time of war to certify to her 
nationality, etc., as a safeguard if boarded by the belligerents ; a pass to leave a 
harbor ; an authority to remove people and chattels from a hostile country ; a safe- 
conduct paper given to a citizen who is to travel in foreign countries. 

Patent Block. A block in which the sheave works on friction rollers — a circle of 
little brass revolving wheels as a bearing for the pin. 

Patent Log. (See Part III.) 

Paul. (See Pawl.) 

Paul Rim. An iron rim or scupper around the lower part of a capstan, or around 
the barrel of the windlass, provided with pockets or notches into which the lower ends 
of the pawls fall when the capstan or windlass is hove round, and which prevent either 
of the above instruments from revolving backward. 

Pauucll Mat. A thick mat used to protect yards and rigging from chafe. 

Pawl. A short iron bar used to prevent a backward motion of the capstan or wind- 


Pay. To cover over anything with melted pitch, tar, etc., or to fill the seams of a ves- 
sel with pitch. 

Pay Off. When a vessel's head falls off from the wind she is said to pay off. 

Pay Out. To let out more cable ; to slack up a towing hawser and let it run out 
more; to give anj'thing like a chain or rope more scope. 

Pazaree. A rope used for guying out the clews of the square foresail when before 
the wind.' 

Pea. (See Palm.) 

Pea Ballast. A coarse sand or fine gravel. 

Peak. The upper after or outer corner of a gaffsail. (See A-peak.) 
Stay JPeaJc. When the cable and forestaj' are parallel. 
Short Stay Peak. When the anchor is nearly under the hawse hole. 

Peak Halliards. The halliards on a fore-and-aft sail which hoist the outboard end 
of the gaff and straightens the leach. 

Peak the Mizzen. To have the mizzen yard perpendicular and alongside the 

Pendant. A length of rope with a block or thimble strapped or spliced into 
one end, the other end being secured to the end of a yard, masthead, or out- 
board end of a gaff. The braces reeve through the blocks on the ends of the brace 

Pendant Tackle. A tackle hooked on to a pendant. 

Pennant. A long strip of bunting carried at the masthead. 

Perch. A pole driven into the bottom on a shoal as a warning to mariners. 

Pier Head Jump. Deserting the ship when she first gets alongside of a dock after 
coming into port is known as making & pier head jump. 

Pig' Yoke. A sailor's name for a quadrant of reflection. 

Pile. A pointed spar driven into the bottom, and projecting a number of feet above 

Pile Driver. A machine for hammering piles into the bottom. 

Pillow. A block of timber upon which the inner end of the bowsprit rests. 

Pilot. A person familiar with local dangers along the coast, who conducts vessels in 
and out of port. He may be either a State pilot or a seaman licensed by the local in- 
spectors of steam vessels. 

Pilot House. (See Wheel House.) 

Pilot Signals. In the daytime the jack, or other national color usually worn by 
merchant ships, having round it a white border one-fifth of the breadth of the flag ; or 






the International Code Pilotage Signal indicated by " P. T." These signals to be 
hoisted at the fore. 

In tlienight time a blue light every fifteen minutes, or a bright white light flashed, or 
shown at short intervals, just above the bulwarks, for about a minute at a time. 

Pilot's Lnff'. To luff around a buoy or point of land when by holding the course the 
vessel would go to leeward of the object. When ithis manoeuvre is accomplished suc- 
cessfully it saves a tack. (See Half Boaed.) 

Pin. The metal axle passing through the sides of a block and upon which the sheave 

Piiicll lier. An order given to the helmsman to shiver the sails a little when close- 

Pink. A ship (obsolete) having a flat bottom and a very narrow stern with a high 
house built above it, like one sees in prints of the Pilgrims' Mayflower, Hendrick Hud- 
son's Half Moon, and such vessels. 

Pink Stern. A high, narrow stern. Also a pointed stern like that of a lifeboat, pe- 
culiar to some small American fishing schooners. 

Pinnace. A larger boat than a cutter. It generally is pulled double banked. 

Pintle. A metal bolt by «hicli a rudder hangs. 

Pipe. The boatswain's whistle or call. 

Pipe Down. The conclusion of quarters or drill, when the boatswain or his mates 
blow the call to signify that the men are dismissed. 

Pipe the Eye. A sailor term for weeping. 

Pipe the Side. When the commanding officer of a man-o'-war or other official dig- 
nitaries enter or leave a naval vessel the side is piper? in their honor; that is, according 
to the official's rank, a certain number of side-boys face one another and form a hol- 
low thwartship line from tlie gangwa}' inboard, and as the official passes through this 
line the boatswain, or one of its mates, winds (blows) his call and the side-boys sa- 
lute. The ceremony is imder the inmiediate charge of the officer of the deck. 

Pipe to Quarters. (See Quaetees.) 

Pirate. A robber ; a freebooter of the seas. 

Pirate Ship. The ship of a sea-robber: an unlawful plunderer. (See Rivee 

Pitc*>. A substance obtained from the pine tree, and boiled down to such a consist- 
ency as to become hard and dry when cool. It is melted, then poured into the seams 
of a vessel's decks and planking after caulking. 

Pitching. The fore-and-aft motion of a vessel in a seaway ; for a ship to bury her 
head in the seas. 

Places of Call. The ports specified in a charter party at which the vessel is to 

Plain Sail. The regular working sails of a vessel and not such' as are set flying 
like stun' sails, balloon sails, etc. 

Plank Sheers. Horizontal timbers laid fore-and-aft over the tops of the frame 
timbers which are even with the deck. Also called covering hoards. 

Planking. (See Planks.) 

Planks. Broad timbers of oak, pine, etc., from 1^ to 8 inches thick, and used for 
planking a vessel's sides and covering the deck beams. 

Plat. To braid small stuff or rope is to plat it. 

Plates. (See Chain Plates.) 

Play. A certain freeedom of movement. A rudder plays in the rudder-port when the 
port is so large as to have considerable space between it and the rudder-head. 

Ping. A wedge of wood which fits into the plug-hole in the bottom of a boat. The 
plug is withdrawn when the boat is hoisted, so as to allow the water in the bottom to 

Plum Duff. (See Duff.) 

Plumbing. (See Ship Plumbing.) 

Ply. A vessel is said to ply when she is working to windward. 

Patterson's illustkated nautical dictionaet. 







Strain.'.— The Night Cloud ; the Lowest of Clouds. 
Cirrus.— The Curl Cloud ; The Highest of Clouds. 

Cumulus.— The Day Cloud ; the Summer Cloud. 
Nimbus.— The Rain Cloud ; Mixed Clouds. 

]38 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Point. To taper the end of a rope. (See engraving.) One of the 32 divisions on the 
mariner's compass. 

Point Blank. TLe natural line of sight ; the direction of a gun when leveled hori- 

Pointing Higher. (See Out Point.) 

Polar Explorations. The admiralty chart of the Arctic regions, contained in 
Part I. of this volume, records the names and the dates of the various polar expedi- 
tions from 1818 to 1874. Since the latter date several exploring parties have sailed 
north, namely, the English Expedition of 1875, the Nordenskjold Expedition of 1875, 
the Jeanette Expedition of 1879, and the Greeley Expedition of 1881. Lieutenant 
Lockwood, U. S. A., second in commmand of the Greeley Expedition, sledged to the 
highest latitude ever reached by man — 83° 24' north, 396 miles from the pole ; conse- 
quently, in this year, 1891, the United States is awarded the honor of first rank in 
polar explorations. 

Pole. That part of the highest mast which is above the shoulder on which rests the 
eyes of the rigging. A topgallant mast has a royal pole, and a royal mast has a skysail 

Pole Mast. A lowermast and topmast in one piece. 

Pollacca. A vessel peculiar to the Mediterranean. It is sqiiare-rigged, but has neither 
tops nor cross-trees, and the masts are single spars, running without a break from their 
step to the trucks. 

Poop Deck. (See Deck.) 

Pooped. A vessel is pooped when a sea breaks over her stern. 

Pooping. When a vessel is scudding, and a sea follows so fast after the vessel as to 
fall on her poop or ouithe after part of the ship, it is said to be a pooping sea. 

PopjJets. A name sometimes applied to the small pins set into the gunwale of a 
boat, between two of which the loom of the oar works. Also upright pieces of timber 
between the vessel's bottom and the bilge ways at the forward and after-ends, and 
which support her in launching. 

Port. The left hand side of the vessel looking forward ; at one time called larboard. 

Port Bars. Pieces of timber which secure the port shutters after they are closed. 

Port Captain. The superintendent of a line of vessels. * 

Port Charges. Taxes levied upon vessels in the way of wharfage, tonnage 
money, light money, fees for health officer, port warden, harbor master, etc. 

Port Holes. Holes in the sides of a vessel for guns ; round glass windows in the 
vessel's sides for giving light and air ; these are styled dead lights as a rule. (See 
Cargo Port and Lumber Port.) 

Port of Entry. A harbor having a custom house. 

Port Sashes. A frame-work of glass to fit into the ports in pleasant weather at sea, 
or when at anchor, for the admission of light. 

Port Shutters. The hinged coverings for the port holes. 

Port Sills. Pieces of timber bolted horizontally inside of and flush with the lower 
edge of the port for the gun-carriage to fetch up against. 

Port Tack. A square-rigged vessel is on the port tack when the port tacks of her 
com-ses are inboard, or any vessel is on the port tack when the wind is blowing on the 
port side of the ship. 

Port the Helm. An order to the helmsman to put the tiller toward the port side 
of the vessel. 

Port Warden. An officer having guardianship over the shipping in a port, 
where he performs the duties of a harbor master (see same) ; one whose duty it is to 
examine the hatches of newly arrived vessels, and the stowage of the cargo, so that in 
case of damage to same the responsibility may be fixed. 

Portable Dry Dock. (See Dock.) 

Portable Lights. A double hand-lamp carried by small boats when under way. 
It has two slides, showing a green and red light respectively as the slides are with- 

Portoise. The yards are said to be a-portoise when they are resting on the rail. 

Patterson's illusteated nautical DiCTioNAEr. 



fi) Afrial Ocean.' (2) Greatest height attained by Messrs. Glaisher and Coxwell, 
teing 36,960 feet, or jeven miles above the sea level. (3) Aerial Alps, or stratum of 
clouds 15,000 feet is depth, (4) Highest birdregion. 


Portuguese Mau-o'-war. A physalis; a compound found floating on the surface 
of the ocean, the lower or submerged part being provided with tentacles, and support- 
ing a transparent shell-like hull with a silken lateen sail, which can be lowered (col- 
lapsed) and set at will by tho little creature. 

Pratique. A limited (generally two days) quarantine placed upon a newly-arrived 
vessel from an unhealthy port by the health authorities of the place, as a matter of 
precaution, during the sickly season. 

Admitted to Pratique is the term employed to signify that the port surgeon is satis- 
fied as to the general health of the ship's company and the hill of Jie/dtli obtained from 
the last port of clearance, and that he will permit the vessel to have unrestricted com- 
munication with the shore, if, at the expiration of the pratique, no contagious sickness 
has developed on board. 

Preparatory Flag. A flag hoisted on the race committee's boat, or at some oon- 
vient place on shore, notifying the vessels to be prepared to cross the line. 

Preparatory Gun. The first gun fired. A notice from the race committee for the 
vessels to be prepared to cross the line. 

Press G-ang. A body of naval seamen who, commanded by an ofiicer, impress men 
to serve on board men-of-war. (See Impressment.) 

Press of Sail. All the sail that a ship can carry. 

Preventer. A rope used as an additional support for a spar, as preventer braces, 
preventer backstays, etc. 

Preventer Backstays. A name given to extra ropes used as stays during storms 
at sea for the additional security of the masts. 

Preventer Braces. (See Preventer Backstats.) 

Pricker. A small marlinspike. 

Primage. A gratuity originally given to the captain in compensation for his particu- 
lar care of the cargo. It was also known as Jiat nwney. It is no\\' generally given to 
the owners of the vessel. 

Privateer. A vessel fitted out by private (hence the name) parties during a war to 
prey upon the commerce of the enemy. In order to make seizures legally these ves- 
sels must be commissioned by the government of the country they belong to. 

Professional Race. Where the sailing masters, officers and crews are professional 

Promenade Deck. (See Deck.) 

Propeller. The two, three, and four-bladed propelling wheels in the stern of some 
steam vessels revolved to right or left on the shaft connected with the engine. (See 

Protest. A writing filed with the race committee or proper officials, charging another 
vessel with violation of the racing rules. (See Ship's Protest.) 

Prow. An East Indian vessel. The edge of a vessel's cutwater. 

Puddening. A pad made of rope yarns, oakum, etc., to prevent chafina:. 

Pull. To row. 

Pulpit. A small platform on the end of the bowsprit of sword-fishing vessels upon 
which the harpooner stands when striking the fish. 

Pump. A machine for drawing water out of a vessel's hold by suction. 

Purnj) Chamber. The space in the upper part of the pump-box ; also called the 
pump ivell. 

Pump Brake. The handle of a pump. 

Pump Spears. The iron rods which have the leather suckers on the lower ends, 
and which work in the upper part of the pump box. 

Pump Well. (See Pump Chamber.) 

Punt. A flat-bottomed boat used by fishermen. 

Purchase. A mechanical appliance to obtain an increase of power. A jntrchase is 
formed of ropes and blocks. 

Purser. An officer on board of a merchant ship who keeps the vessel's accounts, has 
charge of the cargo, etc. 

Put About. To tack ship. 

To put to sea is to sail away from the land. 


..M./.r — .^. 


No. 1. Whirlwind cone shooting downward from the cloud. 
No. 8. Water rising from the sea to meet the wind column. 
No. 3. Bursting of the waterspout, and receding of the cone. 

142 Patterson's illustkated nautical DiOTiONAKr. 


Quadxailt. A quarter. The four quadrants of the compass — 90" each. An mstru- 
ment for measuring altitudes. (See Part III.) V :' ;^ 

Quarantine. Prohibited intercourse between persons on shipboard and those on 
shore when the vessel has, or is suspected of having, contagious disease on board. 

Quarantine Flag. A bright yellow flag hoisted on board a ship lying at anchor 
to indicate that the vessel is infected with some contagious disease and that the ship is 

Yellow Jack is the common name given by sailors for a quarantine flag. 

Quarter. The part of a yard that is just outside the slings. That part of the vessel's 
side near the stern. 

Quarter Bill. A wintten or printed form showing the various stations assigned to 
the officers and men. (See Quaeters.) 

Quarter Blocks. Blocks suspended under the quarters of a yard as leads for the 
clewlines and sheets. 

Quarter Boat. A boat that hangs on quarter davits. 

Quarter" Davits. The boat davits on the quarters of a vessel. 

Quarter Deck. (See Deck.^ 

Quarter G-alleries. Ornamental projections on the quarters of some vessels — 
generally confined to men-of-war. 

Quarter Lifts. The double boom topping lifts that lead from the iron band on 
that spar (about a quarter ways in from the end) up to and through single blocks un- 
der the eyes of the rigging at the lower masthead, thence down on deck. Each haul- 
ing part is provided with a purchase. In sailing free the weather lift is hauled taut 
and the lee one slacked off, so that the sail will set well without a crease up and down 
its belly. In sailing by the wind both lifts are slacked so that the sail will hang as 
flat as possible by the weight of the boom. 

Quarter Line, or Quarter Fast. The moving rope leading over the quarter 
of a vessel. 

Quarter Sheet Blocks. The single blocks to be seen on some fore-and-aft ves- 
sels seom-ed to eye-bolts in the deck on the quarters. Through these blocks the main 
sheet reeves in addition to the boom and traveller blocks, and are used for securing an 
additional purchase on the boom. When fitted this way the bight of the sheet is rove 
through the boom and traveller blocks, and the two hauling ends lead through these 
quarter blocks and make fast on the quarter bitts. 

Quartering Sea. A sea running iu such direction as to break against the quarter 
of the vessel. 

Quartermaster. A petty officer who steers the vessel, attends the gangway in 
port, keeps the wheelhouse in order, and cleans the bright work belonging to the 
steering gear, etc. 

Quarters. The mess room and sleeping rooms set apart for the officers are known 
as officer^ quarters. 

Assembling the crew at their stations for inspection by the commanding officer, for 
exercise and drill, or for battle. 

Beat to quarters. To order the drummer to beat the drum for assembling. 

Pipe to quarters. To order the boatswain or his mates to wind the call for assembly. 

Quartering Wind. A wind blowing on the quarter of a vessel — 45 degrees or four 
points abaft the beam. 

Quay. (Pronounced hey.) A wharf or artificial bank at which vessels discharge and 
load cargo. 

Quayage. Wharfage. 

Quelling Oil. A preparation of animal or vegetable oils for throwing on the sea in 
heavy weather to prevent the seas from breaking in the vicinity of the ship. 

Quicken. To give a greater curve — a term belonging to ship building. 

Quilting. A coating of woven rope about the outside of a vessel. 

Quoin . A wooden wedge ; pieces of wood used for steadying casks when the latter 
are bedded. 



































r^ CM CO •<»• 

Morning g 

Watch. 7 

c> o >-■ CSI 

■HI I-l r-l 











r-i d CO 'i^ 

lO CO 

b- CO 







O O "-* CSI 

^ ^ 


144 patteeson's illtjsteated nautical dictionaet. 


Rabbet. A groove cut in a piece of timber into wliicli another timber is fitted. 

Race. A rippling commotion of the water caused by a meeting of two tides, or from 
the tide flowing through a narrow channel. A contest of speed bet\\een two vessels. 
The propeller is said to race when, in a lieavy sea, the vessel's stern is so high out of 
water that the propeller revolves in the air. Racing of this kind not only strains the 
vessel but threatens the shaft and engines with a breakdown. 

Racing Sails. Under this caption comes club-topsail, spinnaker, and all the bal- 
loon sails. 

Racing Sliell. A long, narrow, and very light boat with outriggers for the oars to 
work in, used in racing, and manned with from one to eight ofirsmen, according to the 
size of the boat. 

Rack. To seize two ropes together with turns of spun yarn, etc., so that they cannot 

Rack Block. A length of wood containing a number of sheaves, and used as fair- 

Raffed Rail. A sail in the shape of an equilateral triangle /\ which is sometimes 
set over the highest yard. The foot of tlie raffed is spread by the yard, and the head, 
or apex of the sail, lioists directly in front of the mast. This sail is common to Eng- 
lish schooner yachts rigged to carry a squaresail, as the raffee is set over the yard. 

Raft. A floating shape manufactured out of spars, planks, barrels, etc. 

Rail. The top edge of the bulwarks, called iidwark-rail. 

Railroad Gaff. (See Eailwats.) 

RailAVtiys. Iron jack stays bolted under standing gaffs and used on steam vessels 
where booms are not carried. 'Ihe head of the sail is hauled out along the gafFby 
means of an outhaul, and the sail is brailed in when it is desired to furl it. (See Gaff, 

Rainbow Dressing. (See Dressing Ship.) 

Raise. As a vessel approaches an object its increasing elevation to the eye of the ob- 
server is called raising ; hence to raise the land is to bring it more within vision. 

Raising the Dead. Heave and raise the dead is an old order given to the men at 
the windlass brakes, signifying that they are to heave strong and lift the anchor from 
its mud grave. The performance is characterized as raising the dead. 

Rake. The inclination of a vessel's masts from the perpendicular. A term some- 
times applied to the overhang of a vessel's stern. 

Raking. MaMng a vessel is firing a shot so that it will plough through her in a fore- 
and-aft direction. 

Rakish. A vessel is said to be raJdsh when she presents a saucy appearance — gener- 
erally when her masts have a good rake. 

Ramline. A small rope used to determine the centre line of a vessel ; also in mast- 
making to obtain a straight middle line on a spar. 

Range Alongside. When in sailing one vessel runs up close abeam of another 
she is said to range alongside. 

Range Liight. The light carried on the after-part of steam vessels, elevated above 
the deck, and forming with the stem light the line of the keel. Also two lights placed 
on shore in such situations that when they are in line with one another, as seen from a 
vessel, the latter may know that she is in the channel. 

Range of Cable. A length of cable overhauled so that when the anchor is let go 
it will fall to the bottom without being checked. 

Rap Full. Not quite close-hauled. 

Rate. The class to which a vessel belongs — in the navy according to her tonnage and 
armament, and in the merchant service according to her material and construction. 
(See Class.) 

Ratline StuflF. A small tarred line used to rattle rigging. It is generally of 18 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 

















I — 









w "S 




s ^ 


S -o 
















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o'g . 

o-S tit 







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r-i « » T»i loeo I- 00 09 o -J e» 

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146 PxVttekson's illustrated nadtical dictionary. 

Katlines. Short lengths of ratline stuff seized and clove-hitohed 14 inches apart 
across the shrouds, parallel with the sheer pole, and which act as the rounds of a lad- 
der for the crew in ascending or descending from aloft. All the ratlines extend from 
the swifter (the forward shroud) to the one next to the aftermost shroud, but every fifth 
ratline is seized to this after shroud, and is called both a catch ratline and a sheer rat- 

Rattle Down Rigging'. To seize and clove-hitch the ratlines across the rigging. 

Ravens. (See Oah-vas.) 

Razee. A ship of war after being cut down so as to reduce her to the next inferior 

Reach. (See Head Reach.) 

Reacliing. (See Foee Reach and Head Reach.) 

Ready About. An order to the crew to be prepared for tacking ship. 

Red. Lead Putty. A mixture of white lead and red lead used for various purposes. 
Some shipmasters fill up the deck seams with this preparation after caulking, instead 
of using pitch or marine glue. This putty does not become soft and stick to the feet 
when the ship is in warm latitudes. (See White Lead Putty.) 

Reef. To contract a sail is to reef it. Square sails are taken in upon the head, but 
fore-and-aft sails upon the foot. Close ree/" means to reduce the sail to the last row of 
reef points. To shalce out a reef'is to open out the sail to the value of a breadth con- 
tained between two reef bands. 

Reef Band. A band of canvas sewed across the sail in order to support the strain 
placed upon it by the reef points. A reef hand has ear-rings at each end. 

Reef Cringles. Galvanized iron rings (called thimbles) spliced in the bolt rope on 
the leaches of square sails, and on the leach and luff of fore-and-aft sails at the end of 
the reef bands, and used for confining the ends of the reef bands to the yard or boom. 

Reef Earing. On a square sail a reef earing is a small line used to secure the 
reef cringle to the yard-ann. On a fore-and-aft vessel reef earings are short platted 
lengths of rope passed through the reef cringle and around the boom several times, so 
as to keep the leach of the sail secure to that spar after the reef points are tied and the 
sail again hoisted. 

Reef Knot. (See Flat Knot.) 

Reef Pendant. A rope made fast in the reef cringle on the leach, and to which 
the reef tackle is hooked. 

Reef Points. The short cordage on the reef bands used to tie Tip the sail in reef- 
ing. Meef points are often referred to as nettles. 

Reef Tackle. The tackle which holds the middle of the leach of a squaresail up to 
the yard in reefing. On a fore-and-aft vessel the reef taclde hauls the reef earing on 
the leach of the sail out along the boom. 

Reefing Bowsprit. (See Running Bowsprit.) 

Reemer. An iron used by caulkers to widen the seams of a wooden vessel before 
driving in the oakum. 

Reeve. To reeve a rope is to pass the end of it through a block, dead-eye, bull's-eye, 
or any aperture. 

Register. A marine document issued to a vessel by the customs officials, permitting 
such vessel to engage in trade with a foreign country, to be employed in the fisheries, 
and to engage in domestic trade. In other . words, a register does not limit a vessel's 
occupation. The register identifies the vessel in the following particulars : nationality, 
official number, ownership, vessel's name, home port, name of master, year of building, 
place^ of building, name of the measurer, number of decks, number of masts, rig of ves- 
sel, dimensions and tonnage. Vessels of the United States engaged in trade with a. 
foreign country (except upon the northern inland frontier of the United States) must 
be under register. The register continues in force indefinitely unless the rig of the ves- 
sel, or the tonnage of same, or the ownership changes, in which case a new register 
must be obtained. 

Relieving Tackle. Tackles which are hooked to the tiller in a gale of wind, and 
by which the vessel may be steered in the event of injury to the tiller ropes or wheel. 




Render. A rope renders when it passes freely tbrough any aperture, suoli as through 
a block. 

Respondentia. To pledge or sell sufficient of the ship's cargo to pay the bill for 
repairs upon the vessel which has put into port in distress when the money cannot be 
obtained otherwise. (See Bottomry.) 

Return Sound Tubes. The tubes placed in the wheel-house of a steamer which 
run to the engine-room and convey to the former place the sounds of the bells rung 
to the engineer. By these means the officer in the wheel-house knows if the number of 
pulls made on the bell-wire handles are correspondingly sounded on the gongs, etc. 

Revenue Laws. Laws passed by a nation in order to derive an income from the 
duties for the support of the government. This may be a tax upon the internal pro- 
ducts of the country or the importations. 

Ribs. A name applied to the timbers of a vessel. 

Ride. A vessel rides when she is at anchor. To ride the seas is to bow them. To 
ride out a gale is to weather it successfully. To ride down is to force anything by main 
strength, as to ride down the main tack. 

Riders. Casks which form the top tier in the vessel's hold. (See Part II.) 

Riding Bitts. The bitts to which the anchor cables are secured. 

Riding Booms. Same as hoat hooms. 

Riding Down. To ride down a halliard is to have the men go aloft and, grasping 
the rope, swing their feet clear of all support, and, while holding tight to the halliard, 
allow their aggregate weight to overcome the resistance offered. As the yard or gaff 
goes up the men come down, when the latter mount the rigging nimbly, if required, 
and once more tail on to the halliards. 

Biding Boivn a Man. An expression signifying that the man is to be punished by 
being kept at work and made as miserable as possible. (Same as Working Up.) 

Riding Light. (See Anchor Light.) 

Ridge Rope. The rope rove through the holes in the upper end of the awning stan- 
chions to secure the sides of the awning to when it is spread. 

Rig. To rig a vessel is to send the shrouds and stays over the masthead and set them 
up, send up masts and cross the yards, etc. The word used in describing various 
kinds of vessels, as brig rig, schooner rig, ship rig, etc. 

Rigging. A term applied collectively to all the ropes of a vessel. (See Fore Eig- 
GiNG, Main Eigging, Mizzbn Eigging, Standing Eigging and Etjnning Eig- 


Rigging in Bowsprit. (See Eunning Bowsprit.) 

Rigging Loft. A room in which rigging is cut and made. 

Rigging LuflFs. Watch tackle purchases used for setting up rigging. 

Rigging Mat. A mat seized to standing rigging to take chafe. 

Rigging Screw. An iron instrument on the principle of a carpenter's clamp, and 

used for pressing the two parts of a heavy rope together so that it may be seized to one 

Right. To put the helm amidships is to right it. When the deck of a vessel returns 

to a horizontal position after a roll, or after being listed by the wind acting upon the 

sails, the vessel is said to right herself. 
Right-handed Rope. Eope that is laid up with the sun ; i. e., twisted from right 

to left. 
Rim of the Top. The edge of the top. 
Ring. The round iron at the upper end of an anchor shank. 
Ring Bolt. A bolt having a ring through its eye. 
Ring Rope. The rope by which the end of the cable is lifted from the hawse-hole 

to the anchor ring in bending the chain. 
Ring Tail. A jib-headed sail, the foot of which sets on an additional boom rigged 

out on the end of the after-boom. Its head hoists to the gaff, and the sail itself might 

be called a spanher-stunsail. It is rarely carried, and is only set in light airs. 
Ripping Iron. A tool used by caulkers for getting oakum out of a seam, or by 

sheathers in tearing the old metal off of a ship's bottom. 

pattekson'b illustrated nautical dictionaey 


150 Patterson's illusteateu nautical dictionary. 

River Pirate. One who robs vessels in port by sneaking alongside in a small boat 
and carrying off anything handy to pass over the side. 

Roach. The curve on tlie foot of a square-sail. The roach of a fore-and-aft sail can 
be on any one or its sides. 

Road. Same as Roadstead. 

Roadstead. An anchorage more or less exposed. 

Robands or Rolbans. Small pieces of Manilla or spun yarn used to secure the 
luff of a fore-and-aft sail to the mast hoops or stay-hanks, and the head of a square- 
sail to its yard. Also to secure the head of a fore-and-aft sail to a gaff fitted with a 
jack stay. Manilla spun yarn is preferable, as it is not tarred and will not stain the 

Roger. A pirate's flag. 

Rollers. (See Gait.) 

Rolling'. The rocking motion of a ship from side to side. (See Angle oe 

Rolling Hitch. A kind of a three-part heaving-line bend. (See engraving.) 

Rolling Rope. A rope used for steadying light yards, on the same principle as a 
rolling tackle. 

Rolling Tackles. Tackles used during a heavy sea for the purpose of steadying 
the yards. 

Rollocks. (See Rowlocks.) 

Ronibowline. Old pieces of rope and junk in general. 

Rope. (See Right and Lbft-Handed Rope, Hawsbe-Laid Rope.) 

Rope Yarn. An untwisted strand of rope used for rough seizings, etc. 

Ropes-end. The end part of a rope. 

Ropes-ended. To inflict punishment bj^ whipping a person with a rope's end. 

Rose-lashing. A lashing which is made by passing the parts alternately over and 
under, and finishing by passing the end of the lashing around the crossing. 

Rose Seizing. Same as rose-lashing. 

Roilgh liOg. The original log, generally written in pencil. 

Rough Tree. A spar in the rough. 

Round Down. To overhaul a tackle so as to allow the lower block to come down. 

Round House. A house arranged for the convenience of the ship's company, sit- 
uated near the bows. 

Round In. To haul in a rope quickly. To round in a weather brace. 

Round Line. Three right-handed yarns used for heavy service, such as the eyes of 
rigging, heavy seizings, etc. 

Round Ribbed. A flat-built vessel. 

Round Seizing. Put on the eyes of rigging, etc. (See engravings.) 

Round To. To change the course so that from sailing free the vessel is brought by 
the wind. 

Round Top. A platform of circular shape at the lowermast heads. 

Round Turn. To pass a rope entirely around anything. 

Rovind Up. To haul away on a tackle so as to bring the two blocks together. 

Rounding. Service placed on a rope or spar to take the chafe. 

Rousing. To pull and haul by main force without the aid of tackles. 
To rouse up an anchor is to lift it without mechanical appliances. 

Routine. (See Ship's Routine.) 

Rowlocks. Squares cut in the wash-boards of boats for the oars to rest in. Thole 
pins are often referred to as rowlocks, as they form a roivloch elevated above the gun- 

Royal. A square sail next above a topgallant sail. A ship carries fore, main and 
mizzen royals. 

Royal Mast. If it is a fidded royal mast it is a separate spar rising above the top- 
gallant mast, but otherwise it is that part of the topgallant mast above the shoulder 
(and terminating at the truck) from which the topgallant rigging leads. In the latter 
case it is also referred to as a royal pole. 

PATTEKSOn's illustrated nautical DICTIOifARy 


5, i s» I 

152 Patterson's ilt.usteated nautical dictionary. 

Royal Pole. (See Royal Mast.) 

Royal Yard. The yard next above the topa^allant yard. The royal is bent to the 

royal yard. 
Rubber. An instrument used by sailmakers to flatten the seams of a sail. 
Rudder. An instrument for steering a vessel, consisting of a flat frame of wo(jd or 

iron hung upon the stern post by means of pintles and gudgeons. 
Rudder Band. An iron band placed around the head of a wooden rudder. 
Rudder Brace. The metal hinges on which the rudder turns, otherwise called 

Rudder Case. The casing built around the head of a rudder, sometimes called the 

Rudder Chains. The chains by which the rudder is secured to the quarters of a 

vessel, and to save the rudder in the event of its being unshipped by accident. The 

chains are hung slack. (See Chains.) 
Rudder CllOCk. A piece of timber or anything employed to stop the motion and 

noise of the rudder when at anchor, or when desiring to ship a new tiller, etc. On pat- 
ent steering gear a set screw takes the place of a chock. 
Rudder Horn. An iron crutch bolted to the back of the rudder for attaching the 

rudder chains. 
Rudder Irons. The name applied collectively to the pintles and gudgeons. 
Rudder Pendant. The continuation of the rudder chains leading to each quarter. 
Rudder Port. The hole in the counter in line with the stern post that the 

rudder head passes through, the head rising to a sufficient height above the deck to 

have the tiller or gear connected by which the rudder is moved around and the vessel 

Rudder SllOirlder. Additional timbers secured to the forward and after sides of 

the main piece from the lower part of the head [the shoulder) to the lowest part of the 

rudder {the heel). 
Rudder Stock. The main piece of the rudder. 
Rudder Tackle. Purchases hooked to the rudder chains and by which the ship 

is steered in the event of the rudder head being carried away. 
Rudder Wood Lock. (See Woodlock). 
Rules of the Road. The laws regulating the government of vessels when under 

way so that collisions may be avoided between them. 
Run. To scud before a gale. That part of the ship which narrows in approaching 

the stern post — sometimes called after-pecdi. The distance sailed, as the day's run. 

To let goby the run is to let go entirely instead of slacking gradually. 
Run do"wn a coast. To sail along the coast. 
Run dOAvn a parallel. To sail jiorth or south until the desired parallel is reached, 

then heading either east or west until the port is arrived at. 
Run down a vessel. To collide with a vessel head on. 
Run out a warp. To send a line out from the vessel. (See Waep.) 
Runner and Tackle. A rope rove through a single block that you wish to bring- 
down, one end of the rope secured as a standing part, and the other provided with a 

tackle. (See engraving.) 
Running Bowline. A bowline made over the standing part of its own rope so 

that it will form a sliding noose. (See engraving.) 
Running Bowsprit. A bowsprit fitted so as to run in and out — now in general 

use on cutters, sloops, yawls and schooner yachts. 
Running Days. (See Lay Days.) 
Running Rigging. All the movable ropes of a vessel, such as braces, sheets, 

tacks, clewlines, buntlines, leachlines, halliards, downhauls, reef-tackles, outhauls, 


pattekson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

J 63 







Saddles. Pieces of wood, sometimes called saddle crutches, bolted on to the sides of 

the masts near the deck to receive the weight of the boom jaws. 
Safety Angle. (See Angle oe Saeett.) 

Sag. To settle. A vessel sags to leeward when she drifts off sideways under the influ- 
ence of the wind or sea. 
Sagged. Said of a vessel when she droops amidships, so that the line of her shear 

settles at that point — opposed to liogged. (See Hogged.) 
Sail Covers. A covering of canvas placed over sails when they are furled so as to 

add to their neatness, also to protect them more or less from dampness. 
Sail lio ! A cry used in reporting the first appearance of a sail at sea. 
Sailing Higher. (See OuT-PomT.) 

Sailing Trim. When a vessel is so trimmed as to do her best sailing — as a rule re- 
ferring to the amount and disposition of her ballast. It may also mean the trim of 
her sails. 
Sailuiaker's Splice. A splice made by sailmakers in uniting two ropes of differ- 
ent sizes. 
Sails. The canvas suspended from yards, spread by gaffs and booms, and hoisted upon 
stays. The first are called square-sails, the second fore-and-aft sails, and the third 
staysails. (Look under various headings.) 
Saloon Deck. (See Deck.) 
Salt. A sailor. 

Salt Horse. A sailor's term for the salt beef issued to the crew. 
Salt Water Soap. Soap made from cocoa-nut oil and which makes a good lather 

when used with salt water. 
Salvage. A percentage of the value of a ship and cargo awarded under cer- 
tain circumstances to one or more individuals who have been instrumental in saving 
the vessel. 
Save All. (See Watee Sail.) 
Scandalize. To haul up the tack or to drop the peak of a fore-and-aft sail. To- 

goose-wing a square sail by hauling up one of the clews. 
Scanting. When the wind hauls so that the vessel is obliged to brace up to head 

her course the wind is said to scant. 
Schooner. A fore-and-aft schooner has no yards, all her sails being spread by booms 
and gaffs and by hoisting upon stays. 

A topsail schooner carries a fore-and-aft foresail and mainsail, a square fore-topsail 
and topgallantjSail and sometimes a royal. 

A main tojjsail schooner carries a square topsail on the main. 
Fore-and-aft scliooners carry from two to five masts. 
Score. The groove cut in the sides of blocks for the strop to fit in. 
Scotchman. A piece of wood or hide placed over the turnings in of rigging to pre- 
vent chafe. 
Scow. A tub-shaped vessel used in shallow waters for the transportation of merchan- 
dise, etc. Some scows are sloop-rigged, and others schooner-rigged. 
Scraper. A small iron instrument used for scraping masts and other wood and iron 

Screw Dock. (See Dock.) 
Scroll. A piece of timber bolted to the knee of the head, and which takes the place 

of a figure-head. (See Head.) 
Scud. Clouds of mist driving along close to the water. To drive before a gale. 
Scull. To scull a boat is to propel her through the water by working an oar from 
side to side over the stern. It was this principle which suggested the idea of a screw 
propeller for steam vessels, A 'pair of sculls refers to two short, light oars such as are 
used in pleasure row-boats 

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Scupper Shutters. The narrow lengths of board covering the scupper holes 

which hang on hinges, opening outwards to the pressure of water on the decks. 
Scuppers. Holes cut through the bulwarks next to the plankshear to allow water 

to run overboard from the decks. 
Scuttle. A small hole in a vessel's deck, used as a hatchway. To scuttle a ship is 

to chop or bore holes in her bottom so as to make her sink. 
Scuttle Butt. A cask with a hole cut in its bilge, and kept on deck to hold water 

for daily use. 
Sea. A wave. Under this head are classed : smooth sea, moderate sea, heavy sea, 

head sea, long sea, short sea, ugly sea, following sea, heam sea, how sea, quartering sea. 
Sea Auclior. A drag is also known as a sea anchor. (See Dkag.) 
Sea Boat. A vessel that rides the seas easily, and is capable of weathering storms, 

is said to be a good sea-boat. 
Sea Breeze. (See Land Beeeze.) 
Sea Cock. A kind of faucet connected to a pipe which leads from the outside of the 

vessel to the bath tubs for the purpose of filling them with sea water. (See Flood 

Sea Dog. A name given to an old sailor. 
Sea Lawyer. A worthless sort of seaman, commonly given to inciting the crew 

and making them dissatisfied with things in general on shipboard. One who argues 

against instead of obeying at once certain orders that may be given by the officers. 
Sea Pie. A dish of fish and vegetables in layers between crusts. A small mess 

(('. e., few men) will have a double-decker pie, and a large mess will have a three, and 

sometimes a four-decker. 
Sea Quelling Oil. (See Quelling Oil.) 
Seaman of the Long Voyage. A sailor who goes on long voyages; one who 

cruises to various parts ot the world. 
Seams. The spaces between the planks of a vessel's decks and sides. 
Search Light. A powerful electric reflector light which can be thrown completely 

around the horizon, bringing into view any object within its rays. 
Sectional Dock. (See Dock.) 

Seize. To seize a rope to another or to any object is to bind it with small stuff. 
Seizings. Seizings are named according to their position and use. There are throat, 

round, flat and eye seizings. (See under respective heads.) 
Selvagee. Rope yarn or spun yarn marled together and used as a strop. 
Send. A ship sends when she pitches into the trough of the sea suddenly and with 

Send of the Sea. The power, direction and velocity of the waves. 
Sennit. Rope yarns or spun yarn braided. There are several kinds of sennit, 

known as flat, French, round and square, taking the name of the figure braided. 

French sennit is a flat figure, but made more open than the common-flat sennit, and is 

also woven of several more strands. 
Serve. The act of covering a rope by winding small stufi', such as spun 3'arn, around 

it. (See Worming, Paecelling.) 
Service. The covering of a rope that has been served. 
Serving Board. A small piece of flat board attached to a handle and used in place 

of a serving mallet when putting a service on small rope. 
Serving Mallet. A mallet having a groove cut lengthwise in its head, and used 

for serving large rope. 
Serving Stutf. Spun yarn is in general use for serving, but rope yarn, round-line, 

etc., is sometimes employed. 
Set Flying. A sail not confined, but set from the deck like the jib of a cutter, a 

sprit or club-topsail, etc. 
Set of the Tide. The direction in which the tide is flowing — not the direction 

from which it is coming. 
Set Sail. To put to sea. 
Set the Course. To give the helmsman the compass course to steer. 




158 patteeson's illusteated nautical diotionaey. 

Set the Watch. To muster the crew aft at 8 p.m., on the day of leaving port, and 
divide the ship's company into two watches, named starboard and port watches 
respectively. The starboard watch, which is the captain's watch, always stands the 
first watch out, and the port watch, which is the mate's watch, stands the first watch 
on the home voyage. If the vessel carries a second mate, he always stands the 
captain's watch. 

Set' up a Vessel. To raise her from the keel blocks by wedging. 

Set up Rig'ging'. To tauten the shrouds and stays by the aid of purchases. 

Settle. To lower. To settle a j'ard on the cap is to lower it so that the parrel rests 
on the cap. 

Settle the Land. (See Lay the Land.) 

Sewed. (See Sued.) 

Shackle. An iron liorse-slioe shape which closes across the end with a moveable bolt. 
It either secures with a thread [screw shackle) in one of the eyes of the shackle, or is 
provided with a pin which is either slipped through the hole in the outside end of the 
bolt, or by a wooden pin passing through the shackle-eye and bolt. This latter is 
used on chain cables, so that the bolt may be knocked out readily and the chain 

Shadow. A sail devised some years ago to take the place of a spinnaker, but 
which proved anything but satisfactory to yachtsmen. The idea was to make a 
square-headed spinnaker by setting the shadow on a gaff which was secured to the 
mast by a goose-neck under the hounds. The foot of this sail was spread by the 
swinging boom the same as the spinnaker. When the shadow gaff was not in use 
it hung down and was secured to the mast. The head of the shadow traveled on 
the gaff by the aid of hoops, and was hauled out and in by means of an outhaul 
and head brails respectively. 

Shake Out a Reef. To let a reef out of a sail by untying the reef-points, coming 
up with the reef tackle and casting adrift the reef earings. 

Shakes. Crevices in a spar, generally referred to as sun-shahes. 

Shaking. A sail is said to be ."haJdng when it flutters from being too close to the 

Shang'haied. When men are pressed into the merchant or naval service against 
their will they are said to be shanghaied. (See Impressment.) 

Shank. The main piece of an anchor. (See engraving,) 

Shank Painter. Tiie rope or chain which confines the fluke of the anchor to the 

Shape a Course. To ascertain the compass point necessary to head in order to 
reach the desired port or place. 

Sharp Up. Yards are sharp up when they are braced as near fore-and-aft as possible. 

Sharpie. A sharp-built vessel of from 20 to 40 feet long, flat bottom, carrying a 
centre-board, and fore-and-aft rigged. 

Shear. The upward curve of a vessel's decks. 

Shear Off. To remove to a greater distance. 

Sheathing. Tlie copper or yellow metal covering on a vessel's bottom. 

Sheave. The wheel within the shell of a block. 

Sheave-hole. The space between the cheeks of a block. 

Sheep Shank. A method employed for temporarily shortening a rope. (See en- 

Sheer. The position of a vessel when riding to a single anchor. 

Sheer Hulk. An old vessel employed in taking out or lifting in a vessel's lower 

Sheer Pole. A bar of metal seized across the shrouds and resting on top of the 
upper dead-eyes. The sheer pole keeps the shrouds spread, and acts as the first rat- 

Sheer Strake. The line of planking on a vessel's side upon which the plank-shear 
or covering board rests. 

Sheers. Two or more spars raised perpendicularly, their upper ends lashed together 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictiokaey. 



and supported by guys. To the under part of the lashing a tackle block is hooked, 
and the contrivance is employed for lifting in and out masts. 

Sheet, A rope employed to spread the clew of square-sails and head-sails. With 
boom sails sheets are used for controlling the boom. 

Sheet Anchor. The anchor carried in the waist on board men-o'-war. It is the 
same in weight as the bowers ; sometimes called the waist anchor. 

Sheet Bend. This bend is made by passing the end of one rope through the bight 
of another, then around both parts, and last under its own part. (See engraving.) 

Sheet BittS. Bitts near the mast to which the topsail sheets are belayed. 

Sheet Cable. The cable belonging to the sheet anchor ; the heaviest anchor on 
the vessel. 

Sheet Home. (See Home.) 

Sheets. The spaces in a rowing boat forward and abaft the thwarts, and named re- 
spectively /ore-s/»eefe and stern-sheets. 

Shell. Tiie case of a block in which the sheave turns. (See Eacing- Shell.) 

Shell-back. An old sailor. 

Shift. To change the position or direction of anything, as to shift the helm, shift the 
berth, shift the dallast, a shift of weather, shift of wind, etc. 

Shift the Helm. To reverse its direction. 

Shifting' Backstays. Backstays used only as necessity requires. They are 
always shifted when a vessel goes about so that the weather ones are taut and the 
lee ones slack. Shifting haclcstays set up with their own permanent tackle, and are 
nothing more nor less than preventer stays for the topmast when the vessel is under a 
press of sail. When not employed, they are set up in the after-part of the channels 
of the mast to which they belong. 

Shifting Boards. Portable wooden bulkheads used to separate cargo. 

Shingle Ballast. (See Ballast.) 

Ship. A vessel having three masts and square-rigged on all. Some large ships carry 
an additional mast stepped way-aft, which is known as & jigger-mast. The term Ship 
is often used in a general sense in speaking of vessels. 

To ship a man is to engage him for duty on board a vessel. 
To ship goods is to send them on board a vessel for transportation. 
To ship a sea is to have the top of a wave fall on the vessel's deck. 
To ship anything is to put it in place, as to ship the capstan-bars, to ship the 
tiller, etc. 

Ship Broker. One who transacts the ship's custom house business, negotiates for 
cargoes, buys and sells vessels on commission, etc. 

Ship Chandler. A man who deals in naval stores, rope, chain, paint, etc. 

Ship Keeper. A watchman who looks after a vessel having no crew on board. 

Shipmate. A man serving on board the same ship. 

Ship Oars. (See Out Ooes.) 

Ship Plumbing:. The principal feature to be overcome is the impossibility of having- 
all wastes from fixtures, including basins, baths, sinks and water-closets, discharge over- 
board by gravity ; the fixtures being in the majority of cases below the. water-line, com- 
bined with which is the fact that the supply of water is below the floor, being carried 
in tanks placed below the floor, and as near to the keel as possible ; consequently pump- 
ing becomes necessary, both to obtain a supply and to dispose of it after it has served 
its purpose. The supply for basins, baths and sinks is usually obtained by placing 
pumps at or near the fixtures, though sometimes in steam vessels it is obtained by air- 
pressure on the tanks, causing the water to run at fixtures without the use of pumps. 
The waste usually goes to a waste-tank, either connected to a pump placed under gal- 
ley sink in sailing vessels, or in steam vessels sometimes by a connection to the steam 
syphon, by which means the contents of tank is forced overboard. The waste of gal- 
ley sink, on account of the large amount of grease contained in it, is not usually 
drained into the waste-tank, but is pumped directly overboard, the pump under sink 
having valves not affected by hot water, and being so connected by stop cocks that 
either the sink or the waste-tank may be pumped out. Hot water to fixtures may be ob- 






















tained from boiler in galley, connected to range, or by steam injected into fixture when 
water is drawn. The old-style water-closet, which had simply a valve in the outlet to 
prevent the sea from swashing up through funnel-pipe, and which to discharge was 
necessarily placed well above water-line, being supplied by tank placed overhead and 
filled from deck above, cannot be used where the floor of cabin or toilet-room is below 
the level of water outside of vessel, the pump being in this case also necessary. The 
best pump water-closet, by the arrangement of its valves, takes water direct from the 
sea to flush it, without the use of any receiver, tank or cut-off of any description being 
necessary, allowing it to be placed at any point either above or below water-line, 
while the soil is discharged below the water. There being no danger of the vessel be- 
ing flooded, while at the same time the working of the pump being so easy and simple 
that children may use it. The action of the pump being double, the up-stroke of 
lever flushing bowl and sucking soil out of bowl, while the down-stroke of lever forces 
soil into sea, and recharging pump with clean water. 

Shij) Shape. In neat order ; in a proper, seamanlike manner. 

Shipboard. To be on shipboard is to be within a vessel. 

Shipping Articles. The agreement signed by the officers (excepting the captain) 
and crew of a vessel, setting forth the character and length of the voyage, wages to be 
paid, etc. 

Shipping Commissioner. A person appointed by the circuit courts of the 
United States under authority of Congress to superintend the shipping and dis- 
charge of seamen engaged in merchant ships belonging to the United States and for 
the protection of seamen in various ways. 

Ship's Bells. The manner of telling the time on board ship is by striking the 
bell. Eight bells indicate midnight, 4 a.m., 8 a.m.. Noon, 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. Thus 
it will be seen that every even four hours after midnight brings 8 bells around. 
After midnight the first bell struck is 1, which stands for half-past twelve ; one d clock 
is represented by two bells ; half-past one by 3 bells ; two o'clock by 4 bells ; half- 
past iifo by .5 bells ; three o'clock by 6 bells ; half-past three by 7 bells, and four 
o'clock by 8 bells. At half past four 1 bell is struck, and so on, in the above order, 
until eight o'clock is made known by 8 bells again. 

Ship's Business. What is known as Ship's Business relates to those documents 
known as charter parties, bills of lading, bills of health, manifests, insurance, clear- 
ance, entrance, protests, surveys, bottomry, average and bills of exchange. 

Ship's Carpenter. (See Oaepbnxee.) 

Ship's Husband. The ship's overseer; one who attends to the vessel's repairs 
and transacts her business, etc. 

Ship's Papers. The ship's register, enrollment, charter party, clearance, bill of 
health, etc. 

Ship's Protest. In case of damage happening during the voyage, or it being sus- 
pected to ship or cargo, the master should within twenty-four hours of his arrival in 
port cause a notary public, or in a foreign port the Ameri-can consul, to note a protest 
against " wind and weather." 

To extend a protest is to give the particulars of the voyage, the storms encountered, 
as entered in the log book, and assert that any damage that may have happened was 
caused by winds, bad weather, etc. 

Ship's Routine. A round of duties. Carrying on the business of the vessel accord- 
ing to established rules. 

Ship's Storekeeper. (See Storekeeper.) 

Ship's Surgeon. (See Surgeon.) 

Shiver. A vessel's sails are said to shiver when she is lufifed so close that the wind is 
spilled out of them. 

Shiver-my-tinabers. An expression, like that of Tarry-top-lights, which is 
accredited by some novel writers to, but which is never used by, a true sailor. 

Shoal. Shallow ; a bank of mud, rock, or sand. 

Shoe. A piece of wood upon which the heels of sheers rest; a piece of wood hol- 
lowed so as to allow the fluke point of an anchor to rest in it, and which prevents 





















the bill of the anchor from tearing the ship's sides when it is being hoisted or 

Shoe Block. A block having two sheaves revolving at right angles to one another 

— one horizontal, the other perpendionlar. 
Shoot. A vessel sJioots ahead of another when she passes her. To sJioot the sun is to 

observe an angle of that luminary with the sextant, quadrant or octant. 
Shoot Ahead. To advance. (See Head Eeach.) 
Shooting the Sun. A jocose remark in relation to measuring the sun's attitude 

with a quadrant or sextant. 
Shore. A prop for supporting anything. To slwre is to prop up. (See DoG 

Short Board. A short length made on one tack. 
Short Sea. A confused sea. 
Short Splice. A certain kind of splice put in a rope that does not require to render 

through a block, as this splice, unlike the long splice, makes a bunch where the ropes 

are joined. It requires less length to make than the long splice, which is sometimes an 

important consideration. 
Short stay Peak. (See Peak.) 
Shorten Sail. To reef or furl some of the canvas. 

Shot Line. The line shot over a vessel from the mortar by a life-saving crew. 
Shoulder. The projecting part of a vessel about the water line. 

lore Slioulders. That portion of the shoulder just under the bows. 
Shoulder Block. A block having a projection on one end so as to keep it in 

Shoulder of Mutton Sail. A triangular boat sail. 
Shove Off. An order given to the man in the bows of a boat to shove the same clear 

of the ship's side so that the crew may drop their oars into the water. 
ShovF a Leg'. An order to the crew to hurry. 

Shroud Knot. A knot put in a shroud to rejoin it after parting. (See engraving.) 
Shroud-laid Kope. A four-strand rope laid up right-handed. 
Shroud Plates. (See Chain Plates.) 

Shrouds. Ropes of hemp or wire fitted over the mastheads and extending to the ves- 
sel's sides or to the rim of the tops, where they are set up by dead-eyes to support the 

masts sideways. 
Sick Bay. A compartment on board ship used as a hospital for sick members of the 

Side. The outer part of the hull from the water line to the covering board. 
Side Curtains. The canvas extending from the ridge ropes to the rail. 
Side Laddei'. Same as accommodation ladder. 
Side Light Castles. Same as hoiv lighthouses. 
Side Light Towers. (See Side Li&ht Castles.) 
Side Lights. The red and green lights carried by vessels when under way at night. 

The green light is carried on the starboard side, and the red light on the port side, 

and they show respectively over ten points of the compass, namely, from right ahead 

to two points abaft the beam, and are of such a character as to be visible at least two 

Side Steps. Cleats of wood or iron on the sides of a vessel, used in conjunction with 

man ropes for ascending and descending the vessel's side. 
Side Tackles. The tackles on the sides of the broadside carriages, and by which 

they are run out after the guns are loaded. (See Teain Tackle.) 
Signal Halliards. The halliards reeving through a dasher block on the end of 

the after-gafl', or through the hole in the trucks, or to any other place, and which are 

used for hoisting signals or flags. 
Signal Letters. Certain letters awarded to documented vessels by the Bureau of 

Navigation, whereby the vessel may communicate her name to another vessel at sea, 

or to a shore station, by the employment of certain flags in the International Code. 

representing the signal letters. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical diction aey. 



166 Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionaet. 

Signal Light Fusees. A very convenient match, or small prismatic torch, which 
is manufactured in two colors — red and green — and employed principally on yachts 
for signaling purposes. Also known as Bengalese. matches. 

Silt. Mud ; sediment. 

Sing Out. To cry out loudly. 

Single-banked. (See Banked.) 

Single Block. A block containing but one sheave. 

Single Diamond Knot. An ornamental knot worlied with the strands of a rope 
and used on man-ropes, etc. (See engraving.) 

Single Sticker. A sloop or cutter. 

Single Topgallant-sail. (See Topgallant-sail.) 

Single Topsail. (See Topsail ) 

Single up the lines. An order to the mate to get in the double parts of the moor- 
ing lines and allow only one part of each fast to connect the vessel with the dock or 
with some other vessel. This is done preparatory to pulling out in the stream or 
changing the berth. 

Sink the Land. To sail away frord the land until it sinks below the horizon. 

Siren. An instrument for emitting an exceedingly shrill sound ; used dm'ing fogs and 
in thick weather as a warning to mariners. It is blown by pumping air through it 
with a bellows. 

Sister Block. A length of wood containing two sheaves, one over the other. The 
outside shell has a score between the two blocks for a seizing. 

Sister Hooks. ^ See Clip Hooks.) 

Sister Keelson. Timbers placed on the sides of the main keelson and bolted 
through it. This is often done in vessels to strengthen or stiffen them, as the term is. 

Sister Ships. Vessels built from the same model. 

Skeet. A long-handled scoop for drawing water from over the side. 

Skeg. The after-part of the keel upon which the stern-post rests. 

Skew. A roughly made boat. 

Skids. Lengths of timber used for sliding anything up and down, on the same princi- 
ple that a barrel is slid from a truck to the ground on cart rungs. 

Skiff. A small rowboat. 

Skin. The inside of a vessel's planking ; that fold of canvas which is outside when 
the sail is fm-Ied. 

Skipper. The usual title for the master of a small vessel. Also a title for Holland 

Sky. (See Weather Indications.) 

Sky Pilot. A sailor's name for a parson. (See Holy Joe.) 

Skylight. The wooden frames or sashes (working on hinges) containing glass win- 
dows, and placed over openings in the deck in order to give light and air below. 

Skysail. The sail next above the royal. K three-shysail-yard ship carries fore, main 
and mizzen shysails. 

Skysail Mast. (See Skysail Pole.) 

Skysail Pole. That part of the royal mast above the shoulder (and terminating at 
the truck) from which the royal rigging leads. 

Skysail Yard. The yard next above the royal yard. 

Skyscraper. When a skysail is triangular it takes the name of skyscraper. 

Slabline. A line used for hauling up the foot of a course. 

Slack. The opposite to taut. A vessel is said to be slacJc-in-stays when she goes 
around slowly in tacking. To slacli off anything is to ease it up. Slach water refers 
to that state of the tide when it is stationary, just before it turns. 

Slack Cloth. A certain quantity of canvas allowed to be gradually gathered up in 
sewing on the bolt rope of a sail, otherwise the rope by stretching in the wearing 
might occasion the sail to split. 

Slack Water. The interval between tides when the water is stationary. 

Slant of Wind, A favorable breeze. 

Slave Ship. (See Slater.) 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaet. 


168 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Slaver. A vessel engaged in the slave trade ; the term may also be correctly applied 
to a person engaged in the slave traffic. 

SleeiJers. The lowest tier of casks or barrels in a vessel's hold. 

Slide. (See Companion.) 

Slillg. To suspend a cask or other article in ropes or chains. (See engravings of 
casli-sling, harrcl-sling and hale-sling.) 

Slings. The chain which connects the centre of a yard with the mast. Also a 
length of rope having the ends spliced together— known also as a strap. 

Slip. To slip the cable is to unshackle it and let it run out. ' 

Slip Knot. A knot that slips along a rope around which it is made. 

Slip of the Wheel. The lost motion of the propeller. The difi'erence shown be- 
tween the distance run by log or observation and the distance made according to the 
number of revolutions shown by the propeller. Head-winds, liead-seas and opposing 
currents are counted as slip. 

Slip Rope. A rope arranged in such a manner that it may be let go suddenly. 

Slippery Hitch. A liitcli made by a landsman, or novice on board ship, which will 
not hold. Also a loop or half-bow knot tied in a rope after passing it around or 
through something which will not jamb, and which will untie by pulling the hanging 
end. (Sfee engraving.) 

Slooi>. A vessel with one mast. 

Slop Chest. The place in which the slops are kept on board ship. 

Sloj)S. Ready-made clothing and small stores, like knives, tobacco, etc., carried on 
deep-water ships and sold to the crew by the captain upon application. 

Slue. To turn around. 

Sluice Grates. The small iron gates or openings in the bulkheads of a vessel to al- 
low the bilge water to circulate along the keelson ; they are closed in the event of fire 
or upon springing a leak. 

Slush. The grease skimmings of the cook's coppers or pots when salt pork and beef 
are boiled. Slush is employed to grease down a mast, etc., also used as lard in the 
gallejr cooking. 

Slush Bucket. The tub in which the slush is kept. 

Smack. A small fishing or trading vessel, sloop or cutter rigged. 

Small Helm. A vessel takes a small helm when she is sensitive to it, requiring 
only a spolce or two to control the ship. Also an order given to the wheelsman cau- 
tioning liim to be g'mgerhj in putting the helm over to port or starboard. 

Small Stuff. A term given to marline, spun yarn, houseline, etc. 

Smiting' Liue. The line which breaks out a yarn-stopped sail. 

Smoke Stack. The pipe on a steamship through which the smoke from the fire- 
room furnaces escapes. (See Funnel.) 

Smooth. During ocean gales, when very high seas are running, it has been observed 
that every few minutes a kind of lull, called a smooth, takes place in relation to the 
sea, and that these lulls occur after about every third sea. Vessels intending to 
heave to after running in a gale wait for one of these smooths, and when it comes to 
them they put the helm do\\n and come-to in a much easier and safer manner than by 
manoeuvering ihe vessel so as to encounter the full force of the trough. 

Snake. To confine two ropes after the manner of racking or nippering. 

Snatch Block. A block containing one sheave, the shell having an opening in the 
side so that the bight of a rope may be passed into it ; this obviates the necessity of 
reeving the end. 

Snotter. A rope used for pulling off the lift and brace of a light yard when it is be- 
ing sent down. 

Snow. A two-masted vessel resembling a brig but having a boom mainsail set on a 
trysail mast. 

Snub. To check anything suddenly, as the anchor chain when it is running out. 

Snug Down. To reduce sail so as to he prepared for a gale. 

So ! An exclamation signifying that anything is to be left just as it was when the word 
was used. 




































































I'rO Patterson's illustrated nadticjal dictionary. 

Soft Bread. Fresh made raised bread. 
Soft Tack. (See Soft Bread.) 

Sole. The timber bolted on to the foot of a rudder in order to make it evto with tlie- 
false keel. 

Sounding Line. The line attached to either the hand or deep-sea leads. 

Sounding Rod. A rod used for ascertaining the depth of water in the ship's hold. 
It is marked in feet and inches. 

South-wester. (Pronounced sou'ivester.) A storm-hat made of rubber, or oiled or 
painted canvas, in shape much like a fireman's hat. 

Span. A rope having both its ends made fast, to the bight of which a purchase is^ 
hooked. The span of the rigging is the distance from the dead-eye on one side of the 
vessel, up over the eyes of the rigging at the masthead, and down to the dead-eyes on 
the other side. 

Spanish Burton. A purchase. (See Burton; see engraving.) 

Spanish Fox. This is made by untwisting a yarn, then laying it up again the con- 
trary way. 

Spanish Keef. When the yards are lowered on the cap ; a knot tied in the head 
of a head sail. 

Spanish Windlass. A wooden roller secured so as to revolve, and which is turned 
by hitching a marline spike used as a lever into the rope wound around it. 

Spanker. The after fore-and-aft sail on a three-mast vessel. This sail was once- 
called the driver. 

Spanker Mast. The mast on which the spanker is set. 

Spanking. A term employed in giving description to anything fine, large or satis- 
factory, as a spanking hreeze, a spanMng ship, etc. 

Spar Buoy. A long spar floating perpendicularly, having one end anchored to the 

Spar Composition. (See Spar Varnish.) 

Spar Deck. (See Deck.) 

Spar Varnish. A superior make of varnish, not aflfected by salt water, steam, soap,, 
grease, or ammonia fumes ; used as a coating for spars and all outside or exposed work,, 
or any place where a varnish of extra durable qualities is required. This is sometimes 
called " spar composition." '^ 

Sparring Down. To seize oars or short lengths of light timber across the ratlines- 
preparatory to rattling down. 

Spars. A general term applied to masts, booms, gaifs and yards. 

Speak. To communicate with a vessel either by voice or signal. 

Speaking Tl'unipet. The hollow tube, flaiing at one end, through which orders 
are issued by ofiicers to the crew. 

Spell. A period of time. To spell is to relieve another at any work upon which he is- 

Spell ho ! A cry employed either by an officer signifying that the men working axe 
to be relieved, or made use of by such men as a request for relief. 

Spencer. (See Trysail.) 

SpeTF. The seams of a vessel are said to spew pitch when from excessive heat the 
pitch melts and expands above the planks. 

Spider. An iron crane used for keeping a block clear of anything. 

Spider-band. The name sometimes given to the iron band just under the top, and. 
to which the futtock-shrouds are secured. 

Spile, (See Pile.) 

Spill. To empty the wind out of a sail by luffing, or by bracing in the yards, or by 
hauling in or letting a boom go off, or by clewing up a sail. 

Spilling Lines, Temporary ropes fitted to sail for the purpose of spilling the- 
wind out of them. 

Spindle. The perpendicular shaft or axle upon which the capstan revolves. 

Spinnaker. A racing sail shaped like a jib, the open foot of which is ex- 
tended along a light spar called a spinnaker boom. It is set on the opposite- 










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172 patteeson's illustkated nautical dictionary. 

side to the main boom when the vessel is sailing with the wind abaft the 

Spit Kit or Kid. A small wooden tub nsed as a spittoon. 
Spitfire. A name given to the storm jib. 
Splice. To join two ropes together, or to form a loop in the end of a rope. (See 

Long Splice, Shout Splice, Eye Splice.) 
Splicing' the Main Brace. Indulging in a glass of spirits. Sometimes called 

topping the &oo)» and taliiii/ an observation through a tumbler. 
Spoke. One of the handles of a steering wheel. (See King Spoke.) 
Spoon-drift. Water blown from the tops of waves during a heavy gale. 
Spoon Oars. Oars that are curved or concaved at the end of the blade, used for 

racing shells and other light boats. 
Spray Board. A portable board extending above the gunwale of a boat and used 

for the purpose of keeping out flj'ing water. 
Spread Eagle. To spread eagle a man is to lash him in the shrouds with his arms 

and legs spread at angles of about 45° to his bod}'. 
Spreaders. On each bow of very sharp vessels a horizontal bar is rigged out to 

give more spread to the head sheets ; on the same principle that the whiskers spread 

the jib-boom guys. 
Spring. A hawser run out from anjr part of a ship to the shore, or to a buoy, to turn, 

or spring the vessel. (See Spkcng.) 
Spring a-I)ntt. To start the end of a plank from its fastening. 
Spring a-leak. To begin to leak. 
Spring a-lnlf. To put the helm down so as to bring the vessel sufficiently close to 

the wind to shiver the sails. 
Spring-stay. A horizontal stay from one lower-mast-head to another lower-mast- 
head. (See Stay.) 
Spring Tides. The highest tides. Spring-tides occur every new and full moon. 
Sprit. A staff used to hoist the peak of a small boomless and gafSess sail not pro- 
vided with peak halliards. The upper end of the sprit rests in a small grommet or 

beoket, and the lower end in a snotter secured to and near the foot of the mast. 

(See engraving.) 
Sprit Sail. A sail which is spread by a sprit. 
Sprit-topsail. A topsail set flying from the deck, with the luff laced to a pole, 

called a sprit ; but this sail does not project beyond the gaff end like a club topsail. 
Spritsail Sheet Knot. A knot made by walling and crowing the six strands of 

the rope together, thus forming an eye. (See engraving.) 
Spritsail Yard. A yard formerly used instead of whiskers, which was lashed 

across the bowsprit and used to spread the jib-boom-guys and flying jib-boom-guys. 

There was also a sail bent to it which was called a sprit-sail, and which was set under 

the bowsprit. 
Spritsail Yarding a Shark. To thrust a two-pointed stick in a shark's mouth 

so that he cannot close it, and turning him adrift thus. 
Sprung. Damaged in a variety of ways, such as warped, started, bent out of shape, 

etc. (See Spring.) 
Spun Yarn. Two or three rope yarns twisted together into a cord. 
Spurling Line. A line connecting the tiller and tell-tale, and by which the latter 

is made to point parallel with the tiller for the benefit of the wheelsman. 
Sj)y Crlass. A small telescope. An optical instrument by which distant objects 

are made more distinctly visible owing to the magnifying lens with which they are 

Squall. A sudden and violent gust of wind. 
Square. Very long yards are said to be square. A sail is called square on the head 

when it is long on the head. To square a yard is to brace it so that it will be at 

right angles to the keel. 
Square by the Braces. A yard is square by the braces A\'hen the latter are 

hauled on so that the yard is exactly at right angles to the keel. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 
























Square by tlie Lifts. A yard is square hy the lifts when the latter are hauled on 

so as to make the yard perfectly horizontal. 
Square in the Head. (See Blupe-Bowed.) 
Square Knot. (See Flax Knot.) 
Square Marks. A winding of twine placed on the lifts and braces and which, 

when brought to a certain point, indicate that the yard is horizontal and at right angles 

to the keel. 
Square-rigged. A vessel carrying yards on all her masts. 
Square Sail. A temporary sail which is set on a yard hung just below the fore 

cross-trees of a schooner, or sloop, when the wind is abaft the beam. (See Sails.) 
Square-sterned. A vessel whose stern is almost perpendicular; no overhang. 
Square tlie Ratlines. To adjust the ratlines so that they will be horizontal and 

parallel with each other. 
Sq^lilg■ees. A piece of flat board about fifteen inches long, one inch thick, and four 

inches wide, having a narrow length of projecting hard rubber fitted in a groove in the 

under edge ; through a hole in the center of the flat of the board a handle is shipped, 

and the instrument is used for scraping the water from the decks by pushing the rubber 

edge along the surface of the planks. 
St. Klmo's Light, or Fire. (See Coeposant.) 
Stahber. A large awl used by sailmakers to pierce holes in canvas. 
Staif. A light flag pole. 

Stagger. A vessel is said to stagger under a press of sail when she has as much can- 
vas set as she will bear. 
Stake Boat. A boat flying a distinguishing flag or mark, anchored at a distance 

from the race committee's boat ; between the two an imaginary line exists over which 

the vessels cross after the starting gun is fired. 
Stanchions. Posts of wood or iron which support a vessel's beams, or the bulwark 

rail, and to which the bulwarks are secured. 
Stand-by. An order given to _the crew to attend, prepared and waiting for 

Stand On. To stand on is to hold the course. 
Standing. The part of a rope or cable which is secured to something is known as 

the standing part ; the part of a hook opposite to the point ; the part of a tackle which 

is secured to the block. 
Standing Backstays. Stays which set up abaft the shrouds on each side, and 

support the mast when the vessel is under sail. 
Standing Bowsprit. A fixed bowsprit; one that does not run in and out. 
Standing Gaff. (See Railways.) 
Standing G-aff Topsail. The regular working topsail which hoists upon the 

topmasts by hoops, its foot being spread by the gaflF. 
Standing Rigging. Stays, shrouds, etc., which are secured permanently, and not 

hauled upon. 
Starboard. The right hand side of a vessel when looking forward. 
Starboard Tack. Having the starboard tack of a square-sail on board. Sailing 

with the wind blowing on the starboard side. 
Starboard the Helm. To put the helm to starboard. 
Starbowlines. A term given to the men of the starboard watch. 
Stai't. To start a sheet is to slack it oif a little. A term used in racing to signify the 

commencement of a race. To start a barrel is to open it. To start a butt is to have 

the end of a plank loosen itself from the side. 
Start from Anchorage. Upon a given signal the vessels commence the race, 

starting from their anchorage. 
State School Ship. (See State Teaining Ships.) 
State Training Ships. School ships fitted out under State authority and expense 

for the nautical education of j''oung men — a branch of the public school system. 
Station Bill. A written or printed form showing the respective stations for the crew 

for various evolutions. 





















176 Patterson's illusteated nautical diotionaey. 

Station Crew. The ofRcei-s and men belonging to a particular station of the Life 
Saving Service. 

Stationary Dry Dock. (See Dock.) 

Stations for Stays. An order to the crew to take stations for tacking the ship. 

Stave. (See Stove.) 

Stay. To stay a vessel is to tack her; to stay a mast is to support it sideways, forward, 
and aft. 

Stay-holes. Small holes worked in the luff of staysails to secure the hanks which 
fasten the sail to the stay. 

Stay Teak. (See Peak.) 

Stays. Ropes of hemp or iron used for supporting masts. The fore-and-aft stays lead 
forward and comprise fore, foretopmast, jib, flying-jib, jib-topsail, inner-jib, outer-jib, 
main, main-topmast, middle, main-topgallant, main royal, mizzen, mizzen-topmast, 
mizzen-topgallant and mizzen-royal stays. Those stays which lead down to the ves- 
sel's sides are called backstays. (See Bebast, Standing, Shifting, Peeventee and 
Backstays.) A vessel is said to be in stays or Jiove in stays when she is tacking. 

Staysail S. Sails which hoist upon stays. The fore staysail is the first head sail for- 
ward the foremast ; the main staysail goes between the fore and mainmasts ; the miz- 
zen staysail goes between the main and mizzen masts. There are also middle, topmast, 
topgallant and royal staysails. (See engravings.) 

Steady. An order to the wheelsman for him to keep the vessel's head as it is. 

Steamboat. A vessel without masts or sails, and propelled by a screw or paddle- 
wheels. This class of vessel is confined as a rule to inland waters, such as rivers, har- 
bors, sounds, gulfs, lakes and bays. 

Steam Launch. A small boat propelled by steam and using coal for fuel. (See 
Naptha Fuel Launch.) 

Steam Ijightei". A harbor cargo vessel propelled by steam. (See Lightee.) 

Steam Siren. A siren blown by steam instead of a bellows. 

Steam Steering' Gear. A small engine found on board steamships for control- 
ling the rudder when under way, and by which the tiller may be put from hard-a-port 
to hard-a-starboard in an instant. 

Steam Whistle. The whistle forward the smoke-stacl< on a steam vessel, blown 
by steam, and used to signal courses ; as a warning during fogs, etc. 

Steer. To guide a vessel on her course by the movement of the helm. 

Steerage. The lower deck of a passenger vessel, and on which the steerage passen- 
gers live. 

Steerag^eway. When a vessel moves through the water with sufficient velocity to 
make her obedient to her helm. 

Steering Bridge. The bridge on which the steering wheel is placed. 

Steering Wheel. The wheel connected with the tiller, and liy which the ship is 

Steeve. A bowsprit steeves in proportion as it is raised from the horizontal. A long- 
spar having a block at one end, and used in stowing some kinds of cargo. 

Stem. To stem the tide is to make headway against it. The perpendicular piece of 
timber at the extreme forward part of the ship which is scarphedinto the keel. (See 
Paet II.) 

Stem Light. The light carried on top of the stem on all inland vessels, and which 
takes the place of the masthead light as carried by ocean steamers. The stem light 
is white in character, and shows from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on each 

Stem the Tide. To sail against the tide with just about sufficient way on to over- 
come its velocity. 

Step. To step a mast is to fix a lower mast in position. A framing of wood or iron on 
the main keelson into which the heel of a lowermast sets. 

Stern. The after-part of the vessel. 

Stern All. An order given to the crew of a boat to back her astern with their 




178 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Stern Board. The motion of a vessel when she progresses backward — stern fore- 

Stern Chase. Wlien one vessel follows directly after another, so that their masts 
are more or less in line. 

Stern Chasers. G-uns fired from the stern ports at the vessel astern. 

Stern Davits. Davits projecting from the stern of the vessel for hanging a boat to. 

Stern Ladder. A ladder hung over a vessel's stern for the use of the gig's crew 
"when that boat hangs from stern davits. 

Stern Line or Stern Fast. The rope leading over the stern of a vessel, and 
by which that part of her is moored. 

Stern Port. A window in the stern of the vessel. 

■Stern Post. The perpendicular after-framing timber soarphed into the after-part of 
the keel and extending to the deck. The two extremes of a vessel's frame are the stem 
and stern post. 

Stern Sheets. The space abaft the after thwart — a kind of cockpit in the boat in 
whicli the passengers sit. 

Stevedore. A man who makes a profession of stowing ships' cargoes. 

Stew^ard. The caterer of the vessel, under whom are the cooks, flunkies, etc. 

Stewardess. The woman who attends upon the lady passengers on board ship. The 
stewardess is under the orders of the steward. 

Sticks. A name applied to masts. 

Stiff. A stiff hreese is a strong breeze. The quality of a ship which permits her to 
carry a press of sail without heeling over much. 

Stink Pots. Earthern jars containing gunpowder, rosin, pitch and hand-grenades, 
and used to throw on an enemy's deck. Upon striking the vessel the hand-grenades 
explode, setting fire to the inflammable compound, which spreads about. The stinh 
^30^ probably originated with the Chinese, who used them long b)efore they were known 
to Europeans. The term stink pot came from the offensive odor which arose when 
one of these pots broke, as the Chinese always charged theirs with assafoetida. The 
fetid stench which this gave cause to was at times so overpowering that the crew of an 
attacked vessel succumbed to an intense nausea, and fell a prey to the Chinese pirates 

Stirrups. Ropes of short length having eyes spliced in one end, the other end being 
seized to the jackstay on the yard. They hang down and support the foot ropes which 
reeve througla the eyes. 

Stock. The horizontal crosspiece of an anchor. The stock may be either of wood or 
iron, and it is always placed at right angles to the arms. 

Stockholm. (See Tar.) 

Stocks. A series of blocks inclining toward the water, and on which the keel of a 
vessel is laid in ship building. 

Stools. Small channels abaft the regular channels, and to the dead-eyes of which the 
backstays set up. 

Stop. A fastening of small stuff used for securing a sail to a boom or gaff after it is 
furled ; on a squaxe sail they are called gaskets. 

St02)per. A short length of rope, one end of which is secured convenient to a run- 
ning rope (or cable) and employed for checking or regulating the motion of the latter 
by winding the stopper around it. There are various names applied to stoppers ac- 
cording to their use, namely, deck, laniard, dog, bitt, hatch, wing, ring, slip, check, 
lever, etc. 

Stopper Bolts. Ring bolts in the deck to which the stoppers are secured. 

Stopper Knot. A double wall knot in the end of a deck stopper. 

Storekeeper. The one on board steamships who has charge of the ship!s stores 
in the way of rigging, blocks, paint, oils, sails, etc., etc. 

Storm Canvas. Small sails of heavy material used in place of the regular working 

sails during storms. 
iStorm Jib. A small jib of heavy canvas used in bad weather. 
iStorni Sails. (See Storm Canvas.) 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



t April, MiY &Jiine] 

ISO Patterson's illusteated natjtioal dictionaey. 

Storm Signals. (See Cautionaet Signals.) 

Stormy Petrel. (See Mother Carey's Chickens.) 

Stove. A. boat is stove wlieii lier liuU is broke in. 

Stow. To fix anything in place, as to stow the fenders away ; stow the cargo, stow the 

anchor, etc. 
Straining at her Cables. (See Tugging at her Anchors.) 
Strake. A plank running fore-and-aft. 
Strand. Any number of rope yarns twisted together. A rope is stranded when one 

of the strands forming it is broken. A vessel is stranded when she is resting on the 

shore. A beach is also called strand. 
Strap. A length of rope spliced together so as to form a ring, and used for various 

purposes, such as for slinging bales, for attaching a tackle to any object, etc. (See 

Streak. (See Strake.) 
Stream a-buoy. To attach a buoy to an anchor by a length of rope and to drop 

it overboard previous to letting go the anchor. 
Stream Anchor. An anchor about one-third the size of the bowers, and used for 

warping, club-hauling, etc. 
Stream Cable. A cable belonging to a stream anchor, and which is of compara- 
tively light weight. 
Strengthening Pieces. Extra pieces of canvas sewed on the corners of sails, 

also at the reef cringles and along the lulf. 
Stretch Out. An order given to a boat's crew to bend to their oars with increased 

Stretchers. Pieces of wood placed thwartships in a boat's bottom for the rowers to 

brace their feet against ; pieces of wood placed thwartships in a boat to prevent the 

sides from being crushed in by ice, or from other causes. 
Strike. To lower a yard, mast, sail, or colors ; for a vessel to touch bottom. 
Strip. To take the rigging off of a mast is to strip it. 

Stroke. The sweep of an oar. The stroke oarsman pulls the after starboard oar. 
Stroke Oar. The after oarsman who sets the stroke for the rest of the crew. 
Strongback. (See Davit Guy.) 
Strop. A binding of rope encircling and fitted into the score of a block, in one part 

of which an eye is formed by seizing a thimble in the drift, or spare part. Some blocks 

are iron bound. (See Strap.) 
Struck. (See Strike.) 
Studding Sails. (Pronounced stun' sails.) Light sails carried in moderate weather 

with a fair wind, and which are set outside of the square sails on booms rigged out through 

rings on the yards. There are lower, topmast, topgallant and royal studding sails. 
Studding Sail Boom. The horizontal bar on which the stun' sail sets. 
Studding Sail Brace. The rope leading from the outboard end of the studding 

sail boom to the side of the vessel. 
Studtling Sail Halliards. The ropes which hoist the stun' sails to the stun' sail 

booms. There are two sets, named respectively inner and outer stun' sail halliards. 
Studding Sail Halliard Bend. The bend which secures the stun' sail halliards 

to the stun' sail yard. 
Studding Sail Outhaul. The tack line of the lower stun' sail, which leads 

through a block on the end of the swinging boom. 
Studding Sail Sheet. The line which secures the inner lower corner of a stun' sail. 
Studding Sail Tack. The rope secured to the outer lower corner of a stun' sail. 

(See Studding Sail Outhaul.) 
Studding Sail Yard. The light spar to which the head of the stun' sail is lashed 

before the sail is sent aloft. 
Submarine Boat. A small vessel constructed for use below the surface of the 

Subsidy. A government grant of encouragement money to a line of vessels to assist 

their maintenance. 



WINDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEftN [july.Aug-ustib September] 

182 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Sued. The position of a vessel wlien high and dry on the shore. 

Sundowner. A term applied to a shipmaster or mate who bullies the crew. 

Super-cargo. An officer on a merchant vessel who is authorized to dispose of the 
ship's cargo for cash or barter, purchase cargoes, etc., and manage the ship's business. 

Surf. A breaking sea on a shelving shore. (See Breakers.) 

Surf Boat. A boat built specially for carrying passengers and cargo through the 

Surge. To surge a rope or cable is to slack it suddenly. A swelling wave. 

Surgeon. The medical officer of the vessel, whose duty it is to look after the sani- 
tary aiTangements of the ship, inspect the food, distribute anti-scorbutics to tlie men if 
necessary, and care for any member on board in the event of sickness or accident. On 
some vessels the sitnjeon is also obliged to act as purser. 

Surveying. In the event of putting into port with masts or bulwarks gone, or the 
vessel leaking, the master reports to the port authorities, also to his consul if in a for- 
eign port, and after noting a protest calls for an examination upon his vessel and cargo 
in order that the damages may be appraised ; and this examination is known as a sur- 
vey. Two shipmasters or two other experienced persons are called to examine the rig- 
ging and hull and hatches, and in the event of damaged cargo, two merchants, ac- 
quainted with the kind of cargo carried, are called to examine and report whether the 
cargo was properly stowed and dunnaged. Upon receiving the report the master im- 
mediately extends his protest. Should the vessel be a steamer, and the machinery or 
boilers be injured, then a shipmaster and an engineer would be called. (See Nautical 

Swalb. A rope mop used for cleaning the decks. A term applied to a worthless indi- 
vidual on board ship. 

Swallow. The space or opening in a block which takes the rope before it passes over 
the sheave. 

Swallow-tail. A flag having two pointed ends. 

Swankie OV Swanky. A drink made of vinegar, molasses and water, and much 
indulged in by sailors in tropical climates. 

Sway Across. To let the yards fall to the horizontal after they have been sent 
aloft. (See Cross Yards.) 

Sway Aw^ay. To pull; to hoist. 

Sweated. When a sail is stretched so as to set as flat as possible it is said to be 
sweated. To sweat anything is to get it as taut as possible. 

Sweeping. Dragging the bottom for anything lost. Forcing a vessel ahead by the 
use of long oars. 

Sweeps. Long oars. 

Swell. The roll of the sea. The following symbols are used to express the charac- 
ter of same : S, smooth ; M, moderate ; L, long ; R, rough ; 0, cross ; H, heavy ; 
V H, very heavy. 

Swift. To swift the shrouds is to bring two of them close together by a binding of 

Swifters. The forward shrouds of a lower mast on the port and starboard sides. 
There are fore, main and mizzen swifters. The lengths of rope employed for keeping 
the capstan bars in place are also known as swifters. 

Sw^ig. To bear off on the hauling part of a tackle when its end is made fast. 

Swinging. Said of a vessel when she turns around under the influence of the 
wind or tide when at anchor. 

Swinging the Ship. Turning the vessel around in adjusting her compasses. 

Swinging Booms. (See Boat Booms.) 

Swivel. A metal link turning upon an axis, and used on cables to keep turns out. 
Also used on iron-bound blocks. 

pattekson's illustrated nautical diotionahy. 



184 Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionaey. 


Talblillg. The hem on the borders of sails to which the bolt rope is sewed. (See 
Paet II.) 

Tack. To go about; a vessel is on the starboard tack when the wind blows on the 
starboard side, and on the port tacit '^^■hen the wind blows on the port side ; the tackle 
liy which the clew of a course is hauled forward and down ; the tack tine or tack pen- 
nant of a fore-and-aft or gaff topsail is the rope that keeps down the tack of the sail, 
or the lower forward corner ; the rope that keeps down the lower outer corner of a 
studding sail. 

Tack Cringle. The iron ring spliced into a fore-and-aft sail at the junction of the 
luff and foot, but the iron shapes spliced into the lower corners of square sails. 

Tack Earing. The length of rope passed through the tack cringles on a fore-and- 
aft sail, and used to keep the slack luff' of the sail down to the boom after it has been 

Tack Tricing' Line. The line by which the tack of loose-footed fore-and-aft sails 
is triced up. 

Tackle. (Pronounced to^z-cfe.) A purchase of ropes and blocks. 

TaflFrail. The rail around the stern of a vessel. 

Tail. A tail Mock has a short length of rope hanging from the splicing around the 
block, and which takes the place of a hook ; a vessel when at anchor tctils up or down 
stream according as her stern tends — in opposition to heading. 

Tail On. An order to lay hold of a rope and pull. 

Tail Tackle. A watch tackle purchase having a tail to one of the blocks. 

Take In. To furl the sails ; to take in cargo ; to take in water, etc. 

Taken Aback. (See Aback.) 

Tank. An iron receptacle for containing fresh water. 

Tank Ship. A vessel whose space between decks is occupied with iron tanks de- 
signed for the transportation of oil in bulk. 

Tank Toggle. A short, heavy piece of wood placed inside of a heavy tank across 
the man-hole, and to which a strap is fixed and a block hooked when it is desired to 
lift the tank. 

Tanned Sails. Sails that have been soaked in oak bark as a preventive against 

Tar. The gum of pine trees. Stockholm and North Carolina tars are the best obtain- 
able. Tar is used on standing rigging to protect it from the- elements. A name given 
to a sailor. 

Tarpaulin. Painted canvas used as a covering for hatches, etc. An old name for a 
sailor's headgear. 

Tarry-top-iiglits. (See Shivee-mt-timbees.) 

Taunt. Tall, high masts are sometimes referred to as taunt masts. A vessel is said to 
be all-a-taunt-o when she has all her masts and yards aloft, sail bent, and rigging in order. 

Taut. Tight. 

Tea Wagon. A name for the old East Indian tea ships. 

Teeth. A term used in reference to a vessel's guns. 

Telegraph. (See Engine Eoom Telegeaph.) 

Telegraph Blocks. These are formed of a number of small sheaves in a narrow, 
lengthy shell, and used for the purpose of making signals. 

Telescopic Funnel. (See Funnel.) 

Tell-tale. An inverted dry card compass hung below deck from one of the beams so 
that the heading of the vessel may be known at any time without going on deck. (See 
TiLLEE Tell-tale.) 

Tend. (See Tending.) 

Tender. A vessel which accompanies another for the purpose of lending assistance, if 
necessary, to carry extra stores, coals, etc. (See Ceane.) 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 185 

Tending. Watching a vessel when at anchor so as to cast her by the helm, also 

some sail if required, when the tide changes — this to prevent turns getting in the chain 

and the probable fouling of the anchor. 
Tenon. The shoulder on the heel of a mast which fits into the step on the main keel- 
Testament. The small hand holy-stones used by seamen for cleaning the surface 

of unpainted woodwork. The wood is first wet, next sand sprinkled over it, then the 

stone is rubbed across the surface. 
The Three L's of Navigation. Latitude, Lead and Lookout. (See L's of 

Tllict: and Thin Block. A block having two sheaves, one thicker than the 

other, so as to accommodate different sizes of rope passing over them. 
Thimble. An iron ring with a groove around its outer rim for a rope to fit in, so that 

it may be held in place when it is spliced either in the corner of a sail as a cringle or 

in the end of pendant. A thimble prevents chafing. 
Thole Pins. Wooden pins, or metal sockets, fitting in holes bored in the gunwale 

of boats between which the oar rests when pulling. Thole pins form a rowlock for 

the oar. (See Rowlock.) 
Thorongh-foot. Said of a fall when one of the blocks is capsized through the 

parts ; or the parts of the fall twisted by the turning round of one of the blocks. 
Three-fold Block. A block of three sheaves. 
Three-fold Purchase. A purchase made of two blocks, each containing three 

Throat. The inner end of a gaff where the throat block is hooked. (See Jaws.) 
Throat Bolt. The metal eye-bolt in the throat of the gaff to which the lower throat 

halliard block is hooked. 
Throat Brail. The rope which gathers a brailing sail up and into the throat of the 

Throat Halliards. The halliards which hoist the inner end of the gaff, and the 

luff of a fore-and-aft sail, or that part of the sail which is against the mast. 
Throat Seizing. A seizing which secures the end of a shroud or stay around a 

dead-eye, by making the end fast to its own standing part after it has been fitted 

around the score. 
Through-bolt. A bolt which goes through the side or deck of a vessel, and is riv- 
eted inside. 
Through Fastening. A bolt which passes through both planking and timber 

and is riveted inside. 
Thrum. To sew the bight of thrums to a piece of canvas, the same being used to 

protect sails and rigging from chafe. 
Thrums. Short strands of rope obtained by cutting old gear into lengths of several 

inches, then unlaying the strands. 
Thumb Cleat. A small cleat on a yard arm to prevent the turns of the reef earing 

from slipping along the yard. Also the little metal crook on the martingale under 

which the stays lead and are held in place. 
Thwarts. The seats extending across a boat and on which the rowers sit. 
Thwartships. Same as atliwartships. 
Tidal Constants. (See Tide Table.) 
Tide. The flow, and elevation, and depression of the water. What is known as tiding 

up or down a river is to allow a favorable tide to carry the vessel in the desired direc- 
tion when, by reason of a calm, her sails are useless. As soon as the tide turns against 

the vessel the anchor is dropped until the next tide, when it is hove up and the former 

operations repeated. (See High Tide.) 
Tide and Quarter Tide. (See Tide, Tide and Half-Tide.) 
Tide Bench Marks. Permanent marks placed upon the stong^ facing of a basin, 

dry-dock, upon a sea wall, etc., and which record the height of the marks above mean 

low water. 
Tide Current. The horizontal movement of the water in a channel which does not 

186 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaet. 

cliauge with the tide but continues to flow on sometimes two and three hours after the 
tide has turned. 

Tide Day. What is known as the tide dai/ is the interval between two successive ar- 
rivals of the tide wave at the same point. This interval is not regular, and the short- 
ening and lengthening of the tide day is known as the lagging and priming of the tides. 

Tide Establishment of the Port. It being of the utmost importance that 
the time of high water for harbors should be capable of ready solution, a standard for 
calculation is determined or based upon certain positions of the sun and moon, this 
standard being the time of high water at the full and change of the moon at a given 
point, and reckoned from apparent noon. This is known as the establishment of the 

Tide Grate. A narrow opening through which the tide runs with great velocity. 

Tide Gauges. An instrument for ascertaining the rise and fall of the tide. 

Tide Pole. A pole marked in feet and inches and driven in the sand in shallow 
water, employed for ascertaining the rise and fall of the tide. 

Tide Range. The difierence between the height of high and low water. 

Tide Rips. The agitation of the surface water caused by the tide passing swiftly 
over a shoal. 

Tide-rode. A vessel is tide-rode when she rides to her anchor by the force of the 
tide independent of the wind. 

Tide Tables. Yearly tide tables are published by the U. S. Coast Survey Office 
which give the computed times of high water for the most important ports of the 
United States, and constants to apply as directed to these times to obtain the hour of 
high water at neighboring places. 

Tide, Tide and half-tide. In the open sea high water and low water succeed 
each other 6 liours and 12 minutes apart, and this is known as a tide ; but in channels 
where the stream continues to flow up for 3 hours after it is high water it is said to 
make a tide and half-tide, and if it continues to flow up for only 1 hour and 30 minutes 
it is said to make a tide and quarter-tide. 

Tide Wave. An immensely broad wave which more or less follows the movements 
of the sun and moon. 

Tide-Avay. The part of a river or channel in which the tide ebbs and flows. 

Tie. The single rope which is bent to a topsail yard in hoisting the spar, and which 
passes either through the sheave-hole in the mast or through a tie-block at the topmast 

Tie-block. (See Tie.) 

Tier. A row of barrels or casks in a vessel's hold. (See Cable Tier.) 

Tiller. The bar of iron or wood which fits into the forward side of the rudder head, 
and by turning which the rudder is moved around at different angles to the keel. 

Tiller Head. That end ,of the tiller which is farthest from the rudder. 

Tiller Kopes. Eopes or chains which lead from the tiller to the barrel of the steer- 
ing wheel. 

Tiller Tell-tale. A small arrow on top of the tiller box, connected with the bar- 
rel of the wheel, and which indicates the position of the tiller by its angle with the 
keel of the vessel. 

Timber Heads. The ends of the timbers projecting above the deck, and used for 
belaying hawsers, etc. 

Timber Hitch. This hitch is made bj- passing the end of a rope round a spar or 
timber head, then led up under and over the standing part, and passing a couple of 
turns round its own part. (See engraving.) 

Timber Port. A small port in the bows of vessels carrying timber used to run the 
cargo out and in horizontally. 

Timbers. Long, curved pieces of wood extending up from the keel on each side. 
They are known as the ribs of the vessel. The frame of a vessel is composed of the 
keel, stem, stern-post and ribs. 

Time Allowance. The process of figures by which the advantage gained by a 
larger vessel over a smaller one is reduced to an ecjuality, or an approximation thereto. 

pattekson's illusteated nautical dictionary. 187 

In other words, the larger vessel may go over the course in less time than the smaller 
vessel, vet if the time allowance to be subtracted from the latter's time reduces it to 
less than the time consumed by the larger vessel the smaller one wins the race. 

Timenog'liy. A rope stretched from one point to another for the purpose of pre- 
venting gear from fouling. 

Toeing a Seam. To be compelled to stand without moving, the toes of the shoes 
against one of the deck seams. 

Toeing Pitch. Same as toeing a seam. 

Toggle. A pin of wood or metal employed for connecting two ropes. The pin slips 
through and across an eye called a becJcet, formed in the other rope. Bowlines are fas- 
tened to their bridles in this manner, and the method is also employed for securing 
ring-buoys so that they may be let go quickly in the event of a man going overboard. 

Tompion. The wooden bung placed in the mouth of a cannon to exclude dampness 
and dust. 

Tongue. The block of wood that is secm-ed between the jaws of a gaff, and which 
slides that spar up and down the mast when the throat halliards are handed. This 
tongue works on a pin driven through the jaws from side to side, so that it can play 
fore-and-aft from the perpendicular to accommodate the angle assumed by the gaff 
when being raised. 

Tonnage. The carrying capacity of a ship expressed in tons. 
A ton of hulk is equal to 40 cubic feet. 
^i ton of iceight is equal to 2,240 pounds. 

The gross tonnage of a vessel is the cubical measurement or contents below decks. 
Tlie net tonnage of a vessel is the gross tonnage, minus the statutory deductions. 

Tonnage Duty. A tax of so much per ton levied upon vessels by the customs 
authorities under certain conditions. 

Top. The platformat the head of a lower mast, resting upon the trestle- trees, which 
in turn rest upon the hounds of the mast. The top is used to give spread to the top- 
mast rigging, and to the rim of the structure the rigging is set up to dead-eyes. 

To top a boom or yard is to elevate one end of it by the peak halliards and lift re- 

Top Block. A large iron-bound block tlirough which the top-rope reeves when 
sending up or down topmasts. 

Topgallant Forecastle. The small deck built level with the rail at the extreme 
forward part of the vessel. 

Topgallant Mast. The mast next above the topmast. 

Topgallant Kail. A light rail built on top of the bulwark rail. 

Topgallant Kigging. The shrouds and their ratlines belonging to the topgal- 
lant masts. 

Topgallant Sail. The third sail above the deck on a man-o'-war, or where single 
topsails are carried, but the sail next above the upper topsail on a vessel carrying 
double topsails. Some large merchant vessels divicle the topgallant sail in the same 
manner as the topsail, thus having double topgallant sails, named in the same way as 
the topsails — upper and lower. 

Topgallant Shroiuls. The shrouds on the topgallant masts. 

Top-heavy. The upper part too weighty for the lower. 

Top Hamper. All the spars, rigging, etc., above the deck. 

Top liining. An extra piece of canvas sewed on the after-surface of a square sail to 
take the chafe of the top-rim. 

Topmast. The second mast above the deck, or the mast next above the lower- 
mast. They are named according to their situation, as fore, main and mizzen top- 

Topmast Rigging. The shrouds and their ratlines belonging to the topmasts. 

Topmast Shrouds. The shrouds on the topmasts. 

Topsail. The second sail above the deck. Men-o'-war carry a large smgle topsail, 
but merchantmen carry double topsails, as they are much easier to handle with a 

188 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

limited crew. A ship carries fore, main and mizzen topsails. The topsails are named 
respectively tipper and lower topsails. 

Topsail Halliard Bend. This is made by making two turns round the spar, then 
leading the end back round the standing part and underneath all the turns, bringing it 
round its own part and back again over the two other turns and underneath the inner 
turn. (See engraving.) 

Topsail Schooner. A vessel carrying a square topsail on the fore-topmast, the 
mainmast being provided with a fore-and-aft mainsail and a gaff topsail. (8ee Two 
Topsail Schoonee.) 

Top Sawyer. A name given to the leading member of the crew who is in the ad- 
vance when any work is going on. 

Top Sides. The sides of a vessel from the water line to the bulwark rail. 

Top Timlbers. (See Part II.) 

Topping. Raising one end of a spar higher than the other. To top the boom, etc. 

Topping Liift. A purchase for topping a boom and sustaining the weight of the 
after-end of the same. (See Boom Topping Lift.) 

Toss. An order to a boat's crew to lift the oars from the rowlock to a j)erpendicular 
position, then to la}' them across the thwarts, the blades forward. It is an uninter- 
rupted motion from first to last. A salute is also made by tossing oars from the row- 
lock to the perpendicular, and holding them so with the handle resting on the floor of 
the boat. 

Tossing" Oars. Oars not provided with trailing lines so that they can be lifted to 
the perpendicular. 

Toncll. To touch a sail is to luff until the leach shivers. 

Touch and Trade. When a vessel licensed for fishing wishes to touch and trade 
at a foreign port she may obtain .permission so to do, for that voyage only, from the 
chief customs officer in the port where she maybe; and she must not under penalty 
touch and trade tvithout such permission. 

Tow. To tow is to draw a vessel, raft, spar, etc., through the water by means of a rope 
or chain. 

Tow Line. The rope by which a vessel is towed. 

Towage. Charges for towing. 

Towing-hoat Signal. The signal made for a towing boat is the ship's ensign in 
the main rigging a little above the deck. 

Towing Lights. The white masthead lights carried in a vertical line by a steam 
vessel when towing another vessel, raft. etc. 

Towing Post. A timber head to which towing hawsers are secured. 

Track. To trach a vessel is to tow her along by a hawser led to the shore. A vessel 
path across the waters. 

Track Chart. A mariner's chart on which is traced the track of a ship from port to 
port, or from point to point. (See Charts.) 

Trade Winds. A name applied to the currents of air within the tropics which blow 
from ihe northeastward in the northern hemisphere, and from the southeastward in the 
southern hemisphere. (See Charts.) 

Trail. An order given in boat service for the crew to cease rowing and to throw their 
oars out of the rowlocks and let them trail alongside by the trail ropes which are 
made fast to the handle of the oar and secured inboard. This order takes the place 
of " Way Enough," used for tossing oars, and A\hich is a signal for the crew to lift their 
oars out of the water and lay them down fore-and-aft on the thwarts with their blades 
forward. (See Out Oars.) 

Trailing Oars. Oars fitted with trailing lines, and which are trailed alongside the 
boat when the crew are not pulling. (See Tossing Oars.) 

Train Tackle. The tackle hooked to the rear of a broadside gun and by which it 
is run in, and by which it is also prevented from running out while loading it. The 
side-tackles run out the guns. 

Transoms. The timbers extending across the stern-post, and to which they are 

Patterson's illttsteated nautical dictionaet. 189 

Transport. A vessel employed for carrying troops from one place to another, or for 
carrying munitions of war. 

Traveler. An encircling iron ring whicli slides along a deck-liorse or up and down a 
rope. (See Horse.) 

Traveler Iron. (See Horse.) 

Traverse. The several courses made by a vessel. To traverse a yard is to brace it 
in a fore-and-aft direction. 

Traverse Board. An old-fashioned instrument for recording the course or several 
courses made by the vessel during a watch. It was a round board, with tlie points, 
half-points and quarter-points of the compass painted upon its rim. In each one of the 
points eight gimlet holes were bored, and into one of these, corresponding to the ves- 
sel's course, a peg was placed every half hour. 

Traverse Table. (See Part III.) 

Trawl Boat. A fishing boat. 

Treacle. A name by which molasses is known on shipboard. 

Treble Block. A block of three sheaves. Same as a three-fold block. 

Tree-nails. Wooden pins used for bolting a plank to a timber. 

Trend. The direction anything takes, as the trend of the shore, etc. 

Trestle -trees. The two pieces of fore-and-aft horizontal timber resting on the 
hounds of the mast, and which support the cross-trees, and across which the fid of the 
mast above rests. (See Oeoss-teees.) 

Triangular Course. A three-sided course laid out in yacht racing. 

Trlatic Stay. A wire or hemp rope secured at the head of a topmast of a fore-and- 
aft vessel, thence leading to the lowermast head of the mast next abaft, acting as a 
support to the topmast. 

Trice. To haul anything up, as the heel of a studding-sail boom. 

Tricing Liiue. A line by which anything is triced up. 

Trick. The term given to the period of time which a man remains at the helm. The 
trick varies from two to four hours. 

Trim. The way a vessel sits upon the water in relation to her water-line. A vessel 
is trimmed iy the head when her water-line is nearer to, or more submerged forward 
than it is aft, and trimmed by the stern when the reverse of the above exists. A ves- 
sel is in ballast-trim when she has no cargo and only ballast on board. To trim the sails 
is to handle the braces of a square-sail and the sheet of a boom-sail so as to obtain the 
best results from the wind. 

Trip. To trip an anchor is to lift it from the bottom. To trip a yard is to swing it 
from the horizontal to the perpendicular. A trip is also a passage made on a vessel 
from one place to another. 

Tripping !Line. A line used for tripping a yard. Also the rope by which a drag 
or sea-anchor is capsized. 

Trooj) Ship A transport vessel. 

Trough of the Sea. The hollow between two waves. 

Truck. The piece of wood of circular shape placed at the extremity of the high- 
est mast, and having small holes or sheaves in it for the signal halliards to reeve 

Trunk Cabin. The name applied to a cabin half above and half below the upper 

Trunnels. (See Teee-nails.) 

Trunnions. The projections on each side of a cannon which rest upon the gnn-car- 
riage and support the piece, permitting it to be elevated and depressed. 

Truss. An iron fixture which holds the centre of a lower-yard to the mast. 

Trysails. Fore-and-aft gafF-sails whicli are carried on the fore and main masts of a 
ship, hoisting on small masts {trysail-masts) abaft the lower mast. These sails are 
also known as spencers, while the fore-and-aft sail carried at the mizzen mast of a ship 
or bark is called a spanker. But all these sails are referred to as trysails when set 
during gales of wind, in order to lay the vessel to or to head-reach under them. 

Tug. To exert spasmodic force upon anything. A small towing vessel. 

190 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaet. 

Tugging" at liev Anchors. For a vessel to strain at her cables when at anchor 

in a storm, or when riding to a very strong tide. 
Tiunble Home. (See Falling Hojee.) 
Tumbling Sea. A short, confused sea. 
Turk's Head Knot. A fancy knot made in the upper end of man ropes, etc. 

(See engraving.) 
Turn. To pass a rope or chain around a pin or hitts as a fastening for the former is 

known as catcJiinff or taking a turn. To turn turtle, to capsize. To turn in, to go to 

bed. To turn out, to get up. To turn in a deaiJ-ei/e, to strop it with the end of a 

shroud. Turn of the tide, the ahimge in the direction of its flow. Turn aJuju4, the 

slow forward movement of the propeller or paddle-wheels. Turn the (jlusfs, to capsize 

the sand-glass when heaving the log. Turn up all h'lnds, to get all the crew on deck. 

Turn-to, to commence work. 
Turn Buckle. A simple mechanical device of a thread and screw kept permanent on 

standing rigging for setting it up. 
Turn Turtle. A vessel is said to tu-rn. tu,rtle when she capsizes. (See Tcex.) 
Twice-laid Rope. Rope laid np from old yarns. 
Twistf r. An exaggerated tale. (See Yakx.) 
Two Blocks. (See Ohock-a-Block.) 
Two-fol<l Block. A block of two sheaves. 
Two-fold Purchase. A purchase having two double blocks. 
Two Half Hitches. Often used as a mooring hitch. Ir is made by passing the 

end of a rope around the standing part and bringing it up through its own bight, and 

then repeating the latter part. (See engraving.) 
Two Topsail Schooner. A vessel carrying a square topsail both on the fore 

and main topmasts. 
Tye. (See Tie.) 
Tyers. Short lengths of rope used for tying up a sail. They take the place of 



Unhallast. To discharge the ballast otit of a vessel. 

TJnhend. To cast adrift, or to untie. 

Unbitt. To cast off' the turns of a cable from the bitts. 

Under Canvas. Same as widrr sail. 

Under Current. A stream flowing beneath the surface water, which is either at 

rest or running in a contrary direction to the under current. 
Under Foot. When the anchor is directly below the hawse pipe. 

Under-manned. Short-handed. 

Under-masted. Masts either too short or too slender for the vessel. 

Under- run. To haul a small boat under a hawser stretched across her path by lift- 
ing up the rope. 

Under Sail. Said of a vessel when she has sail set and is under way. 

Under Steam. Moving through the water under the propelling power of the paddle 
wheels or screw. 

Under the I^ee. A vessel is under the lee of the land when she is close to a 
weather shore. A vessel is under the lee of another when the former is to leeward. 

Under-tow. i See Under Cureent ) 

Under Way. Said of a vessel when she is making progress through the water,, 
whether under sail or steam. 

Underwriter. An insurer of vessels, freights and cargoes against the perils of the 
sea in accordance with a contract issued to the insured, which is known as a policy of 
'insurance. (See Marine Insurance.) 

PATIERSOn's illustrated nautical DICTH)NARY. 191 

Unfurl. To cast loose a sail ; to tlivow tlie gaskets off a sail. 

Union. The inner upper corner of an ensign — the starry field in the American flag, 

the remainder of the flag is called the fly. 
Union Down. The situation of an ensign when hoisted upside-down. This is a 

universal signal of distress. 
Union Jack. A small flag flown at the bowsprit cap on a jaok-stafT. It contains 

only the union of the national ensign, and is set on Sundays and when dressing ship. 
U. S. LiOCal Fnsj)ectors. Officers appointed by the. Secretary of the Treasury 

to examine and license all classes of American steam vessels, and to grant to capable 

captains, mates and engineers cartifioates of ca-.npatenoy authorizing them to serve in 

their several capacities on board steam vessels. 
Unmoor. To heave up one anchor, leaving the ship riding to the otlier. 
Unreeve. To draw a rope out of a block, etc. 
Unrig. To take the rigging off a vessel. 

Unship. To remove anything from its place ; to take anything apart. 
Up An<!lior. The order to weigh anchor. 
Up and Down. Anything in a perpendicular position, as, the yards are up and 

down the riggimi. 
Up Boats. The order to hoist the boats to the davits. 

Up Courses. The order to let go the tacks and sheets and haul up thoss sails. 
Up Helm. (See Helm Up.) 
Up Oars. An order given to the boat's crew by the coxswain, signifying tliat they are 

to lift their oars from the thwarts and hold them before them perpendicularly. The 

order •' Up Oars " precedes that of " Let Fall." 
Upliroe. (See EuPHROE.) 
Upper Deck. . (See Deck.) 

Upper Topgallant Sail. (See Topgallah-t Sail.) 
Upper Topsail. (See Topsail.) 

Upper Works. The sides of the vessel from the water-lino to the covering board. 
Uvrow. (See Upheoe.) 


Vane. A fly carried at the truck, made of bunting, which traverses on a spindle and 
shows the direction of the wind. 

VangS. Ropes for steadying a gaff, secured to the outer end of the spar and leading 
to the rail on each side. 

Variables. Certain parts of the oceans where the winds are very inconstant. 

Variation Chart. A chart on ^lercator's projection on which the variation of the 
compass is represented by curved lines. (See engraving.) 

'Vast. An abbreviation of avast, a,s'rast heaving. 

Veer. To pay out chain or rope. When the wind changes against the sun («'. e., con- 
trary to the way the hands of a watch revolve — for example, when the wind changes 
from east to north it is said to veer. On board ship the wind hauls forward and veers 

Veer antl Haul. To slack and haul alternately upon a rope. 

Vessel. A general term for all classes of square and fore-and-aft rigged vehicles of 

Viol. A large messenger once used in weighing anchor by the capstan. 

Viol Block. A large single block used with a viol. 

Voyage. A journey by water. Outward voyage, the passage of the vessel between 
her loading port and the place of her destination. Homeward voyage, the passage 
back. Out and home, the round voyage. 

Voyal. (See Yiol.) 

192 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


TVack. A man is said to liave his wacli when he is provided with his share or portion 
of food out of the forecastle mess tub. 

Waist. That part of the deck contained between the forecastle and quarter-deck. 

Waist Anchor. (See Sheet Anchor.) 

Waisters. G-reen hands ; decrepit seamen. 

Wake. The agitation of the water left astern of the vessel's course. The track over 
which the ship lias passed. 

W^ales. Strong planks running fore-and-aft on a vessel's sides. 

AVall Knot. A knot worked in the end of a rope. (See engraving.) 

Wall Sitled. Opposed to flaring out or tumhling home. Perpendicular sides. 

Ward Room. The compartment in a man-o'-war or yacht in which the officers live. 

Ware. (See Wear.) 

W^arp. To change the position of a vessel by kedging, or by hauling her along by 
means of a hawser attached to some object. A warp is a light hawser. 

Wash Boards. Lengths of thin plank fastened to and projecting above the gun- 
wale of boats and small low-sided vessels to keep the spray out and increase the free- 
board. A boat's row-looks are out in the rvasli hoards. These boards are also known 
as wash stralces. 

Wash Strakes. (See Wash Boards.) 

AVaste. Cotton 3'arn used for cleaning purposes on shipboard. 

W^atcll. There are seven watches on board ship during the 24 hours. They are 
named as follows : Froiu midnight until -1 A.ii., mid-watch ; from 4 to 8, 
morninr/-watch ; from S a.m. till noon, forenoon-watch ; from noon till 4 p.m., after- 
noon-ividch ; from 4 p.m. till 6 p.m., first dog-watch ; from 6 p.m. till 8 p.m., second 
dog-iratcli ; from 8 p.m. till midnight, first toatch. On a merchant ship the crew are 
mustered aft at 8 p.m. on the day of sailing, the men divided into the captain's and 
mate's watch, and the first ivatch set at that time, the captain's watch, remaining on 
deck while the other goes below. The captain always takes the first watch out and 
the mate the first watch home. The stewards and cooks are known as " idlers," and 
they stand no watch. The captain's watch is called the " starboard," and the mate's 
the " port " watch. If there is an uneven number of men in the forecastle, the odd 
man goes into the captain's watch by courtesy. Provided the vessel carries a second 
mate, the captain's watch is kept by him, so that the captain has no regular deck duty, 
but goes and comes as he pleases. The officer on watch is known as the " officer of 
the deck," and, while left in possession, his orders must be obeyed to the letter. He 
has full powers to alter the course of the ship to avoid danger, to make, or alter, or 
take in sail, etc. On an ocean passenger steamer one of the waiters is always on 
watch in the saloon, being stationed by the steward the same as the anchor-watch is set 
by the mate, so that they stand a certain number of hours each and then call their relief. 
The saloon-watch should report to the officer of the deck when each bell is struck. A 
floating buoy is said to tvatch. (See Anchor Watch.) 

W^atch and W^atch. The crew are said to get nritch and watch when their service 
on deck and their leisure below is regularly alternated. 

Watch Bill. A list of the crew showing the division of the watches. 

W^atch lio ! Watch ! The cry passed along from forward to aft by the men sta- 
tioned along the bulwarks when heaving the deep-sea lead, signifying that the line is 
running out, and warning the man next aft to feel for the bottom. 

Watch Tackle. A purchase formed of a double and single block, the single block 
being provided with a hook and the double block with a tail. Also known as a, jigger 
and a handy-hilly. 

W^ater Ballast. Water carried in flat tanks in a vessel's hold to serve as ballast for 
the ship. When the vessel is loaded these tanks are emptied by being pumped out. 

W^ater Boat. A boat for supplying vessels with fresh water, the same being con- 

Patterson's ILLUSTRATED nautical uictionarv. 193 

tained in a large tank in the boat's hold, and pumped into a vessel either by a hand or 
steam pump. 

Wat er Borne. A ship is said to be water borne when there is just sufficient water 
to float her clear of the bottom. 

"Water Butt. A large cask for containing fresh water. (See Scuttle Butt.) 

Water Craft. Any kind of a vessel, 

Water Dues. (See Fountain Dues.) 

AVater-laid. Rope. A name sometimes applied to rope laid up left-handed. 

W^ater Line. A horizontal line painted around the vessel's hull to mark her proper 
trim in loading. 

W^ater Logged. When a vessel is filled with water yet afloat owing to the buoy- 
ant nature of her cargo, she is said to be tvater logged. 

W^ater Sail. Also known as a save-all. It is seldom used in these days. It was a 
kind of studding sail set under the swinging boom. 

Water Tank. (See Tank.) 

Water Tight. The opposite to leaky. 

TVater Ways. (See Part II.) 

W^aterspout. A vertical column of water having a gyratory motion, and moving 
along the surface of the sea, being uninfluenced by any wind that may be blowing. It 
is ecceniric in its movements, and often emits a loud roaring as it rushes along. Water- 
spouts often form during dead calms, and are of the same nature with the tornado. At 
the commencement of a waterspout a cloud protrudes downward, and elongates in the 
form of an inverted cone, and meets the cloudlike mass or cone rising from the water 
Vessels use every means possible to get out of the track of these terrific engines, a 
meeting with which would send the ship to the bottom. A gun directed toward one and 
fired with a heavy charge of powder will often break and disperse it. (See engravings.) 

Way. A vessel is said to have way on her when she moves through the water. 

Way Enough. An order given to a boat's crew signifying that they are to cease 
rowing, and to take their oars out of the water and lay them down in the boats fore- 
and-aft the thwarts, the blades of the oars forward. 

Ways. The timbers on which a vessel slides into the water in being launched. 

Hauled up on the ivays means to cradle a vessel on the ways, then by mechanical 
means haul ways and vessel' up an inclined plane until out of water. Tiiese ways are 
sometimes termed marine railivays. (See Dry Dock.) 

Wear. To put the helm up and bring the vessel around on the other tack by changing 
the wind across the stern. This is done in a heavy sea when taclciiig is not advisable 
owing to the danger of missing stays and the accompanying chance of getting stern- 
board on the vessel. 

Wear and Tear. Loss by accident and damage by use to hull, spars, rigging, sails, 

Weather. That point of the compass from which the wind blows. 

Weather Bitt. To take an additional turn around the windlass end or the bitts 
with the cable. 

Weather Bound. Detained in harbor owing to the unfavorable conditions of the 

Weather-eye. To keep one's iveatJier-eye open is to be on the alert 

Weather Gage. A vessel is said to have the weather gage of another when the lat- 
ter is to leeward. 

Weather Helm. A vessel carries a weather helm when her tendency is to come 
up into the wind, requiring the wheelsman to put the tiller up. 

Weather Indications. Clear weather prophesies are, rosy sky at sunset, gray 
morning sky, low dawn, delicate clouds, dew, fog. 

Wet Weather is foretold by an Indian-red morning sky, pale-yellow sky, small, inky- 
looking clouds. 

Wind is indicated by a red morning sky, hard-edged, oily-looking clouds, gloomy 

blue sky, copper-colored sky. 

Moderate winds and possible calms are expected with soft-looking or delicate clouds, 
quiet tints or colors, dew and fog. 

194 pattekson's illusteated nautical uictionaey. 

Weather Lurch. A sudden roll to windward. 

Weather Roll. The inclination of the vessel's deck to windward. 

Weather Shore. The shore to windward. 

Weather Side. The windward side ; the side the wind blows on. 

Weather Signals. (See Cautionary Signals.) 

Weatherly Ship. A vessel tlmt works well to \\-indward and makes little leeway. 

Weather Tide. The tide which sets against the lee side of the vessel and carries 
her to windward. 

Weddin,a^ Knot. A crossed seizing placed between two eyes. 

Wedg'e Fid. A two-part, wedge-shaped fid. 

Weed tlie Ilig"Sing". To clear the rigging of bits of rope, yarn, ravelings, etc. 

W^eig'h, To weigh the anchor is to lift it from the bottom. 

W^ell. The enclosure around the pumps, from the hold up to the deck, to preserve the 
former from injury by coming in contact with cargo, etc. The enclosed space in the 
holds of fishing vessels. to preserve the catch alive until a market can be reached. An 
exclamation signifying tliat the crew are to cease hauling, etc. ; that they are to leave 
things as they are. (See Cistern.) 

TVet Docks. Specially constructed basins for facilitating the loading aud dis- 
charging of vessels. At high tide vessels are admitted into )ret docks through a ixate, 
which is closed again before the tide falls much, and by these means the water in 
these basins is kept at a uniform depth, and the vessels moored therein are not ex- 
posed to the dangers of open roadsteads, tides, etc. The finest and most extensive 
system of iret dorJcs in the world is to be seen in England. 

Wet Nurse. (See Nurse.) 

Whale Boat. A boat from 20 to 40 feet long, with a beam equal to about one- 
fifth of its length. It is a most excellent sea boat, being shai-p at each end, and a 
medium-size one is often used as a gig. 

W^haler, A vessel employed in the whale fishery. 

Wharf. A landing place built by the side of, or extending into the water, at which 
ships load and unload. 

W^harf Rats, Street arabs and river thieves who infest wharves, sometimes living 
on platforms beneath the flooring. 

Wharfinger. One who has charge of a wharf. 

W^heel. The instrument for steering a vessel, being connected with a barrel around 
which the tiller ropes go. 

W^heel Chains. Chains used in place of the rope for connecting the steering wheel 
and the tiller. 

W^heel House. The house on deck containing the wheel, connecting with the 
tiller, and by wdiicli the vessel is steered. 

W^lieel Rods. Lengths of straight rod along the water ways that take the place 
of a part of tho wheel rope or chnin. 

W^heel Rope. A rope connecting the steering wheel and the tiller. 

W^helps. Pieces of iron V)olted to wooden windlass barrels so as to prevent the chain 
cable from cutting into the wood. 

Wherry. A small rowing boat. Also a small sailing boat used for fishing-. 

Wllip. A purchase formed of one single block with a small rope rove through 
it. To prevent the end of a rope from fagging by seizing it around with twine. A 
doiMe whip has two single blocks. 

Whip and Runner. A whip, the block of which is spliced into a pendant. One 
end of the whip is made fast, the bight rove through the pendant block, and the other 
end the hauling part. 

Whip-upon-Whip. One whip applied to the fall of another. 

Whipping, The binding of twine placed around the end of a rope to keep it from 

W^hiskers. Projecting spars or irons from the bowsjirit for the purpose of giving 
more spread to the jib-boom guys. 

Whistling Buoy. A whistle placed on a buoy, and which is sounded automati- 
cally by the rising and falling motion of the buoy, communicated I'rom the waves. 


White Caps. The froth on the crest of waves caused by the wind, and indicating- 
that the breeze will increase. Also known as horses^ manes. 

Wllite Lead Putty. A putt\- made of white lead and whiting, and used for filling 
the deck seams on yachts. (See Eed Lead Puttt.) 

White W^ater. Water over a shallow bottom given a light appearance by the re- 
flection of the white sand. . 

Whole-sail-hreeze. A wind which will allow a vessel to carry all sail. 

Wide Berth. When a vessel keeps at a considerable distance from an object she 
is said to give it a wide berth. 

Wild. A vessel is said to steer wild when she yaws a great deal. 

W^inch. A horizontal barrel turned by a crank. A mast winch is on the deck just in 
front of the mast and is used for hoisting yards and gaffs when making sail. (See 

Wind. Air in motion. There are several numerals given to describe the force of 
winds, namely : 0, calm ; 1, light air ; 2, light breeze ; 3, gentle breeze; 4, moderate 
breeze; 5, fresh breeze; 6, strong breeze; 7, moderate gale ; 8, fresh gale ; 9, strong- 
gale; 10, whole gale , 11, storm; 12, hurricane. 

W^ind a Ship. To change a vessel's position by bringing her head where her 
stern was. 

Wind Bound. Being prevented from sailing by a head-wind. 

W"ind Rode. The situation of a ship when she rides to the wind independent of 
the current or tide. 

Wind-sail. A long fnnnel-shape canvas leading below through one of the hatches,^ 
kept spread by wooden hoops, and used for sending fresh air below decks. An open- 
ing in its upper part, or head, admits the air which is gathered by two large canvas- 
flaps or ears, standing out on each side, and trimmed by bowlines. The windsail 
hoists by halliards, and is slued around as often as necessary to face the wind. 

W^ind the Call. The boatswain is said to wind his call when he blows it. The 
first word is pronounced the same as the first word in the sentence '' wind the clock." 

Windlass. The machine by which an anchor is weighed. (See engraving; see 
Capstax ) 

Windlass Bitts. The upright supports for the barrel of the windlass. These 
uprights are also known by the names of car rick-heads, carrick-Utts, and wind- 
lass heads. 

Windlass Capstan. A combination of a windlass and capstan, in which the wind- 
lass moves the spindle of the capstan by gearing. 

Wind's Eye. The exact point from which the wind blows. 

Windward. The point or direction from which the wind blows. 

Windward Tide. A tide that sets to windward. (See Weather Tide.) 

Wing-. The part of the hold next the side. 

Wing- and Wing. Said of a fore-and-aft vessel when she is sailing with her 
booms out on opposite sides. 

Wingers. The casks or barrels which are stowed in the wings. 

Wire Rigging. Standing rigging of wire-rope, which has almost entirely taken 
the place of hemp standing rigging. 

With the Sun. A rope laid up from right to left is said to be laid up with 
the sun. When the wind shifts around the compass in the same way that the 
hands of a watch revolve (from north to south by the way of east) it is said to 
shift tvith the sun. The sun is supposed to move from light to left. (See Against 


Withe. (See Wythe.) 

Woodlock. A block of wood bolted to the rudder-stock underneath one of the 

pintles so as to prevent the rudder from unshipping. 
Woolding. The winding of rope around a spar after it has been fished. 
Work to Windward. To make progress against the wind. 
Working a Ship. Handling the yards and sails and rudder. 
Working Jib. The regular jib — one of the head-sails. (See Jib.) 

196 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Workings Sails. All the regular sails of a vessel excepting such as are rigged 

specially in light breezes. Under the latter head would be studding sails for a 

ship, and club-topsails and balloon-sails for fore-and-aft vessels. 
Working' Topsail. Known also as the standing B,nd the gaff-topsail, in distinction 

to the sprit or club-topsails which are hoisted from the deck and set flying. 
Working Up. To make spun yarn, etc., out of the strands of old rigging. Also 

to keep a man constantly at work at dirty or needless jobs as a punishment. (See 

EiDiNG Down.) 
Worm. Filling up the lays of a rope with spiral windings of small stufi (called 

tvorming), so as to make a flush surface. 
W^reck. Destruction of a vessel in part or whole. 

W^reckage. Spars, cordage, sails, cargo, etc., belonging to a wrecked vessel. 
Wrecker. The term may be defined in two ways. One who seeks to draw vessels 

ashore by false lights, for the purpose of plunder. One legitimately employed in 

raising sunken vessels and saving their cargoes. 
Wring'. To strain anything unduly or to twist out of shape. To wring a, mast is 

to buckle it by setting the shrouds up too taut. 
Wythe. An iron ring fitted to the end of a boom as a cap, through which a spar is 

rigged out. 


Yacht. A vessel used for pleasure, or a vessel of state. 

Yacht Plumbing'. (See Ship Plumbing.) 

Yard. A spar suspended horizontally to the forward side of a mast, and to which the 

head of a square-sail is bent. Yards also spread the foot of the sail next above. 

They are hoisted by halliards, turned by braces, and supported by lifts. The middle 

of the yard is called the slings, the ends of the yard the yard-arms, and between the 

slings and yard-arms the quarters. Lower yards are hung in a truss, and the 

upper yards confined to the mast by parrels. There are lower-yards, topsail-yards, 

topgallant-yards, royal-yards, and skysail-yards. (See Double Topsails, Double 

Yard A-box. A yard is a-hox when its sail is aback. 
Yard Arm. (See' Arm.) 
Yard-arm and Yard-arm. Said of vessels when they are lying alongside of 

one another so that their yard arms touch. 
Yard Rope. The rope used in sending up and down yards. 
Yard Tackle. A heavy tackle hooked into a strop on lower yards, and used for 

hoisting great weights. 
Yarn. A tale. To spin ay am \s to naXaXe a, stovy. (See Eope Yarn, Twister.) 
Yaw. A vessel yaws when, from indifterent steering, or a heavy sea running under 

the quarter, she makes a crooked track through the water. 
Yawl. A small fishing vessel. A cutter with an additional fore-and-aft sail set on a 

raizzen or jigger-mast in the stern. (See engraving.) 
Yellow-belly. A term applied by seamen to a Portuguese or a mulatto. 
Yellow Jack. The yellow quarantine flag flown by a vessel having contagious 

disease on board. 
Yellow Metal. A cheap composition used for sheathing a vessel in place of copper. 
Yeoman. A ship's storekeeper. (See Storekeeper.) 
Yoke. A horizontal piece of wood or metal plaaed across the head of a boat's rudder, 

to each end of which a yoke-line is secured, and by which the boat is steered. 
Yoke Ijines. Short lengths of rope fastened to the yoke, and by pulling which the 

rudder is tarned. 
Young Gentlemen. A general term for midshipmen, both in the navy and 

merchant service. 





Afloat. Borne up by, or floating in, the water. 

After-body. That part of a ship's boch- abaft the midships or dead-flat. This term 
is more particularly used in expressing the figure or shtqje of that part of the ship. 

After-timbers. All those timbers abaft the midships or dead-flat. 

Air Funnel. A cavity framed between the sides of some timbers to admit fresh 
air into the ship and convey the foul air out of it. 

Amidships. In midships, or in the middle of the ship, either with regard to her 
length or breadth. Hence that timber or frame which has the greatest breadth and 
capacity in the ship is denominated the midshiji bend. 

Anchor-lining. The short pieces of plank, or of board, fastened to the sides of the 
ship or to stanchions under the fore-channel to prevent the bill of the anchor from 
wounding the ship's side when fishing the anchor. 

To Anchor Stock. To work planks in a manner resembling the stocks of an- 
chors, by fashioning them in a tapering form from the middle and working or fixing 
them over each other so that the broad or middle part of one plank shall be immedi- 
ately above or below the butts or ends of two others. This method, as it occasions a 
great consumption of wood, is only used where particular strength is required, as in the 
sinrhettings under ports, etc. 

An-end. The position of any mast, etc., when erected perpendicularly on the deck. 
The topmasts are said to be an-end when they are hoisted up to their usual stations. 
This is also a common phrase for expressing the driving of anything in the direction 
of its length, as to force one plank, etc., to meet the butt of another. 

Angle of Incidence. The angle made with the line of direction by an impinging 
body at the point of impact ; as that formed by the direction of the wind upon the sails 
or of the water upon the rudder of a ship. 

Angle of Safety. The angle reckoned in degrees which marks the limit in at 
vessel's rolling. Should she roll beyond the limit she would upset. This angle varies 
according to the vessel. An instrument called the clinometer records the angles made 
in the rolling of a ship. 

Apron. A kind of false or inner stem, fayed on the aftside of the stem, from the head 
down to the dead-wood, in order to strengthen it. It is immediately above the foremost 
end of the keel, and conforms exactly to the shape of the stem, so that the convexity 
of one applied to the concavity of the other forms one solid piece, which adds strength 
to the stem and more firmly connects it with the keel. 
Arch of the Cove. An elliptical moulding sprung over the cove at the lower 
part of the tafirail. 

200 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


Back of the Post. The after-face of the stern post. 

Backstay Stool. A short piece of broad plank, bolted edgeways to the ship's side, 
in the range of the channels, to project and for the security of the dead-eyes and chains 
for the backstays. Sometimes the channels are left long enough to answer the pur- 

Back-sweep. (See Frames.) 

Balance Frames. Those frames or bends of timber, of the same capacity or area, 
which are equally distant from the centre of gravity. (See Frames.) 

Battens. In general, light scantlings of wood. In ship-building, long, narrow laths 
of fir, their ends corresponding and fitted into each other with mortice and tenon, used 
in setting fair the sheer-lines on a ship. The}' are painted black in order to be the 
more conspicuous. Battens used on the mold-loft floor are narrow laths, of which some 
are accurately graduated and marked with feet, inches and quarters for setting off dis- 
tances. Battens for gratings are narrow, thin laths of oak. 

Beams. The substantial pieces of timber which stretch across the ship from side to 
side to support the decks and keep the ship together by means of the knees, etc., their 
ends being lodged on the clamps, keeping the ship to her breadth. 

Seam Arm, or Fork Beam, is a curved piece of timber, nearly of the depth of 
the beam, scarphed, tabled and bolted for additional security to the sides of beams 
athwart large openings in the decks, as the main hatchway and the mast-rooms. 

Breast Beams are those beams at the forepart of the quarter deck and poop, and 
afterpart of the forecastle. Thej' are sided larger than the rest, as they have an orna- 
mental rail in the front, formed from the solid, and a rabbet one inch broader than its 
depth, which must be sufficient to bury the deals of the deck, and one inch above for a 
spum-water. To prevent splitting the beam in the rabbet the nails of the deck shoiild 
be crossed, or so placed, alternately, as to form a sort of zigzag line. 

Half-Beams are short beams introduced to support the deck where there is no fram- 
ing, as in those places where the beams are kept asunder by hatchways, ladder-ways, 
etc. They are let down on the clamp at the side, and near midships, into fore-and-aft 
carlings. On some decks they are abaft the mizzen-mast, generally of fir, let into the 
side tier of carlings. 

The Miclship^ Beam is the longest beam of the ship, lodged in the midship-frame or 
between the widest frame of timbers. 

Bearding. The diminishing of the edge or surface of a piece of timber, etc., from a 
given line, as on the dead-wood, clamps, plank-sheers, fife-rails, etc. 

Bearding-line. A curved line occasioned by bearding the dead-wood to the form 
of the body ; the fonner being sided sufficiently, this line is carried high enough to 
prevent the heels of timbers from running to a sharp edge, and forms a rabbet for the 
timbers to step on; hence it is often called the stepping-line. 

Bed. A solid framing of timber to receive and to support the mortar in a bomb 

Beetle. A large mallet used by caulkers for driving in their reeming irons to open 
the seams in order for caulking. 

Belly. The inside or hollow part of compass or curved timber, the outside of which is 
called the back. 

Bell-top. A term applied to the top of a quarter galley when the upper stool is hol- 
lowed away, or made like a rim, to give more height, as in the quarter galleries of 
small vessels, and the stool of the upper finishing comes home to the side, to complete 
Bend-mould, in whole moulding. A mould made to form the futtocks in the 

square body, assisted by the rising-square, and floor-hollow. 
Bends. The frames or ribs that form the ship's body from the keel to the top of the 
side at any particular station. They are first put together on the ground. That at 

Patterson's illdstbated nautical dictionakt. 














'3<i <H - 

202 pattekson's illustrated nautical dictiokaet. 

the broadest part of the ship is denominated the onidsMp-hend or deadr-flat. The 
foreparts of the wales are commonly called bends. 

Between- decks. The space contained between any two decks of a ship. 

Between Perpendiculars. The length on deck from the forepart of the stem 
to the afterpart of the stern post. 

Bevel. A well-known instrument, composed of a stock and a movable tongue, for 
taking- of angles on wood, etc., by shipwrights, called bevelings. 

Beveling-board. A piece of deal on which the bevelings or angles of the tim 
bers, etc., are described. 

Bevelings. The windings or angles of the timbers, etc., a term applied to any devi- 
ation from a square or right angle. (_)f beveling there are two sorts, denominated 
standing bevelings and mukr bevelings. By the former is meant an obtuse angle, or 
that which is without a S(j:uave ; and by the latter is understood an acute angle, or 
that which is witliin a square. 

Bilge. That part of a ship's floor, on either side of the keel, which has more of a 
horizontal than of a perpendicular direction, and on which the ship would rest if laid on 
the ground ; or, more particularly, those projecting parts of the bottom which are op- 
posite to the heads of the floor-timbers amidships, on each side of the keel. 

Bilge Trees, or Bilge Pieces, or Bilge Keels. The jDieces of timber 
fastened under the bilge of boats or other vessels to keep them upright when on shore, 
or to prevent their falling to leeward when sailing. 

Bilgeways. A square bed of timber placed under the bilge of the ship to support her 
while launching. 

Bindings. The iron links which surround the dead-eyes. 

Binding-strakes. Two strakes of oak plank, worked all the way fore-and-aft 
upon the beams of each deck, witliin one strake of the coamings of the main hatchway, 
in order to strengthen the deck, as that strake and the midship strakes are out off by 
the pumps, etc. 

Bins. A sort of large chests, or erections in store-rooms, in which the stores are de- 
posited. They are generally 3 or 4 feet deep and nearly of the same breadth. 

Birtli-np. A term generally used for working up a topside or bulkhead with board 
or thin plank. 

Black Strake. A broad strake, which is parallel to and worked upon the upper 
edge of the wales in order to strengthen the ship. It derives its name from being paid 
with pitch, and is the boundary for the painting of the topsides. Ships having no 
ports near the wales have generally two black strakes. 

Blocks, for Building the Skip Upon, are those solid pieces of oak timber 
fixed under the ship's keel upon the groundways. 

Board. Timber sawed to a less thickness than plank ; all broad stuff of, or under, 
one inch and a half in thickness. 

Bodies. The figure of a ship, abstractedly considered, is supposed to be divided into 
different parts, or figures, to each of which is given the appellation of body. Hence, 
we have the terms fore body, after body, cant bodies, and square body. Thus the 
fore body is the figure, or imaginary figure, of that part of the ship afore the mid- 
ships, or dead-flat, as seen from ahead. The cifter body, in like manner, is the 
figure of that part of the ship abaft the midships, or dead-flat, as seen from astern. 
The cant bodies are distinguished into fore and after, and signify the figure of that 
part of a ship's body, or timbers, as seen from either side, which form the shape for- 
ward and aft, and whose planes makes obtuse angles with the midship line of the 
ship ; those in the fore cant-body being inclined to the stem, as those in the after 
one are to the stern-post. The square body comprehends all the timbers whose areas 
or planes are perpendicular to the keel, and square with the middle line of the ship ; 
which is all that portion of a ship between the cant bodies. 

Bollard Timbers. (See Kkight Heads.) 

Bolsters. Pieces of oak timber fayed to the curvature of the bow, under the hawse- 
holes, and down upon the upper or lower cheek, to prevent the cable from rubbing 
affainst the cheek. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 















204 Patterson's illtjsteated nautical dictionaky. 

Bolsters, for the Anchor Lining, are solid pieces of oak, bolted to the 
ship's side, at ihe fore-part of the fore-chains, on which the stanchions are fixed that 
receive the anchor lining. The fore end of the bolster should extend two feet 
or more before the lining, for the convenience of a man standing to assist in fishing 
the anchor. 

Bolsters for Sheets, Tacks, etc., are small pieces of fir, or oak, fayed under 
the gunwale, etc., with the outer surface rounded to prevent the sheets and other 
rigging from chafing. 

Bolts. Cylindrical or square pins of iron or copper, of various forms, for fastening and 
securing the diiferent parts of the ship, the guns, etc. The figure of those for fasten- 
ing the timbers, planks, hooks, knees, crutches, and other articles of a similar nature,, 
is cylindrical, and their sizes are adapted to the respective objects which they are 
intended to secure. They have round or saucer heads, according to the purposes for 
which they may be intended ; and the points are fore-looked or clinched on rings to 
prevent their drawing. Those for bolting the frames or beams together are generally 

Bottom. All that part of a ship or vessel that is below the Avales. Hence, we use 
the epithet sharp-bottomed for vessels intended for quick sailing, and fun-bottomed for 
such as are designed to carry large cargoes. 

Bow. The circular part of the ship forward, terminated at the rabbet of the stem. 

Braces. Straps of iron, copper or mixed metals, secured with bolts and screws in the 
stern-post and bottom planks. In their after-ends are holes to receive the pintles by 
which the rudder is hung. 

Breadth. A term more particularly applied to some essential dimensions of the 
extent of a ship or vessel athwartships, as the breadth-extreme, and the breadth- 
moulded, which are two of the principal dimensions given in the building of the 
ship. The extreme breadth is the extent of the midships, or dead-flat, with the 
thickness of the bottom plank included. The breadth-moulded is the same extent,, 
without the thickness of the plank. 

Breadth-line. A curved line of the ship lengthwise, intersecting the timbers at 
their respective broadest parts. 

Break. The sudden termination or rise in the decks of some merchant ships, where 
the aft, and sometimes the fore, part of the deck is kept up to give more height 
between decks, as likewise at the drifts. 

Breast-hooks. Large pieces of compass timber fixed within and athwart the bows 
of the ship, of which they are the principal security, and through which they are well 
bolted. There is generally one between each deck, and three or four below the lower 
deck, fayed upon the plank. Those below are placed square to the shape of the ship 
at their respective places. The breast-hooks that receive the ends of the deck-planks 
are also called decJc-hooJcs, and are fayed close home to the timbers in the direction of 
the decks. 

Broken -backed or Hogged. The condition of a ship when the sheer has de- 
parted from the regular and pleasing curve with which it was originally built. This is. 
often occasioned by the improper situation of the centre of gravity, when so posted as 
not to counterbalance the effort of the water in sustaining the ship, or by a great strain, 
or from the weakness of construction. The latter is the most common circumstance, 
particularly in some clipper ships, owing partly to their great length, sharpness of 
floor, or general want of strength in the junction of the component parts. 

Bum-kin, or, more properly, Boom-kin. A projecting piece of oak or fir on 
each bow of a ship, fayed down upon the false rail, or rail of the head, with its heel 
cleated against the knight-head in large, and the bow in small ships. It is secured 
outward by an iron rod or rope lashing, which confines it downward to the knee or bow. 
and is used for the purpose of hauling down the fore-tack of the fore-sail. 

Burthen. The weight or measm'e that any ship will carry or contain when fit for sea. 

Butt. The joints of the planks endwise ; also the opening between the ends of the 
planks when worked for caulking. Where caulking is not used, the butts are rab- 
beted, and must fay close. 

Patterson's illustbated nautical dictionaet. 












206 vatticeson's ii,lustrated nautical niCriONAEY. 

Buttock. That rounding of tlie body abaft bounded by the fashion-pieces ; and, at 

the upper part, by the wing transoTn. 
Buttock-lines. (On the sheer draught.) Curves, lengthwise, representing the- 

ship as cut in vertical sections. 


Canilber. Hollow or arching upwards. The decks are said to be cambered when tlieii- 
height increases toward the middle, from stem to stem, in the direction of the ship's 

Camel. A machine for lifting ships over a bank or shoal, originally invented by the 
celebrated De Witt, for the purpose of conveying large vessels from Amsterdam over- 
the Parapus. They were introduced into Russia by Peter the Great, who obtained the 
model when he worked in Holland as a common shipwright, and are now used at St. 
Petersburgh for lifting ships of war built there over the bar of the harbor. A camel 
is composed of two separate parts, whose outsides are perpendicular, and insides con- 
cave, shaped so as to embrace the hull of a ship on both sides. Each part has a 
small cabin, with sixteen pumps and ten plugs, and contains twenty men. They are 
braced to the nnderpart of the ship by means of cables, and entirely enclose its sides 
and bottom. Being then towed to the bar, the plugs are opened and the water 
admitted until the camel sinks with the ship, and runs aground. Then, the- 
water being pumped out, the camel rises, lifts up the vessel, and the whole is towed. 
over the bar. This machine can raise the ship ieleven feet, or, in other words, make it 
draw eleven feet less water. 

Cant. A term signifying the inclination that anything has from a square or perpen- 

Cant-rlbbands are those ribbands that do not liis in a horizontal or level direction, 
or square from the middle line, but nearly square from the timbers, as the diagonal 
ribbands. (See RibBxVNDs.) 

Cant Tiinbers, are those timbers afore and abaft whose planes are not square with,. 
or perpendicular to, the middle-line of the ship. 

Caps. Square pieces of oak, laid upon the upper blocks on which the ship is built, to 
receive the keel. They should be of the most freely-grained oak, that they may be 
easily split out when the false keel is to be placed beneath. The depth of them may 
be a few inches more than the thickness of the false keel, that it may be set up close 
to the main keel by slices, etc. 

Cap Scuttle. A framing composed of coamings and head ledges, raised above the- 
deck, with a flat or top which shuts closely over into a rabbet. 

Carting's. Long pieces of timber, above four inches square, which lie fore-and-aft, in 
tiers, from beam to beam, into which their ends are scored. They receive the ends of 
the ledges for framing the decks. The carlings by the side of, and for the support of 
the mast, which receive the framing round the mast, called the partners, are much 
larger than the rest, and are named the mast carlings. Besides these there are 
others, as the pump carlings, which go next without the mast carlings, and between 
which the pumps pass into the well ; and also the fire-hearth carlings, that let up 
under the beam on which the galley stands, with pillars underneath, and chocks upon 
it, fayed up to the ledges for support. 

Carvel Work. A term applied, to cutters and boats, signifying that the seams of 
the bottom-planking are square, and to be tight by caulking as those of ships. It i&- 
opposed to the phrase clincher-built, which see. 

Caulking. Forcing oakum into the seams and between the butts of the plank,- 
etc, with iron instruments, in order to prevent the water penetrating into the ship. 

Ceiling or Foot-waling. The inside planks of the bottom of the ship. 

Centre of Cavity, or of Displacement. The centre of that part of the- 

Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionaey 












208 Patterson's illustrated NAtJTicAL dictionary. 

sbip's body which is immersed in the water, and which is also the centre of the ver- 
tical force that the water exerts to support the vessel. 

Centre of Gravity. That point about which all the parts of a body do, in any 
situation, exactly balance each other. Hence, 1. If a body be suspended by this 
point as the centre of motion it will remain at rest in any position indifferently. 2. 
If a body be suspended in any other point, it can rest only in two positions, viz. : 
when the centre of gravity is exactly above or below the point of suspension. 3. 
When the centre of gravity is supported the whole body is kept from falling. 4. 
Because this point has a constant tendency to descend to the centre of the earth, there- 
fore — 5. When the point is at liberty to descend, the whole body must also descend, 
either by sliding, rolling or tumbling over. 

Centre of Motion. That point of a body which remains at rest whilst all the 
other parts are in motion about it ; and this is the same, in bodies of one uniform 
density throughout, as the centre of gravity. 

Centre of Oscillation. That point in the axis or line of suspension of a vibrat- 
ing body, or system of bodies, in which, if the whole matter or weight be collected, 
the vibrations will still be performed in the same time, and with the same angular 
velocity, as before. 

Centre of Percussion, in a moving body, is that point where the percussion or 
stroke is the greatest, and in which the whole percutient force of the body is supposed 
to be collected. Peecussion is the impression a body makes in falling or striking 
upon another, or the shock of bodies in motion striking against each other. 
It is either direct or oblique ; direct when the impulwe is given in a line 
perpendicular to the point of contact ; and oblique when it is given in a line oblique to 
the point of contact. 

Centre of Resistance to a Fluid. That point in a plane to which, if a con- 
trary force be applied, it shall just sustain the resistance. 

Chain or Chains. The links of iron which are connected to the binding that sur- 
round the dead-eyes of the channels. They are secured to the ship's side by a bolt 
through the toe-link called a chain-bolt. 

Chain-holt. A large bolt to secure the chains of the dead-eyes, for the purpose of 
securing the masts by the shrouds. 

Chain Plates. Thick iron plates, sometimes used, which are bolted to the ship's 
sides, instead of chains to the dead-eyes, as above. 

Chamfering. Taking off the sharp edge from timber or plank, or cutting the edge 
or end of any thing bevel or aslope. 

Channels. The broad projection or assemblage of planks fayed and bolted to the 
ship's sides for the purpose of spreading the shrouds with a greater angle to the dead- 
eyes. They should therefore be placed either above or below the upper deck ports, 
as may be most convenient. But it is to be observed that, if placed too high, they 
strain the sides too much ; and if placed too low the shrouds cannot be made to clear 
the ports without diiRculty. Their disposition will therefore depend on that particular 
which will produce the greatest advantage. They should fay to the sides only where 
the bolts come through, having an open space of about two inches in the rest of their 
length to admit a free current of air and a passage for wet and dirt, in order to pre- 
vent the sides from rotting. 

Channel Wales. Three or four thick strakes, worked between the upper and lower 
deck ports in two-decked ships, and between the upper and middle deck ports in three- 
decked ships, for the purpose of strengthening the topside. They should be placed in 
the best manner for receiving the chain and preventer bolts, the fastenings of the deck- 
knees, etc. 

Cheeks. Knees of oak timber which support the knee of the head, and which they 
also ornament by their shape and mouldings. They form the basis of the head and 
connect the whole to the bows, through which, and the knee, they are bolted. 

Chestrees. Pieces of oak timber fayed and bolted to the topsides, one on each side 
abaft the fore channels, with a sheave fitted in the upper part for the convenience of 
hauling home the main tack. 









PATIEESON's illustrated nautical DICTIONAUr. 

I ' 'v « ' erf P* A , ■f' 

»-^ k. i— ' / . -.V.J 


i^L^.^^ ^- — Jw^ 

210 i^atteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 

Chine. That part of the waterways which is left the thickest and above the deck- 
plank. It is bearded back that the lower seam of spirketting may be more conven- 
iently caulked, and is gouged hollow in front to form a water-course. 

To Cilinse. To caulk slightly with a knife or chisel those seams or openings that 
will not bear the force required for caulking in a more proper manner. 

Clamps. Those substantial strakes worked withinside the ship upon which the ends 
of the beams are placed. 

Clean. A term generally used to express the acuteness or sharpness of a ship's body ; 
as when a ship is formed very acute or sharp forward and the same aft she is said to be 
clean both forward and aft. 

Clinclier-built. A term applied to the construction of some vessels and boats when 
the planks of the bottom are so disposed that the lower edge of every plank overlays 
the next under it, and the fastenings go through and clinch or turn upon the timbers. 
It is opposed to the term carvel-work. 

Clincliing or Clenching. Spreading the point of the bolt upon a ring, etc., by 
beating it with a hammer in order to prevent its drawing. 

Coaking. Uniting pieces of spar l)y means of tubular projections formed by cutting 
away the solid of one piece into a hollow, so as to make a projection on the other, 
in such a manner that they may correctly fit, the butts preventing the pieces from 
drawing asunder. 

Cooks are fitted into the beams and knees of vessels to prevent their drawing. 

Coamings. T'he raised borders of oak about the edge of the hatches and scuttles 
which prevent water from flowing down from off the deck. Their inside upper edge 
has a rabbet to receive the gratings. 

Companion. In ships of war the framing and sash lights upon the quarter-deck or 
poop through which the light passes to the commander's apartments. In merchant 
ships it is the birthing or hood round the ladder-way leading to the master's cabin, and 
in small ships is chiefly for the purpose of keeping the sea from beating down. 

Compass Timbers. Such as are curved or arched. 

Conversion. The art of lining- and moulding timber, plank, etc., with the least 
possible waste. 

Coping. Turning the ends of iron lodging-knees so as they may hook into the 

Counter. A part of the stern, the lower counter being that arched part of the stern 
immediately above the wing transom. Above the lower counter is the second counter, 
the upper part of which is the under part of the lights or windows. The counters are 
parted by their rails, as the lower counter springs from the tuck-rail, and is terminated 
on the upper part by the lower counter rail. From the upper part of the latter springs 
the upper or second counter, its upper part terminating in the upper counter rail, which 
is immediately under the lights. 

Counter-sunk. The hollows in iron plates, etc., which are excavated by an instru- 
ment called a counter-sunk bitt to receive the heads of screws or nails so that they may 
be flush or even with the surface. 

Counter- timbers. The right-aft timbers which form the stern. The longest run 
up and form the lights, while the shorter only run up to the under part of them, and 
help to strengthen the counter. The side counter timbers are mostly formed of two 
pieces scarphed together in consequence of their peculiar shape, as they not only form 
the right-aft figure of the stern, but partake of the shape of the topside also. 

Cove. The arch moulding sunk in at the foot or lower part of the taflarel. 

Crab. A sort of little capstan, formed of a kind of wooden pillar, whose lower end 
works in a socket whilst the middle traverses or turns round in partners which clip it 
in a circle. In its upper end are two holes to receive bars, which act as levers, and by 
which it is turned round and serves as a capstan for raising of weights, etc. By a 
machine of this kind, so simple in its construction, may be hove up the frame timbers, 
etc., of vessels when building. For this purpose it is placed between two floor tim- 
bers, while the partners which clip it in the middle may be of four or five-inch plank 
fastened on the same floors. A block is fastened beneath in the slip, with a central 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


Dead eyc^- 
'Vpj>er Chamiel 

Cliain Plaii-. — ., 

(Bulwark ■■ 

Plankslieer- — t.. 


f^Topgallani Rail 

/nam. Rail 

-Bulwark Stanchion,. 

(■■ovenntj Boarcl 

i j Inner WcUcrs-juy 

Timber, mSliij 



y-Rider KccUoru 

' ^Maui KejJsan. 


Floor or Floortiinher-- 


GarjToard-stralie' „ i frT' i'-r 7- i 

False. Ked J^'VrAcf./ 

i'ie<:J Rabid 

512 pattekson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

hole for its lower end to work in. Besides the crab here described there is another 
sort which is shorter and portable. The latter is fitted in a frame composed of cheeks, 
across which are the partners, and at the bottom a little platform to receive the spindle. 

Cradle. A strong frame of timber, etc., placed under the bottom of a ship in order to 
conduct her steadily in her ways till she is safely launched into water sufficient to 
float her. 

Crank. A term applied to ships built too deep in proportion to their breadth, and 
from which they are in danger of over-setting. 

Croaky. A term applied to plank when it curves or compasses much in short 

Cross Chocks. Pieces of timber fayed across the dead-wood amidships to make 
good the deficiency of the heels of the lower futtocks. 

Cross Pauls. Pieces of timber that keep a vessel together while in frame. 

Cross Piece. A piece of timber connecting two bitts. 

Cross Spales. Deals or fir plank nailed in a temporary manner to the frames 
of the ship at a certain height, and by which the frames are kept to their 
proper breadths until the deck-knees are fastened. The main and top-timber 
breadths are the heights mostly taken for spalling the frames, bnt the height of 
the ports is much better ; yet this may be thought too high if the ship is long 
in building. 

Crutclies, or Clutclies. Tlie crooked timbers fayed and bolted upon the 
foot-waling abaft for the security of the heels of the half-timbers. Also stanchions of 
iron or wood whose upper parts are forked to receive rails, spare masts, yards, etc. 

Cup. A solid piece of cast iron, let into the step of the capstan, and in which the iron 
spindle at the heel of the capstan works. (See Capstan.) 

Cutting-down Line. The elliptical curve line forming the upperside of the 
floor-timbers at the middle line. Also, the line that forms the upper part of the knee 
of the head above the cheeks. The cutting-down line is represented as limiting the 
depth of every floor timber at the middle line, and also the height of the upper part of 
the dead-wood afore and abaft. 


Dagger. A piece of timber that faces on to the poppets of the bilgeways, and crosses 
them diagonally, to keep them together. The plank that secures the heads of the 
poppets is called the dagger plank. The word dagger seems to apply to anything that 
stands diagonally or aslant. 

Dagger Knees. Knees to supply the place of hanging knees. Their side arms 
are brought up aslant or nearly to the underside of the beams adjoining. They are 
chiefly used to the lower deck beams of merchant ships, in order to preserve as much 
stowage in the hold as possible. Any strait-hanging knees not perpendicular to the 
side of the beam are in general termed dagger Jcnees. 

Dead- flat. A name given to that timber or frame which has the greatest breadth 
and capacity in the ship, and which is generally called the midship bend. In those 
ships where there are several frames or timbers of equal breadth or capacity that 
which is in the middle should be always considered as dead-flat, and distinguished as 
such by this character -f. The timbers before the dead-flat are marked A, B, C, etc., 
in order; and those abaft dead-flat by the figures 1, 2, 3, etc. The timbers adjacent 
to dead-flat, and of the same dimensions nearly, are distinguished by the characters 
(A) (B), etc., and (1) (2), etc. 

Dead-rising, or Rising Line of the Floor. Those parts of the floor or 
bottom throughout the ship's length where the sweep or curve at the head of the floor 
timber is terminated or inflects to join the keel. Hence, although the rising of the 

Patterson's illtjsteated nautical diction akt. 



214- Patterson's illustkated- nautical dictionart. 

floor at tlie midship-flat is but a few inches above the keel at that place, its height 
forward and aft increases according to the sharpness of form in the body. Therefore, 
the rising of the floor in the sheer plan is a curved line drawn at the height of the ends 
of the floor timbers, and limited at the main frame or dead-flat by the death-rising, 
appearing in flat ships nearly parallel to the keel for some timbers afore and abaft the 
midship frame, for which reason these timbers are called ^«fe; but in sharp ships it 
rises gradually from the main frame, and ends on the stem and post. 

Dead-water. The eddy water which the ship draws after her at her seat or line 
of flotation in the water, particularly close aft. To this particular great attention 
should be paid in the C(mstruction of a vessel, especially in those with square tucks ; 
for such being carried too low in the water will be attended with great eddies or much 
dead-water. Vessels with a round buttock have but little or no dead-water, because, 
by the rounding or arching of such vessels abaft, the water more easily recovers its 
state of rest. 

Dead-wood. That part of the basis of a ship's body forward and aft which is 
formed by solid pieces of tin)ber soarphed together lengthwise on the keel. These 
should be sufficiently broad to admit of a stepping or rabbet for the heels of the 
timbers, that the latter may not be continued downwards to sharp edges; and they 
should be sufficiently high to seat the floors. Afore and abaft the floors the dead- 
wood is continued to the cutting down line for the purpose of securing the heels of the 

Depth in the Hold. The height between the floor and the lower deck. This is 
one of the principal diniensions given for the construction of a ship. It varies accord- 
ing to the height at which the guns are required to be carried from the water, or ac- 
cording to the trade for which a vessel is designed. 

Diagonal Line. A line cutting the body-plan diagonally from the timbers to the 
middle line. It is square with, or perpendicular to, the shape of the timbers, or nearly 
so, till it meets the middle line. 

Diagonal Kibband. A narrow plank, made to a line formed on the half-breadth 
plan, by taking the intersections of the diagonal line with the timbers in the body- 
plan to where it outs the middle line in its direction, and applying it to their respective 
stations on the half-breadth-plan, which forms a curve to which the ribband is made as 
far as the cant-body extends, and the square frame adjoining. 

Dog'. An iron implement used by shipwrights, having a fang at one or sometimes at 
each end, to be driven into any piece for supporting it while hewing, etc. Another 
sort has a fang in one end and an eye in tiie other in which a rope may be fastened 
and used to haul anything along. 

Dog Shore. A shore particularly used in launching. 

Doubling. Planking of ships' bottoms twice. It is sometimes done to new ships 
when the original planking is thought to be too thin ; and in repairs it strengthens the 
ship without driving out the former fastenings. 

Doweling. A method of coaking by letting pieces into the solid, or uniting pieces 
together by tenons. 

Draught. The drawing or design of the ship upon paper, describing the different 
parts, and from which the ship is to be built. It is mostly drawn by a scale of one- 
quarter of an inch to a foot, so divided or graduated that the dimensions may be 
taken to one inch. 

Draught of Water. The depth of water a ship displaces when she is afloat. 

Drifts. Those pieces in the sheer draught where the rails are out off. 

Driver. The foremost spur on the bilgeways, the heel of which is fayed to the fore- 
side of the foremost poppet, and cleated on the bilgeways, and the sides of it stand 
fore-and-aft. It is now seldom used. 

Drumhead. The head of a capstan, formed of semi-circular pieces of elm, which, 
framed together, form the circle into which the capstan bars are fixed. 

Drvixey. A state of decay in timber with white spungy veins, the most deceptive of 
any defect. 



, ., Outside^ plcuh7cin^~~~ , _^ 
,,-- ' /' ( InLernaL mew) ~\ ~"~--.^ 

iZ'^^Tvmbersc-' _ . 



Edging' of Plank. Sawing or hewing it narrower. 

Ekeing'. Making good a deficiency in the length of any piece by searphing or but- 
ting, as at the end of deck-hooks, cheeks or knees. The ekeing at the lower part of the 
supporter under the cathead is only -to continue the shape and fashion of that part, 
being of no other service. We make this remark because if the supporter were stopped 
short without an ekeing it would be the better, as it causes the side to rot ; and it com- 
monly appears fair to the eye in but one direction. The elceing is also the piece of 
carved work under the lower part of the quarter-piece at the aft-part of the quarter 

Elevation. The orthographic draught, or perpendicular plan of a ship, whereon the 
heights and lengths are expressed. It is called by shipwrights the sheer-draught. 

Entrance. A term applied to the forepart of the ship under the load-water line — 
as, " She has a fine entrance," etc. 

Even Keel. A ship is said to be on an even keel when she draws the quantity 
of water abaft as forwards ; also when she has no list, and is not inclined by the head 

or stern. 


Face Pieces. Pieces of wood wrought on the fore-part of the knee of the head. 

Facing'. Rabbeting one piece of timber into another in order to strengthen it. 

Fair. A term to denote the evenness or regularity of a curve or line. 

Falling Home, or, Tumbling Home. The inclination which the topside has 
within from a perpendicular. 

False-keel. A second keel, composed of elm plank or thick stuff, fastened in a 
slight manner under the main keel to prevent it from being rubbed. Its advantages 
also are that if the ship should strike the ground the false keel will give way, and thufs 
the main keel will be saved ; and it will be the means of causing the ship to hold the 
wind better. 

False-post. A piece tabled on to the after-part of the heel of the main part of the 
stern-post. It is to assist the conversion and preserve the main-post should the ship 
tail aground. 

False-rail. A rail fayed down upon the upper side of the main or upper rail of the 
head. It is to strengthen the head-rail, and forms the seat of ease at the after end 
next the bow. 

Fashion Pieces. The timbers so-called from their fashioning the after-part of the 
ship in the plane of projection by terminating the breadth and forming the shape of 
the stern. They are united to the ends of the transoms and to the dead-wood. 

Fay. To join one piece so close to another that there shall be no perceptible 
space between them. 

Filling-timbers. The intermediate timbers between the frames that are gotten up 
into their places singly after the frames are ribbanded and shored. 

Finishing. Carved ornaments of the quarter galley below the second counter and 
above the upper lights. 

Flairing. The reverse of falling or tumbling home. As this can be only in the fore- 
part of the ship, it is said that the ship has a flaring how when the topside falls out- 
ward from a perpendicular. Its uses are to shorten the cathead and yet keep the an- 
chor clear of the bow. It also prevents the sea from breaking in upon the forecastle. 

Flats. A name given to the timbers amidships that have no beveling, and are similar 
to dead-flat, which is distinguished by this character x . (See Dead-flat.) 

Floor. The bottom of a ship, or all tliat part on each side of the keel which 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionakt. 



5 l^^j.^. 

218 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 

approaclies nearer to a horizontal than a perpendicular direction, and whereon the 
ship rests when aground. 

Floors, or Floor Timbers. The timbers that are fixed athwart the keel, and 
upon which the whole frame is erected. They generally extend as far forward as the 
foremast, and as far aft as the after square timber, and sometimes one or two cant- 
floors are added. 

Flush. With a continued even surface ; as a flush decJc, which is a dect upon one 
continued line, without interruption, from fore-to-aft. 

Foot Wailing'. The inside planks or lining of a vessel over the floor timbers. 

Fore Body. That part of the ship's body afore the midships or dead-flat. (See 
Bodies.) This term is more particularly used in expressing the figure or shape of that 
part of the ship. 

ForeCHStle. That portion of the spar deck which is forward of the after fore shroud. 

Fore-foot. The foremost piece of the keel. 

Fore-lock. A thin circular wedge of iron used to retain a bolt in its place by being 
thrust through a mortise hole at the point of the bolt. It is sometimes turned or 
twisted round the bolt to prevent its drawing. 

Fore Peek. Close forward under the lower deck. 

Frames. The bends of timber which form the body of the ship, eacli of which is com- 
posed of one floor-timber, two or three futtocks, and a top-timber on each side; which, 
being united together, form the frame. Of these frames, or bends, that which encloses 
the greatest space is called the midship or main frame or hend. The arms of the floor- 
timber form a very obtuse angle ; and in the other frames this angle decreases or 
gradually becomes shai-per fore-and-aft with the middle line of the ship. Those floors 
which form the acute angles afore and abaft are called the rising floors. A frame of 
timbers is commonly formed by arches of circles called sweeps., of which there are gen- 
erally five. 1st. The floor sweep, which is limited by a line in the body plan perpen- 
dicular to the plane cf elevation, a little above the keel ; and the height of this line 
above the keel is called the dead rising. The upper part of this arch forms the head 
of the floor-timber. 2d. The loiver breadth sweep, the centre of which is in the line 
representing the lower height of breadth. 3d. The reconciling sweep). This sweep 
joins the two former without intersecting either, and makes a fair curve from the lower 
height of breadth to the rising line. If a straight line be drawn from the upper edge of 
the keel to touch the back of the floor sweep, the form of the midship frame below the 
lower height of breadth will be obtained. 4th, The upper breadth sweep, the centre of 
which is in tiie line representing the upper height of breadth of the timber. This 
sweep described upwards forms the lower part of the top-timber. 5th. The top-tim- 
ber sweep, or back sweep, is that which forma the hollow of the top-timber. This hol- 
low is, however, very often formed by a mould, so placed as to touch the upper breadth 
sweep and pass through the point limiting the half-breadth of the top-timber. 

Frame Timbers. The various timbers that compose a frame bend, as the floor- 
timber, the first, second, third and fourth futtocks, and top-timber, which are united by 
a proper shift to each other, and bolted through each shift. They are often kept open 
for the advantage of the air, and fillings fayed between them in wake of the bolts. 
Some ships are composed of frames only, and are supposed to be of equal strength with 
others of larger scantling. 

Futtocks. The separate pieces of timber of which the frame timbers are composed. 
They are named according to their situation, that nearest the keel being called the 
first futtock, the next above the second futtook, etc. 


the 1 
Gripe. A piece of elm timber that completes the lower part of the knee of the head 

Garboard Strake. That strake of the bottom which is wrought next the keel 
and rabbets therein. 

fatteeson's illustrated nadtical dictionary. 


/ i 























220 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

and makes a finish with the fore-foot. It bolts to the stem, and is further secured by 

two plates of copper in the form of a horse-shoe, and therefrom called by that name. 
Groundways. Large pieces of timber, generally defective, which are laid upon 

piles driven 'in the ground, across the dock or slip, in order to make a good foundation 

to lay the blocks on upon which the ship is to rest. 
OudgeoilS. The braces on the stern post on which the rudder hangs. 
Gunwale. That horizontal plank which covers the heads of the timbers between the 

main and fore-drifts. 


Half-timlbers. The short timbers in the cant bodies which are answerable to the 
lower futtocks in the square body. 

Hanging-knee. Those knees against the sides whose arms hang vertically or per- 

Harpins. Pieces of oak, similar to ribbands, but trimmed and beveled to the shape 
of the body of the ship, and holding the fore-and-aft cant bodies together until the ship 
is planked. But this term is mostly applicable to those at the bow ; hence arises the 
phrase, " lean and full harpin," as the ship at this part is more or less acute. 

Head. The upper end of anything, but more particularly applied to all the work 
fitted afore the stem, as the figure, the knee rails, etc. A " scroll head " signifies that 
there is no carved or ornamental figure at the head, but that the termination is formed 
and finished off by a volute, or scroll turning outwards. A " fiddle head " signifies a 
similar kind of finish, but with the scroll turning aft or inwards. 

Head-ledges. The 'thwartship pieces which frame the hatchways and ladderways. 

Head-rails. Those rails in the head which extend from the back of the figure to 
the cathead and bows, which are not only ornamental to the frame but useful to that 
part of the ship. 

Heel. The lower end of a tree, timber, etc. A ship is als© said to heel when she is 
not upright but inclines under a side pressure. 

Helm Port Transom. A piece of timber placed across the lower counter inside 
at the height of the helm port, and bolted through every timber for the security of 
that part. 

Hogging. (See Broken-backed.) A ship is said to liog when the middle part of 
her keel and bottom are so strained as to curve or arch upwards. This term is there- 
fore opposed to sagging, which, applied in a similar manner, means, by a different sort 
of strain, to curve downwards. 

Hold. That part of the ship below the lower deck, between the bulkheads, which is 
reserved for the stowage of ballast, water and provisions in ships of war, and for 
that of the cargo in merchant vessels. 

Hooding Ends. Those ends of the planks which bury in the rabbets of the stem 
and stern post. 

Hook and Butt. The scarphing or laying the ends of timbers over each other. 

Horse-iron. An iron fixed in a handle, and used with a beetle by caulkers, to horse- 
up or harden in the oakum. 

Horse-shoes. Large straps of iron or copper shaped like a horse-shoe and let into 
the stem and gripe on opposite sides, through which they are bolted together to secure 
the gripe to the stem. 

Hull. _ The whole frame or body of a ship, exclusive of the masts, yards, sails 
and rigging. 




Vpp^ChtawA •- - 

Lower ChanniL- 
Chnik, 'BpUjr- 
PreventcrBolt-y^^^- ■/-' 


Toptjaltant Rail 


_.. Bulwark- ^tanch-on 
■■" yCovenit^ Board 
..-- yUpper-Deck ^Waterway 
,:• ' ..Upper Dtxk 'Stringer 


Bil^e PlaU- 
Bottom Plankmg-~.=^- 

I Keel Rabic 
Intercostal -Plate' Keel- 


Gaihoard, StrS-la, 

222 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


In-and-out. A term sometimes used for the scantling of the timbers the mould- 
ing way, hut more particularly applied to those bolts in the knees, riders, etc.,. 
which are driven through the ship's sides, or athwarthships, and therefore called lin- 
and-out holts. 

Inner Post. A piece of oak timber, brought on and fayed to the foreside of the 
main stern-post, for the purpose of seating the transoms upon it. It is a great security 
to the ends of the planks, as the main post is seldom sufficiently afore the rabbet for 
that purpose, and is also a great strengtheuer to that part of the ship. 


Keel. The main and lower timber of a ship, extending longitudinally from the stem 
to the stem-post. It is formed of several pieces, which are scarphed together endways, 
and form the basis of the whole structure. Of course it is usually the first thing laid 

. down upon the blocks for the construction of the ship. 

Keelson, or, more commonly, Kelson. The timber, formed of long square pieces 
of oak, fixed within the ship exactly over the keel (and which may, therefore, be con- 
sidered as the counterpart of the latter) for binding and strengthening the lower part 
of the ship, for which purpose it is fitted to, and laid upon, the middle of the floor 
timbers and bolted through the floors and keel. 

Knees. The crooked pieces of oak timber by which the ends of the beams are secured 
to the sides of the ship. Of these such as are fayed vertically to the sides are called 
hanging-knees, and such as are fixed parallel to, or with the hang of, the deck, are 
called lodging-hnees. 

Knee of the Head. The large flat timber fayed edgeways upon the fore-part of 
the stem. It is formed by an assemblage of pieces of oak coaked or tabled together 
edgewise, by reason of its breadth, and it projects the length of the head. Its fore- 
part should form a handsome serpentine line, or inflected curve. 'I'he principal pieces 
are named the mainpiece and lacing. 

Knight Heads, or Bollard Timbers. The timbers next the stem on each 
side, and continued high enough to form a support for the bowsprit. 


Laborsonie. Subject to labor, or to pitch and roll violently in a heavy sea, 
by which the masts, and even the hull, may be endangered." For, by a series 
of heavy rolls the rigging becomes loosened, and the masts at the same time may 
strain upon the shrouds with an effort which they will be unable to resist, to which 
may be added that the continual agitation of the vessel loosens her joints and makes 
her extremely leaky. 

Lacing. A piece of compass or knee timber fayed to the back of the figure-head and 
the knee of the head, and bolted to each. 

liap-over or Upon. The mast carlings are said to lap upon the beams by 
reason of their great depth, and head-ledges at the ends lap over the coamings. 

Lap-sided. A term expressive of the condition of a vessel when she will not swim 
upright, owing to her sides being unequal. 

Patterson's illusteated nautical diction aky. 



















2'24 Patterson's ilt.usteated nautical dictionaey. 

Lateral Resistance. The resistance of the water against the sides of a vessel in 
a direction perpendicular to her length. 

L/aunchillg'-planks. A set of planks mostly used to form the platform on each 
side of the ship, whereon the bilgewajs slide for the purpose of launching. 

Laying-off, or Laying-clown. The act of delineating the various parts of the 
ship to its true size upon the mould-loft floor, from the draft given for the purpose of 
making the moulds. 

Ledges. Oak or fir scantling used in framing the decks, which are let into the car- 
lings athwartships. The ledges for gratings are similar, but arch or round up agree- 
ably to the head-ledges. 

Lengthening. The operation of separating a ship athwartships and adding a cer- 
tain portion to her length. It is performed by clearing or driving out all the fasten- 
ings in wake of the butts of those planks which may be retained, and the others are 
out through. The after-end is then drawn apart to a limited distance equal to the 
additional length proposed. The keel is then made good, the floors crossed, and a 
sufiioient number of timbers raised to fill the vacancy produced by the separation. 
The kelson is then replaced to give good shift to the new scarphs of the keel, and as 
many beams as may be necessary are placed across the ship in the new interval, and 
the planks on the outside are placed with a proper shift. The clamps and footwaling 
within the ship are then supplied, the beams kneed, and the ship completed in all re- 
spects as before. 

Let-in. To fix or fit one timber or plank into another, as the ends of carlings 
into the l)eams, and the beams into the clamps, vacancies being made in each to 
receive the other. 

Level Lines. Lines determining the shape of a ship's body horizontally, or square 
from the middle line of the ship. 

Limber Passage. A passage or channel formed throughout the whole length of the 
floor, on each side of the keelson, for giving water a free communication to the pumps. It 
is formed by the Ihnher-strahe on each side, a thick strake wrought next the keelson, 
from the upper side of which the depth in the hold is always taken. This strake is 
kept at about eleven inches from the keelson, and forms the passage fore-and-aft which 
admits the water with a fair run to the pump-well. The upper part of the limber pas- 
sage is formed by the limber hoards, which are made to keep out all dirt and other ob- 
structions. These boards are composed of short pieces of oak plank, one edge of which 
is fitted by a rabbet into the 1 imber-strake, and the other edge beveled with a descent 
against the keelson. They are fitted in short pieces for the convenience of taking up 
any one or more readily in order to clear away any obstruction in the passage. When 
the limber boards are fitted care should be taken to have the butts in those places 
where the bulkheads come, as there will be then no difliculty in taking those up Avhich 
come near the bulkheads. A hole is bored in the middle of each butt to admit the end 
of a crow for prizing it up when required. To prevent the boards from being dis- 
placed, each should be marked with a line corresponding with one on the limber-strake. 

Limber Holes are square grooves cut through the underside of the floor-timber, 
about nine inches from the side of the keel on each side, through which water may run 
toward the pumps in the whole length of the floors. This precaution is requisite in 
merchant ships only, where small quantities of water, by the heeling of the ship, may 
come through the ceiling and damage the cargo. It is for this rea'son that the lower 
futtocks of merchant ships are cut off short of the keel. 

Lips of Scarphs. The substance left at the ends which would otherwise become 
sharp and be liable to split ; and in other cases could not bear caulking as the scarphs 
of the keel, stem, etc. 

Loof. That part of a vessel where the planks begin to bend as they approach the 

Long Timbers. Timbers in the cant bodies, reaching from the dead-wood to the 
head of the second futtock. 

patteesok's illosteated nautical dictiokaey. 

















226 Patterson's illusteatkd nautical dictionaey. 


Main Breadth. The broadest part of the ship at any particular timber or frame, 
which is distinguished on the sheer-draught by the upper and lower heights of breadth 

Main "Wales. The lower wales, which are generally placed on the lower breadth, 
and so that the main deck linee-bolts may come into them. 

Manger. An apartment extending athwart the ship immediately within the hawse- 
holes. It serves as a fence to interrupt the passage of water which may come in at 
the hawse-holes, or from the cable when heaving in ; and the water thus prevented 
from running aft is returned into the sea by the manger scuppers, which are larger than 
the other scuppers on that account. 

Mauls. Large hammers used for driving treenails, having a steel face at one end and 
a point or pen drawn out at the other. Double-headed mauls have a steel face at each 
end, of the same size, and are used for driving of bolts, etc. 

Meta-centre. That point in a ship above which the centre of gravity must by no 
means be placed ; because if it were the vessel would be liable to overset. The meta- 
centre, which has also been called the shifting-centre, depends upon the situation of the 
centre of cavity ; for it is that point where a vertical line diawn from the centre of 
cavity cuts a line passing through the centre of gravity, and being perpendicular to 
the keel. 

Middle Line. A line dividing the ship exactly in the middle. In the horizontal or 
half-breadth plan, it is a right line bisecting the ship from the stem to the stern-post ; 
and, in the plane of projection, or body plan, it is a perpendicular line bisecting the 
ship from the keel to the height of the top of the side. 

Momenta, or Moments. The plural of momentum. 

Momentum of a heavy body, or of any extent considered as a heavy body, is the 
product of the weight multiplied by the distance of its centre of gravity from a certain 
point, assumed at pleasure, which is called the centre of momentum, or from a line 
which is called the axis of the momentum. 

Mortise. A hole or hollow made of a certain size and depth in a piece of timber, etc., 
in order to receive the end of another piece with a tenon fitted exactly to fill it. 

Moulds. Pieces of deal or board made to the shape of the lines on the mould loft 
floor, as the timbers, harpins, ribbands, etc., for the purpose of cutting out the different 
pieces of timber, etc., for the s'liip. Also the thin, flexible pieces of pear-tree or box 
used in constructing the draughts and plans of ship, which are made in various shapes, 
viz., to the segments of circles from one foot to 22 feet radius, increasing six inches on 
each edge, and numerous elliptical curves, with other figures. 

Moulded. Cut to the mould. Also the size or bigness of the timbers that way the 
mould is laid. (See Sided.) 

Munions. The pieces that are placed up and down to divide the panels in framed 


Wails. Iron pins of various descriptions for fastening board, plank, or iron work, viz., 
deck nails, or spike nails, which are from -t inches and a half to 12 inches long, have 
snug heads, and are used for fastening planks and the flat of the decks. Weight nails 
are similar to deck nails, but not so fine, have square heads, and are used for fastening 
cleats, etc. Ribband nails are similar to weight nails, with this difference, that they 
have large round heads, so as to be more easily drawn. They are used for fastening 
the ribbands, etc. Clamp nails are short stout nails, with large heads, for fastening 




Topgallant Roil... 

TopdaUwLtBiilwaMW ^""^^vc 
ffiS-Zfain Rati 

Bolwark Rating' ■ft Cluim. PlaU 

-Bui v) ark iStay 

(UpperDeck |7 

Bilqe' Ploivrwi, 

Bil^e- Keel-- 



228 patteeson's illustkated nautical dictionaey. 

iron clamps. Port nails, double and single, are similar to clamp nails, and used for 
fastening iron-work. Mudder nails are also similar, but used chiefly for fastening the 
pintles and braces. Filling nails (obsolete) are generally of cast-iron, and driven very 
thick in the bottom planks instead of copper sheathing. Sheathing nails (obsolete) 
are used to fasten wood sheathing on the ship's bottom to preserve the plank and pre- 
vent the filling nails from tearing it too much. Nails of sorts are 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 30 
and 40 penny nails, all of different lengths, and used for nailing board, etc. Scupper 
nails are short nails, with very broad heads, used to nail the flaps of the scuppers. 
Lead nails are small round-headed nails for nailing of lead. Flat nails are small sharp- 
pointed nails, with flat, thin heads, for nailing the scarphs of moulds. Sheathing nails 
for nailing copper sheathing are of metal, cast in moulds, about one inch and a quar- 
ter long ; the heads are flat on the upper side and counter-sunk below ; the upper side 
is polished to obviate the adhesion of weeds. Boat nails, used by boat-builders, are of 
various lengths, generally rose-headed, square at the points, and made both of copper 
and iron. 


Oaklinfi. Old rope, untwisted and loosened like hemp, in order to be used in 

Over-launch. To run the butt of one plank to a certain distance beyond the 

next but above or beneath it, in order to make stronger work. 

Palletting'. A slight platform, made above the bottom of the magazine, to keep the 
powder from moisture. 

Palls. Stout pieces of iron, so placed near a capstan or windlass as to prevent a 
recoil, which would overpower the men at the bars when heaving. 

Partners. Those pieces of thin plank, etc., fitted into a rabbet in the mast or cap- 
stan-carlings for the purpose of wedging the mast and steadying the capstan. Also 
any plank that is thick, or above the rest of the deck, for the purpose of steadying 
whatever passes through the deck, as the pumps, bowsprit, etc. 

Pay. To la}^ on a coat of tar, etc., with a mop or brush in order to preserve the 
wood and keep out water. When one or more pieces are scarphed together, 
as the beams, etc., the inside of the scarphs are payed with tar as a preservative; 
and the seams, after they are caulked, are payed with pitch to keep the water from the 
oakum, etc. 

Pink. A ship with a very narrow round stern ; whence all vessels, however 
small, having their sterns fasliioned in this manner, are said to be pink-sterned. 

Pintles. Straps of mixed metal, or of iron, fastened on the rudder, in the same 
manner as the braces on the stern post, having a stout pin or hook at the ends, with 
the points downwards to enter in and rest upon the braces on which the rudder traver- 
ses or turns, as upon hinges, from side to side. Sometimes one or two are shorter than 
the rest, and work in a socket brace, whereby the rudder turns easier. The latter are 
called dumb-pintles. Some are bushed. 

Pitch. Tar, boiled to a harder and more tenacious substance. 

Pitching. The inclination or vibration of the ship lengthwise about her centre of 
gravity ; or the motion by which she plunges her head and after-part alternately into 
the hollow of the sea. This is a very dangerous motion, and when considerable, not 
only retards the ship's way, but endangers the mast, and strains the vessel. 

pattebson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 


Vessel WITH Double -bottom on top of ordinary floors 


plating i \ ^^^nwcde cuigU-xron 
■ rGuUer angle -iron 

Upper 1 J" 
SJuerstmTu 17.*'/ 

Main LJ: 

SheerstraJc&r J.y 

Orlop -stnngep 

Split pillar — 

230 Patterson's illustrated nadtical diotionaky. 

Planking'. Covering the outside of tlie timbers with plank sometimes quaintly 

called sTcinninff, the plank being the outer coating, when the vessel is not 

Plank-sheers, or Plank-sheer. The pieces of plank laid horizontally over 

the timber-heads of the quarter-deck and forecastle, for the purpose of covering the 

top of the side, hence sometimes called covering-boards. 
Point-veliqiie. That point where, in a direct course, the centre of effort of all the 

sails should be found. 
Poppets. Those pieces (mostly fir) which are fixed perpendicularly between the 

ship's bottom and the bilgeways, at the fore and aftermost parts of the ship, to support 

her in launching. 
Plinip. The machine, fitted in the wells of ships, to draw water out of the hold. 
Pump Cisterns. Cisterns fixed over the heads of the pumps, to receive the water 

until it is conveyed through the sides of the ship by the pump-dales. 
Plimp-dales. Pipes fitted to the cisterns, to convey the water from them through 

the sliip's sides. 


Quarter-galleries. The projections from the quarters abaft, fitted with sashes 

and ballusters, and intended both for convenience, and ornament to the aft part 

of the ship. 
Quick Work. That part of a vessel's sides which is above the chain-wales and 

decks — so called in ship-building. Also the term applied to that part of a vessel that 

is under water when she is laden. 
Quicken. To give anything a greater curve. For instance, " to quicken the 

sheer " is to shorten the radius by which the curve is struck. This term is therefore 

opposed to straightening the sheer. 


Kahbet. A joint made by a groove, or channel, in a piece of timber cut for the pur- 
pose of receiving and securing the edge or ends of the planks, as the planks of the 
bottom into the keel, stem, or stern post, or the edge of one plank into another. 

Rag-holt. A sort of bolt liaAnng its point jagged or barbed to make it hold the more 

Rake. The overhanging of the stem or stern be3'ond a perpendicular with the keel, 
or any part or thing that forms an obtuse angle with the horizon. 

Ram-line. A small rope or line sometimes used for the purpose of forming the sheer 
or hang of the decks, for setting the beams fair, etc. 

Rasing. The act of marking by a mould on a piece of timber ; or any marks made 
by a tool called a rasing-knife. 

Reconcile. To make one piece of work answer fair with the moulding or shape of 
the adjoining piece ; and, more particularly, in the reversion of curves. 

Reeming. A term used by caulkers for opening the seams of the planks, that the 
oakum may be more readily admitted. 

Reeming-irons. The large irons used by caulkers in opening the seams. 

Rends. Large open splits or shakes in timbers ; particularly in plank, occasioned by 
its being exposed to the wind or sun, etc. 

Ribbands. The longitudinal pieces of fir, about five inches square, nailed to the 
timbers of the square body (those of the same description in the cant body being 



^Siutpq — '^P^d 





232 patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionaet. 

sLaped by a mould and called Jmrpins) to keep tlie body of the ship together, and in 
its proper shape, until the plank is brought on. The shores are placed beneath them. 
They are removed entirely when the planking comes on. The difference between the 
cant ribbands and square or horizontal ribbands is, that the latter are only ideal, and 
used in laying-off. 

Ribband-lines. The same with diagonal lines. 

Rising". A term derived from the shape of a ship's bottom in general, which gradually 
narrows or becomes sharper towards the stem and the stern-post. On this account it 
is that the floor, towards the extremities of the ship, is raised or lifted above the keel ; 
otherwise, the ship would be so very acute as not to be provided from timber with 
sufficient strength in the middle, or cutting-down. The floor timbers forward and 
abaft, with regard to their general form and arrangement, are therefore gradually lifted 
or raised upon a solid body of wood called the dead or rising wood, which must, of 
course, have more or less rising as the body of the ship assumes more or less fullness 
or capacity. (See Dead-eising.) 

Riders. Interior timbers placed occasionally opposite to the principal ones, to which 
they are bolted, reaching from the keelson to the beams of the lower deck. 

Risingf of Boats is a narrow strake of board fastened within side to support the 

Rising' Floors. The floors forward and abaft, which, on account of the rising of 
the body, are the most difficult to be obtained, as they must be deeper in the throat or 
at the cutting-down to presei've strength. 

Rising-line. An elliptical line, drawn on the plan of elevation, to determine the 
sweep of the floor-heads throughout the ship's length, which accordingly ascertains the 
shape of the bottom with regard to its being full or sharp. 

Rolling. That motion by which a ship vibrates from side to side. Eolling is there- 
fore a sort of revolution about an imaginary axis passing through the centre of gravity 
of the ship ; so that the nearer the centre of gravity is to the keel, the more violent 
will be the roll, because the centre about which the vibrations are made is placed so 
low in the bottom, that the resistance made by the keel to the volume of water which 
it displaces in rolling, bears very little proportion to the force of the vibration above 
the centre of gravity, the radius of which extends as high as the mast-heads. But, if 
the centre of gravity is placed higher above the keel, the radius of the vibration will 
not only be diminished, but such an additional force to oppose the motion of rolling 
will be communicated to that part of the ship's bottom as may contribute to diminish 
this movement considerablJ^ It may be observed that, with respect to the formation 
of a ship's body, that shape which approaches nearest to a circle is the most liable to 
roll ; as it is evident that, if this be agitated in the water, it will have nothing to re- 
strain it ; because the rolling or rotation about its centre displaces no more water than 
when it remains upright ; and, hence, it becomes necessary to increase the depth of the 
keel, the rising of the floors, and the dead-wood aford and abaft. 

Room and Space. The distance from the moulding edge of one timber to the 
moulding edge of the next timber, which is always equal to the breadth of 
two timbers, and two to four inches more. The room and space of all ships that have 
ports should be so disposed that the scantling of the timber on each side of the lower 
ports, and the size of the ports fore-and-aft, may be equal to the distance of two rooms 
and spaces. 

Rough-tree Rails. In men-of-war the broad plank running fore-and-aft covering 
the heads of the top timbers, thus forming the bottom of the hammock netting. In 
merchant vessels the rails along the waist and quarters, nearly breast high, to prevent- 
persons from falling overboard. This term originated from the practice in merchant 
vessels of carrying their rough or spare gear in crutch irons along their waist. 

Rudder-chocks. Large pieces of fir, to fay or fill up the excavation on the side of 
the rudder in the rudder hole; so that the helm being in midships the rudder may be 
fixed, and supposing the tiller broke another might thus be replaced. 

Run. The narrowing of the ship abaft, as of the floor towards the stern-post, where it 

Patterson's illtjsteated nautical dictionaet. 



234 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

becomes no broader than the post itself. This tei-m is also used to signify the running 
or drawing of a line on the ship, or mould loft floor, as " to run the wale line," or deck 
line, etc. 
Rung Heads. The upper ends of the floor timbers. 


Scantling. The dimensions given for the timbers, planks, etc. Likewise all quar- 
tering under five inches square, which is termed scantling ; all above that size is called 

Scarphing. The letting of one piece of timber or plank into another with a lap, 
in such a manner that both may appear as one solid and even surface, as keel-pieces, 
stem-pieces, clamps, etc. 

Scuppers. Lead pipes let through the ship's side to convey the water from the decks. 

Seams. The openings between the edges of the planks when wrought. 

Seasoning. A term applied to a ship kept standing a certain time after she is com- 
pletely framed and dubbed out for planking, which should never be less than six 
months when circumstances will permit. Seasoned plank or timber is such as has been 
cut down and sawn out one season at least, particularly when thoroughly dry and not 
liable to shrink. 

Seating. That part of the floor which fays on the dead-wood ; and of a transom which 
lays against the post. 

Sending, or 'Scending. The act of pitching violently into the hollows or inter- 
vals of the waves. 

Setting, or Setting-to. The act of making the planks, etc., fay close to the tim- 
bers by driving wedges between the plank, etc., and a wrain-staff. Hence we say, 
" Set or set away," meaning to exert more strength. The power or engine used for the 
purpose of setting is called a sett, and is composed of two ring-bolts and a wrain-staff, 
cleats and lashings. 

Shaken, or Sliaky. A natural defect in plank or timber when it is full of splits or 
clefts, and will not bear fastening or caulking. 

Sheatiling. A thin sort of doubling, or casing, of fir-board or sheet copper, and some- 
times of both, over the ship's bottom, to protect the planks from worms, etc. Tar and 
hair, or brown paper dipped in tar and oil, is laid between the sheathing and the bot- 

Sheer. The longitudinal curve or hanging of a ship's side in a fore-and-aft direction. 

Sheer- draught. The plan of elevation of a ship whereon is described the outboard 
works, as the wales, sheer-rails, ports, drifts, head, quarters, post, and stem, etc., the 
hang of each deck inside, the height of the water lines, etc. 

Slieer-strake. The strake or strakes wrought in the topside, of which the upper 
edge is wrought well with the top-timber line, or top of the side, and the lower edge 
kept well with the upper part of the upper deck ports in midships, so as to be continued 
whole all fore-and-aft and not out by the ports. It forms the chief strength of the up- 
per part of the topside, and is therefore always worked thicker than the other strakes, 
and scarphed with hook and butt between the drifts. 

Siding, or Sided. The size or dimensions of timber the contrary way to the mould- 
ing or moulded side. 

Sirinarks. The different places marked upon the moulds where the respective. bevel- 

ings are to be applied, as the lower sirmarh, floor sirmark, etc. 
Slabs. Pieces of wood fitted between the whelps. 
Sleepers. The knees that connect the transoms to the after-timbers of the ship's 

Sliding Planks. Are the planks upon which the bilgeways slide in launching. 

PATTKKSON's illustrated nautical mOTIONAEY. 






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236 patteeson's illusteated nautical diotionaet.. 

Slipi The foundation laid for the purpose of building the ship upon^ and launching- 

Suape. To hance or bevel the end of anything so as to fay upon an inclined 

Snying. A term applied to planks when their edges round or curve upwards. The 
great sny occasioned in full bows or buttocks is only to be prevented by introducing 

Specific G-ravlty. The comparative difference in the weight or gravity of two bod- 
ies of equal bulk ; hence called, also, relative or comparative gravity, because we 
judge of it by comparing one body with another. 


Lead 11,325 

Fine Copper 9,000 

Gun Metal 8,784 

Fine Brass 8,350 

Iron from. . .7,827 to 7,645 

Cast Iron 7,425 

Sand 1,520 

Lignum Vitae 1,327 

Ebony 1,177 

Pitch 1,150 

Rosin 1,100 

Mahogany 1,063 

Box Wood 1,030 

Sea Water 1,030 

Tar 1,015 

River Water 1,009 

Rain Water 1,000- 

Oak 925 

Ash 80O' 

Beech 700 

Elm OOa 

Fir 548 

Cork 240 

Common Air 1,232 

These numbers being the weight of a cubic foot, or 1,728 cubic inches, of each of the- 
bodies in avoirdupois ounces ; by proportion the quantity in any other weight, or the 
weight of any other quantity, may be readily known. 

For Example. — Required the contents of an irregular piece of oak, which weighs 76- 
pounds, or 1,216 ounces. 

Sp. gr. oz. wt. oz. cuT>. in. cub. in. 

Here as 925 1,216 : : 1,728 : 2,271 = 1 ft. 543 inches cubic, the contents. 

Spirketting. A thick strake, or strakes, wi-ought withinside upon the ends of the 
beams or waterways. In ships that have ports the spirketting reaches from the water- 
ways to the upper side of the lower sill, which is generally of two strakes, wrought 
anchor-stock fashion ; in this case the planks should always be such as will work as- 
broad as possible, admitting the butts to be about six inches broad. 

Sponson. The spaces forward and abaft the paddle-boxes on steamboats. Spmison 
learn. The beam which projects from a steamboat's side and forms the shape of the- 
paddle-boxes. Sponson rim. The whale in the steamboat's side upon which the 
paddle-beam rests and is supported. 

Spurs. Pieces of timber fixed on the bilge-ways, their upper ends being bolted to the- 
vessel's sides above the water. Also curved pieces of timber serving as half-beams to- 
support the decks where the whole beams cannot be placed. 

Spur Shoes. Large pieces of timber that come abaft the pump-well. 

Square Body. The figure which comprehends all the timbers whose areas or planes- 
are perpendicular to the keel, which is all that portion of a ship between the cant- 
bodies. (See Bodies.) 

Square Timbers. The timbers which stand square with, or perpendicular to,, 
the keel. 

Square Tuck. A name given to the after part of a ship's bottom when terminated 
in the same direction, up and down, as the wing transom, and the plank of 
the bottom end in a rabbet at the foreside of the fashion-piece ; whereas ships- 
with a buttock are round or circular, and the planks of the bottom end upon the 

Stability. That quality which enables a ship to keep herself steadily in the water,, 
without rolling or pitching. Stability, in the construction of a ship, is only to be ac- 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 















a H5 irs 


238 patteeson's illustrated nautical diction art. 

quired by fixing the centre of gravity at a certain distance below tlie nieta-centre, 
because the stability of the vessel increases with the altitude of the nieta-centre above 
the centre of gravity. But when the meta-centre coincides with the centre of gravity 
the vessel has no tendency whatever to remove out of the situation into which it may 
be put. Thus, if the vessel be inclined either to the starboard or larboard side, it will 
reuiain in that position till a new force is impressed upon it ; in this case, therefore, the 
vessel would not be able to carry sail, and is, consequently, unfit for the purposes of 
navigation. If the meta-centre falls below the common centre of gravity, the vessel 
will immediately overset. 

Standard. An inverted knee placed above the deck instead of beneath it, as a bitt- 
standard, etc. 

Stanchions. Upright parts of wood or iron placed so as to support the beams of a 
vessel. Also upright pieces of timber placed at intervals along the sides of a vessel, 
to support the bulwarks and rail, and reaching down to the bends, by the side of the 
timbers to which they are bolted. Also any fixed upright support. 

Steeler. A name given to the foremost or aftermost plank, in a strake which drops 
short of the stem and stern-post, and of which the end or butt nearest the rabbet is 
worked very narrow, and well forward or aft. Their use is to take out the snying 
edge occasioned by a full bow or sudden circular buttock. ^ 

Stem. The main timber at the fore part of the ship, formed, by the combination of 
several pieces, into a circular shape, and erected vertically to receive the ends of the 
bow-planks, which are united to it by means of a rabbet. Its lower end scarphs or 
boxes into the keel, through which the rabbet is also carried, and the bottom unites in 
the same manner. 

Stemson. A piece of compass timber, wrought on the aft part of the apron with- 
inside, the lower end of which scarphs into the keelson. Its upper end is continued as 
high as the middle or upper deck, and its use is to succor the scarphs of the apron, as 
that does those of the stem. 

Steps of the Masts. The steps into which the heels of the masts are fixed, are 
large pieces of timber. Those for the main and fore masts are fixed across the keelson, 
and that for the mizzen mast upon the lower deck beams. The holes or mortises into 
which the masts step, should have sufiicient wood on each side to accord in strength 
with the tenon left at the heel of the mast, and the hole should be cut rather less than 
the tenon, as an allowance for shrinking. 

Steps foi' tlie Ship's Side. The pieces of quartering, with mouldings, nailed 
to the sides amidship, about nine inches asunder, from the wale upwards, for the con- 
venience of persons getting on board. 

Stern Frame. The strong frame of timber, composed of the sternpost, transoms 
and fashion-pieces, which fonn the basis of the whole stern. 

Stern-post. The principal piece of timber in the stern frame on which the rudder 
is hung, and to which the transoms are bolted. It therefore terminates the ship below 
the wing-transom, and its lower end is tenoned into the keel. 

Steving. The elevation of a ship's cathead or bowsprit ; or the angle which either 
makes with the horizon, generally called steevc. 

Stopping-up. The poppets, timber, etc., used to fill up the Vacancy between the 
upper side of the bilgeways and the ship's bottom, for supporting her when launching. 

Stop'water. A treenail through the stern and keel at their joining ; also through the 
joining of the stern-post and keel. 

Straight of Breadth. The space before and abaft dead-flat, in which the 
ship is the same uniform breadth, or of the same breadth as at X or dead-flat. (See 

Stralie. One breadth of plank wrought from one end of the ship to the other, either 
within or without board. 

Stringers. Strakes of plank round the inside of a vessel close to the under side of 
the beams. 

Supporters. The knee timbers under the cat-heads. 

Syphering. Lapping the edges of planks over each other for a bulkhead. 



Different keelsons 

MuldU-hiie single plate Keelson 

240 Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionary. 


Tabling. Letting one piece of timber into another by alternate scores of pro- 
jections from the middle, so tliat it cannot be drawn asunder either lengthwise or 

Taffarel, or Taff-rail. The upper part of the ship's stern, usually ornamented 
with carved work or mouldings, the ends of which unite to the quarter-pieces. 

Tasting of Plank or Timber. Chipping it with an adze, or boring it with a 
small auger, for the purpose of ascertaining its quality or defects. 

Teach. A term applied to the direction that atiy line, etc., seems to point out. — 
Thus we say, " Let th(^ line or mould teach fair to such a spot, raise," etc. 

Tenon. The square part at the end of one piece of timber diminished so as to fix in 
a hole of another piece, called a mortise, for joining or fastening the two pieces 

Thickstnff. A name for sided timber exceeding four inches, but not being more 
than twelve inches, in thickness. 

Throat. The inside of knee timber at the middle or turn of the arms. Also the mid- 
ship part of the floor timbers. 

Top and Butt. A method of working English plank so as to make good conver- 
sion. As the plank runs very narrow at the top clear of sap, this is done by disposing 
the top end of every plank within six feet of the butt end of the plank above or below 
it; letting every plank work as broad as it will hold clear of sap, by which method 
only can every other seam produce a fair edge. 

Topgallant Forecastle. The small deck built level with the rail at the forward 
part of the ship. 

Topside. A name given to all that part of a ship's side above the main-wales. 

Top-timbers. The timbers which form the topside. The first genei-al tier which 
reach the top are called the long top-timbers, and those below are called the short top- 
timbers. (See Frames.) 

Top Timber Line. The curve limiting the height of the sheer at the given 
breadth of the top-timbers. 

Touch. The broadest part of a plank worked top and butt, which place is six feet 
from the butt end. Or, the middle of a plank worked anchor-stock fashion. Also the 
sudden angles of the stern-timbers at the counters, etc. 

Trail-boards. A term for the carved work, between the cheeks, at the heel of the 

Transoms. The thwartship timbers which are bolted to the stern-post in order to 
form the buttock ; and of which the curves, forming the round aft, are represented on 
horizontal or half-breadth plan of the ship. 

Tread of the Keel. The whole length of the keel upon a straight line. 

Treenails. , Cylindrical oak pins driven through the planks and timbers of a vessel 
to fasten or connect them together. These certainly make the best fastening when 
driven quite through and caulked oi wedged inside. They should be made of the 
very best oak, out near the butt, and perfectly dry or well seasoned. 

Tuck. The aft part of the ship where the ends of the planks of the bottom are 
terminated by the tuck-rail, and all below the wing-transom when it partakes of the 
figure of the wing-transom as far as the fashion-pieces. (See Square Tuck.) 

Tuck-rail. The rail which is wrought well with the upper side of the wing-transom, 
and forms a rabbet for the purpose of caulking the butt ends of the planks of the 



242 Patterson's ill0steated nautical dictionary. 


Wall -sided. A term applied to the topsides of the ship when the main breadth is- 
continued very low down and very high up, so that the topsides appear straight and 
upright like a wall. 

Wash-board. A shifting strake along the topsides of a small vessel, used occasion- 
ally to keep out the sea. 

Water L/ines, or Lines of notation. Those horizontal lines supposed to he 
described by the surface of the water on the bottom of a ship, and which are exhibited 
at certain depths, upon the sheer-draught. Of these the most particular are those de- 
nominated the light water line and the load water line ; the former, namely, the light 
water line, being that line which shows the depression of the ship's body in the water 
when light or unladen, as when first launched ; and the latter, which exhibits the same 
when laden with her guns and ballast or cargo. In the half-breadth plan these lines 
are curves limiting the half-breadth of the ship at the height of the corresponding lines 
in the sheer plan. 

Water Ways. The edge of the deck next the timbers, which is wrought thicker 
than the rest of the deck, and so hollowed to the thickness of the deck as to form a 
gutter or channel for the water to run through to the scuppers. 

Whole Moulded. A term applied to the bodies of those ships which are so con- 
structed that one mould made to the midship bend, with the addition of a floor hollow, 
will mould all the timbers, below the main breadth, in the square body. 

Wings. The places next the side upon the orlop, usually parted oft" in ships of war,, 
that the carpenter and his crew may have access round the ship in time of action, to 
plug up shot-holes, etc. 

Wing-transoni. The uppermost transom in the stern frame, upon which the heels 
of the counter timbers are let in and rest. It is by some called the main transom. 

Wood-lock. A piece of elm or oak, closely fitted and sheathed with copper, in the 
throating or score of the pintle, near the load water line ; so that when the rudder is 
hung and the wood-lock nailed in its place it cannot rise, because the latter butts 
against the under side of the brace and butt of the score. 

Wrain Bolts. Ring bolts, used when planking, with two or more forelock holes in 
the end for taking in the sett, as the plank, etc., works nearer the timbers. 

Wrain Stave. A sort of stout billet of tough wood, tapered at the ends so as to go 
into the ring of the wrain bolt to make the setts necessary for bringing to the planks- 
or thick-stuff to the timbers. 

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Aberration. Owing to the motion of the earth, combined with the motion of light. 
there is an apparent displacement of the stars, termed aberration. 

Above the Pole. When the north star is in that part of its orbit so as to be inter- 
cepted between the observer and the pole, it is said to be above the pole. 

Abstract Log. An abridgment of the contents of the log book. 

Acceleration. The increase of velocity in a moving body. 

Adjustment. To regulate a compass with magnets, or to regulate the mirrors of a 
sextant, etc., for use, is to adjust them. 

Aerolites. Bodies revolving about the sun like the planets, and which the earth 
encounters in the way of fire-balls, and small solid bodies, composed principally 
of iron. 

Age of the Moon. The elapsed time since the last conjunction. 

Alidade. An instrument for taking bearings, composed of two revolving arms around 
a circular brass plate marked in imitation of a compass card. The alidade is screwed 
to the top of the binnacle, and set to the ship's course, in conformity to the sensitive 
compass beneath. (See engraving.) 

Almanac. The nautical almanac is a calendar of the days and months of the year 
in which is tabulated the declinations of the sun, moon, stars and planets, right ascen- 
sions, times of transits, equation of time, etc., etc. 

Altitude. The angular value of a heavenly body above the horizon as measured on 
a reflecting quadrant, etc. 

Altitude Motion. An instrument is said to "move in altitude" when it turns on 
a horizontal axis. 

A. M. Altitude. An altitude of the sun measured before noon. 

Amplitude. The bearing (never in excess of 90") of a heavenly body at rising or 
setting, calculated in degrees from the east or west point. Magnetic- Amplitude is the 
observed bearing of the body by compass. True Amplitude is the geographical bear- 
ing of the body calculated for its declination and the parallel of observation, and 
found tabulated' in works on navigation. 

Amplitude Tables. Tables found in works on navigation giving the true bear- 
ing of heavenly bodies at rising and setting, calculated for various declinations and 

Anemometer. An instrument for measuring the velocity of the wind. 

Aneroid. Barometer. An instrument for registering the variation of atmospheric 
pressure. In construction it is an air-tight box of thin metallic plates, the compression 


being resisted by an internal spring. A system of levers connected witli tlie spring 
causes an index pointer to revolve on the dial face. (See engraving.) 

Angles. The divergence of two lines starting from the same point. 

Angular Distance. Measm-ed by an angle, as the angular distance of a star from 
the moon. 

Annual Variation. The variation of the compass constantly fluctuates, and the 
aggregate change for a twelve-month is called annual variation. 

Annular Eclipse. When the apparent diameter of the moon is less than that of 
the sun, so that a ring of light surrounds the former while central. 

Antarctic. The regions near the South Pole of the earth. 

Antarctic Circle. That parallel distant 230 28' from the South Pole. 

Antarctic Pole. The South Pole of the earth. 

Anti-Tratles. Also known as return trades. Counter currents in the upper regions 
of the atmosphere, flowing from the equator toward the poles. 

Apparent Time. That shown by the sun, estimating the ap^arewi noon to com- 
mence at the passage of his centre over the meridian of any place. 

Apogee. That point of the moon's orbit which is at the greatest distance from the 
earth — opposed to perigee. 

Arc. A part of a circle. 

Arctic. The regions near the Xorth Pole of the earth. 

Arctic Circle. That parallel distant 23° 28' from the North Pole. 

Artificial Horizon. A trough of quicksilver having a roof of glass, and used for 
measuring altitudes on shore of heavenly bodies. (See engraving.) 

Astronomical Clock. A pendulum timepiece of great accuracy regulated to 
sidereal time. (See Clock.) 

Astronomical Day. This begins at noon of the civil day, and the hours 
are numbered from one to twenty-four — the letters a.m. and p.m. never being em- 

Astronomical Time. The time between two successive transits of the sun cen- 
tre over the same meridian. The civil day begins twelve lionrs before the astronomical 
day, and the rule for transforming civil time into astronomical time is as follows : If 
the civil time is a.m., take one from the date, and add twelve to the hours ; if the civil 
time is p.m., take away the designation p.m. and the answer will be the astronomical 

Astronomy. The science which treats of the heavenly bodies. 

Atlas. A book of maps or charts. 

Augmentation. Increase. 

Augmentation of the moon is the apparent' increase of the moon's diameter. 

Aurora Australis. The Southern lights. A luminous phenomenon attributed to 
electrical origin. 

Aurora Borealis. The Northern lights. 

Autumnal Equinox. The period when the sun crosses the equator on its way 
into southern declinations. 

Axis. An imaginary line passing through the centre of a bod3', and on which it is con- 
sidered to revolve. 

Axis of Collimation. Also known as U]}e of collimation. The axial line of a 
telescope ; also an imaginary line passing through the optical centre of an object glass 
and the intersection of the focus cross- wires. 

Azimuth. The bearing (never in excess of 180°) of a heavenly body calculated in 
degrees from the north or south point. JIai/netic azimuth is the observed bearing of 
the body by compass. True amplitude is tlie geographical bearing of the body calcu- 
lated for its declination, the hour and the parallel of observation, and found tabulated 
in special works on navigation. 

Azimuth Attachment. A handy little instrument composed of two upright 
sight arms, for centering in a "boss " in the middle of a compass glass. The limbs are 
revolved when taking bearings. The binnacle hood must be removed in order to use 
the attachment. (See engraving.) 







258 patfeeson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 

Azimuth Circle. A great circle passing through the zenith and nadir ; a vertical 

Azimuth Compass. A compass provided with revolving sight arms, and specially 

adapted for taking bearings. (See engraving.) 
Azimutll Diag-ram. A diagram designed by one G-odfray, which gives, without 

calculation, the true azimuth, the necessary data being the declination, apparent time, 

and the latitude of the observer. 
Azimuth Motion. An instrument is said to " move in azimutli" when it turns on 

a vertical axis. 
Azimuth Tables. Published tables giving the true bearing of the sun, calculated 

for various declinations, parallels and time. 


Back Observation. An altitude measured on a hack observation quadrant, which 
requires the observer to turn his back to the body observed. The instrument is an 
ordinary quadrant with the addition of a second horizon glass below the regular one, 
and the former one is looked into while measuring the altitude — the instrument being 
held backwards, so that the observer faces the mirror, and pulls the sliding limb to- 
wards him. This instrument is used for measuring the altitude of a heavenly body 
from its farthest horizon by throwing it across the observei''s zenith. This process 
is only employed when the intervention of the land does not admit of a regular fore 

Barometer. An instrument which records the weight or pressure of the atmosphere. 
The mercm'ial barometer consists of a glass tube 34 inches long, closed at the top, and 
exhausted of air. The lower end of the tube is immersed in a cup of mercury (quick- 
silver), which the pressure of the atmosphere causes to rise in the tube, on one side of 
which, on the frame, a graduated scale is found, embracing the range of oscillations. 
(See Aneroid Barometer. ) 

Base Line. The geometrical plane ; the base on which the triangulation is founded; 
the lowest side of a figure, as that of a cone, etc. 

Beam Compass. A drawing instrument used in surve^dng. 

Bearing'. The direction of one thing from another by the points of the compass. 

Bearing of Storm Centre. Eight points to the right of the wind's eye in the 
northern hemisphere, but eight points to the left of the wind's eye in the southern 
hemisphere, according to the Circular theory, but about ten points by the Indraught 

Below the Pole. When the north star is in that part of its orbit so that the pole 
is intercepted between the observer and the star it is said to be below the pole. 

Belt. A zone, as the belt of calms ; a girdle. 

Belt of Calms. The area contained between the limits of the south-east aiid north- 
east trade winds near the equator. 

Bench Mark. Fixed points for reference left on a line of survey, indicating a series 
of levels at different elevations. 

Binnacle. A case in which the compass is enclosed. 

Binnacle Hood. The dome of the binnacle. 

Binoculars. A double, or as it is sometimes termed, a iioo-barreled telescope. 

Bora. A short-lired but violent wind experienced in the northern part of the 
Adriatic Sea. 

Bowditch. Nathaniel Bowditch, LL.D., F.E.S., a celebrated mathematician, 
astronomer, navigator and shipmaster; born in Salem, Mass., in 1773; died 1838 ; 
published in 1800 the first edition of the great work which bears his name. 

Box Gauge. A device for recording the height of tides, consisting of a long, vertical 


1. Sliding Lirrib. 

2. Mirror. 

3. Horizon, Glass. 

4. Sight Vane. 

5. Shade Glasses. 

6. Adjusting Screw. 

7. Adjusting Screw on Mirror. 

8. lade.v Tangent Screw. 
0. Arc. 

0. Frame. 

The vernier is set on the sliding Yaab against tlie arc of tlie instrument. 

260 Patterson's illusteateo nautical dictionary. 

box, closed at the bottom, and having a sufficient number of small gimlet holes neai- 
the lower part to allow access of water, so that a copper float with a graduated rod 
contained within the box may be moved up and down with the tide. 

Boxing the Compass. Rehearsing the thirty-two points of the compass in order, 
commencing at north, and going around the circle by the way of east, or with the 
hands of a watch. 

Bridge Compass. The steering compass on the bridge of a steamship. 

Broken-backed Transit. A prismatic instrument, being a combination of 
zenith telescope and transit. 

Buoyage. Floating beacons for the guidance of vessels. (See Part I.) 


Cardinal Points. The ionv cm-dinal jMints of the horizon, or of the compass, are 
the North, South, East and West. Tlie inter-cardinals are the North-east, South- 
east, Soutli-west and North-west. 

Cardinal Winds. Winds blowing from any one of the cardinal points, such as a 
North, South, East or a West wind. 

Celestial. Opposed to terrestrial. The heavens. 

Celestial Body. The sun, moon, stars and planets. 

Celestial Concave. The heavens. Tlie terrestrial sphere is convex, while the 
sphere of the heavens ajppears to the observer on the earth's surface as concave. 

Celestial Equator. The imaginary great line in the heavens over the earth's 
equator, from which the declination (latitude) of heavenly bodies is reckoned as high 
as 90° north and south. 

Celestial Liatitude. The declination of a heavenly body, or its distance north 
and south of the celestial equator. 

Celestial Liongitude. The term sometimes applied to the right ascension of a 
heavenly bod}-, which is reckoned from the first point of Aries eastward from 0° to 
360°, or from hour to 2-i hours. 

Change of Rate. The retard or aoo3leration in the running of a chronometer in 
relation to the rate previously calculated. 

Change of Tide. The turn of the tide. 

Charles's Wain. Tlie seven stars of the " Dipper." 

Chart. A hydrographio or marine map ; a delineation of coasts, shoals, isles, rooks, 
soundings, etc. 

Chart of the Inclination. Shows the dip of the magnetic needle for various locali- 
ties on the earth's surface. 

Chorographic Chart. Delineates a particular country. 

Coast Survey Chart. Delineations of the coast as issued by the United States Coast 
Survey Office at Washington. 

General Chart. A map on a small scale, covering a large extent of coast line 
and ocean. 

Great Circle Charts. Special charts constructed on the central or gnomonic pro- 
jection, in which all great circles are represented as straight lines. These answer the 
same purpose for great circle sailing that Mercator's chart answers for rhumb sailing. 
Harbor Chart. Also known as a Harbor Plan. A map of a particular harbor, on 
a large scale, for the convenience of seamen, giving the lights, buoys, soundings,, 
courses, leading marks, etc. The parallels and meridians are, as a rule, not shown. 
Heliographic Chart. A chart representing the sun, and the spots on his surface. 
Hydrographic Charts. Charts published by the Hydrographio Office in Washing- 
ton, which office is under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Navigation. These charts 
delineate the navigable waters of the world, land, rocks, shoals, depths, currents, tides, 
latitudes, longitudes, etc. 

Patterson's illcsteatkd nautical dictionary. 



1 . Mirror. 

2. Telescope. 

3. Handle. 

4. Shade Glasses. 

5. Horizon Glass. 

6. Adjusting Screws. 

7 Bach Shade Glasses. 

8. Arc. 

9. Index Tangent Screw. 

10. Sliding Limb. 

11. Heading Glass. 
13. Vernier Shade. 

1 3. Fenu'er. 

14. Mirror Adjusting Screw. 

262 pattekson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Magnetic Chart. (See Variation Chart.) 

Mercator's Chart. A style of chart invented by CTerard Kauffman, better known as 
Mercator, on which the parallels and meridians are all straight parallel lines, but only 
the meridians are equi-distant ; the distance between the parallels increases from the 
equator toward either pole in the same proportion as the degrees of longitude decrease 
on the globe, this projection being constructed by the aid of the table of meridional 

Ocean Charts. Maps representing the entire area of one of the five oceans of the 
world — Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic and Antarctic. 

Physical Charts. Maps delineating the currents and drifts of the ocean, prevailing 
winds, ice limits, etc. 

Flane Chart. A map representing the meridians as parallel, and on which no allow- 
ance is made for the spherical figure of the earth. 

Polar Charts. Maps of the regions about the poles of the earth. 

Selenographic Chart. A chart representing the moon, and the spots on her surface. 

Skeleton Chart. Also known as a Track Chart. Blank sheets on Mercator's pro- 
jection for plotting the track of a vessel. 

Telegraphic Chart. A chart on which, the line of a telegraph-cable is shown. 

Topographic Chart A delineation of an area of country. 

Track Chart. (See Skeleton Chart.) 

True Chart. A map representing geographical bearings and directions without 
reference to the variation of the compass. 

Variation Chart. A chart on Mercator's projection representing the variation of the 
compass by carved lines. Variation Charts of the World may be obtained from any 
nautical dealer. 
Chart Compass. The diagram compass (either true or magnetic) printed on 

Cliart Sailillgr. Shaping the course of the ship from point to point, and finding 

the distance contained between them, by aid of the parallel rules and dividers. 
Chauvenet's Equal Altitudes. A process for finding the time. 
Chronometer. A marine timepiece of superior construction and accm-acy. 
Chronometer Comparison. The operation of determining the error of a chro- 
nometer by means of time-balls, observatory clocks, or by the employment of an arti- 
ficial horizon sight. 
Chronometer Error. The aggregate amount of time the chronometer is either in 
advance of or behind the mean time of the Greenwich or other meridian which the in- 
strument represents. 
Chronometer Kate. The clailg loss or gain in time of a chronometer in compari- 
son with the mean time of the meridian which the instrument represents. 
Circle. A ring ; a circumference ; the line that bounds a circle ; a round body ; a 

Altitude Circles. Great circles upon which altitudes of heavenly bodies are meas- 

Astronomical Circle. An instrument of reflection for measuring angles, the limb 
being a complete circle. 

Circles of Azimuth. Great circles passing through the poles of the horizon. 

Circle of a Sphere. A circle ■i\hose plane passes through a sphere and is bounded by 
its surface. When the plane of the circle passes through the centre of the sphere it is 
called a great circle ; but in all other cases it is known as a small circle. 

Circle of Illumination. One-half of the earth's surface is illuminated by the sun 
when the other half is in the shadow, and the great circle which marks the boundary 
of light and darkness is termed the circle of illumination. 

Circles of Longitude. Great circles passing through the poles of the ecliptic. 

Circle of Perpetual Occultation. The circum-polar stars included within this circle 
never rise. 

Circle of Perpetual Apparition. The circum-polar stars included within this circle 
never set. 

Patterson's illdsteated nautical dictionaey. 






Z. Zenith. 
ABC. Vertical section of the earth. 
A E. Height of observer's eye above eartWs sur- 
F E G. Parallel to the tangent to the surface at A, 

representing the true horizon. 
E I H. Sepresents the apparent horizon. 

E E H. Dip of the horizon. 

M. Object to he observed by throwing image to 

apparent horizon at H. 
M E H. Observed altitude, which is greater than 

the angle M E F 6j/ the quantity of the 

angle F E H. 





A B C, D E F. Atmosphere surrounding the 
D. Observer, 
a. Star. 

D a. The line the star would be observed on if there was 
no refraction. 

D b. The line the star is obseiDcd 071 owing to refrac- 


T. Sun below the horizon. 
T 1. A ray of light proceeding from T, comes in a right line to I, and is there turned out of its recti- 
linear course, and is so bent down towards the eye of the observer at D that the sun 
appears in the direction of the refracted ray above H. 

When a body is in the zenith there is no refraction, the rays of light entering the atmosphere in 
straight lines. 


Circle of Mefledion. An instrument for measuring the angular distance of the moon 
from the sun or a star, and much superior for this purpose to a sextant. 

Circle of Right Ascension. Great circles passing through the poles of the equinoc- 

Declinaiion Circles. The great circles upon which declinations are measured. 
Biiirnal Circle. A heavenly body is said to describe a diurnal circle owing to the 
apparent daily revolution of the celestial sphere. 

Hour Circle. The great circle of the celestial sphere passing through the poles of 
the heavens and perpendicular to the equinoctial. 

Latitude Circles. Great circles perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, upon 
which latitudes are measured. 

Folar Circle. Tlie small circles of the terrestrial sphere parallel to the equator. 
They are 23° 2A' from the poles ; the northern is termed the Arctic circle, and the 
southern the Antarctic circle. 

Vertical Circle. A great circle passing through the zenith. 
Circiim- Meridian Altitude. An altitude of a heavenly body when it is near 

tlie meridian — either a.m. or p.m. 
Circvimiiavigate. To sail round. 

To circumnavigate the globe is to sail entirely around the world. 
Circiim-polar. Near the pole. 
Cirro-cumulus. Commonly known as " mackerel" sky and " sheep in a meadow" 

sky, owing to the rounded woolly patches. 
Cirro-stratus. Long layers of cloud, thinner at the edges than in the centre. 
Cirrus. The liighest and least dense of cloud formation ; it is of many varieties in re- 
lation to shape and extent. 
Civil Time. The civil day commences at midnight and comprises 24 hours, which 
are divided into two equal parts — the first 12 (from midnight to noon) being named 
A.M., and the. last 12 (noon to midnight) named p.m. 
Clamp Screw. The screw on the back of the sliding limb of an instrument of re- 
flection by which the limb is rendered immovable when desired. 
Clinometer. An instrument for showing the roll of a vessel when suspended in a 
thwartships line. When it is suspended in a fore-and-aft line it will record the pitch 
of the vessel. 
Clock. A machine composed of a combination of wheels, which are moved either by 
weights or by a spring, and which measures time, indicating the same by hour, 
minute, and second hands moving around the dial, or face of the instrument, on which 
numerals are painted. 

Astronomical Clock. A penduhnn clock of superior workmanship and great accu- 
racy. It sliows sidereal (star) time, and when the first point of Aries is on the merid- 
ian it indicates Oh. Om. Os. 

Ifean Solar Clock. A timepiece which shows mean solar or civil time. 
Sidereal Clock. An astronomical clock. 

Clock Stars. The bright or nautical stars employed by astronomers and navigators 
for determining latitude and longitude. 
Cloud Classification, Cirrus, cumidus, stratus, cirro-cumidus, cirro-stratus, 

cumido-stratus, and cum ulo-cirro-stratus, or nimbus. 
Cloud Scale. This extends from to 10 — the first indicating a clear sky and 5 a 

sky half-overcast, while 10 represents an entirely obscured skj\ 
CoHimation. (See Axis or Collimatiok.) 
Comparison. To observe a comparison is to note the difference in time between two 

Compass. A magnetic needle alone, or a circular card having a magnetic needle se- 
cured across it, parallel to the north and south line, and suspended upon a sharp point 
so as to balance and to turn freely. The card is marked with the 32 points of the com- 
pass, and the north and south line of the card indicates the magnetic meridian. 

Compass Adjusting. The process of correcting the compass for deviation by the 
employment of artificial magnets. 








D.v- / 


■~■;^~0:;c::..-,....__„.jf,,:v-v:::;;;: »|k 

ABC. TAc .SirtA. C. The Earth's centre. A. The Observer. 

Z A K. Vertical plane passing through D, the moon, or d, a planet. 
e d G E D F. Circvlar arcs about C as a centre. K Z. Starry heavens. 

If at any time the moon be at D, she will be referred to the point H, by a spectator supposed to be 
placed at the centre of the earth, and this is called the true place of the moon ; but the spectator at A will 
refer the moon to the place 6, and this is called the apparent place of the moon ; the difEerence H 6, or the 
angle H D 6 -= A D C, is called the rruoon'' s parallax in altitude, which is evidently greatest when the moon 
is in the horizon at E, being then equal to the arc K I. When the moon is at Z (the zenith) there will 
be no parallax, the body being observed on the same line from the centre of the earth as from the earth's 


1. Altitude of the sun's lower limb — semi-diameter added gives central altitude. 

2. Altitude of the sun's upper limb — semi-diameter subtracted gives central altitude. 

3. Altitude of the sun's middle — semi-diameter not considered . 

4. Altitude of the moon's lower limb— semi-diameter added gives central altitude. 

5. Altitude of the moon's upper limb — semi-diameter subtracted giYes central altitude 

6. Altitude of a star — possesses no apparent diameter. 

266 i'attkbson's illustrated nautical mctionaet. 

Compass Bearing. The direction of an object as indicated by a magnetic compass. 

Compass Bowl. The hollow half-sphere in the top of the binnacle stand, and inside 
of which the compass is suspended by gimbals. 

Compass Card. The painted circle, representing the 32 points of the compass, to 
which is fastened the magnetic needle. 
' Compass Corrections. The quantities in the way of points or degrees which must be 
applied to a course or bearing in order to obtain correct magnetic and true bearings. 

Compass Course. The angle which the track of a vessel makes with the meridian as 
indicated by the ship's compass. 

Compass Error. The deviation of the north point of the compass card from the 
magnetic meridian. (See Eesidual Eeeors.) 

Compass Needle. The magnetized steel bar which indicates the magnetic meridian 
when freely suspended and not subject to counterbalancing magnetism. 

Compass Point. One of the 32 divisions painted on the compass card. 

Compass Bose. The diagram compass printed on charts. 

Azimuth Compass. A compass provided" with revolving sight vanes, and employed 
for taking bearings . 

Bridge Compass. The compass situated on the bridge of a steamer. 

Compensated Compass. A compass which has been corrected for deviation by the 
employment of magnets. 

Crazy Compass. A compass is said to be crazy when the card refuses to indicate 
the magnetic meridian by flying around and around. This sometimes happens in a 
violent seaway, and at other times when the atmosphere is heavily charged with elec- 

Demagnetized Compass. A compass needle which has lost its magnetism is said to 
be demagnetized. Electrical disturbances have been known to effect this. 

Dry Compass. A term applied to a compass which is enclosed in an air chamber in- 
stead of a liquid one. 

Elevated Compass. Under this head come masthead, pole, and tripod compasses. 
Compasses are elevated in order to get them beyond the influence of the ship's iron, 
which, being magnetized by induction, seriously affects the pointing of the magnetic 

Liquid Compass. A term used in connection with a compass the card of which is 
enclosed in a chamber filled with thirty-five parts of alcohol and sixty-five parts of dis- 
tilled water, the freezing point of the mixture being — 10° Fahrenheit. Compasses used 
in Arctic explorations have their bowls filled with pure alcohol. The reason for not 
filling all compass bowls with an undiluted mixture is that the pure alcohol eats the 
paint on the card. Sometimes oil is used instead of alcohol. 

Masthead Compass. As its name implies, a compass placed aloft in order to remove 
it from the influence of the iron in the ship's hull, deck fittings, machinery, etc. 

Oil Compass. A liquid compass, the card of which floats about in oil instead of alcohol. 

Pole Compass. A compass elevated above the deck on the end of a pole, access to it 
being had by means of a short ladder. It is sought by these means to remove it from 
the influence of the ship's iron. 

Spirit Compass. A compass the card of which floats about in alcohol or oil. 

Standard Compass. A compass situated above the deck so that deviation will be 
reduced to a minimum, and in a good position for observing bearings. It is by this 
compass that the ship is navigated. 

Steering Compass. The compass used by the wheelsman in steering the vessel. The 
vessel is put on her course by the standard compass, and the point against which at 
that time the lubber's mark stands on the steering compass is held by the wheelsman. 

Tf-ipod Compass. So named owing to the three-leg stand on which the compass is 
elevated. A tripod compass is, in other words, a pole compass. 
Compensating Magnets. Artificial magnets placed near a compass for the pur- 
pose of coiTecting the deviation. 
Coast Pilot. A pilot who conducts a vessel from one part of the coast to another ; a 
book of pilotage directions. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



1. Mercury bottle. 2. Cover for trough. 3. Trough for mereury. 


%\#« \ 

■ I'.iU'i rnn 

The Artificial horizon is based upon the well-known principle in Catoptrics that the urigle ofreflec- 
iioti is equal to the angle of incidence ; in other words, if a ray of light strikes any plane reflecting surface 
at a definite angle it leaves it at the same angle ; or it may be more fully illustrated as follows : 




Let A B represent the surface of the quicksilver whose plane is continued to C ; D E F the roof ; 
S the sun whose altitude is required. The ray S H proceeding from the sun's lower limb to the surface 
of the quicksilver will be reflected thence to the eye in the direction H G, and from G continued to E ; 
consequently the angle S H R is double the angle 8 H C, the angle of the sun's lower limb above the 
horizontal plane, so that if we suppose the angle 8 H R measured by a sextant to be 70° the altitude of 
Ihe sun's lower limb will be 35". 

268 Patterson's illustrated nautical diotionaey. 

Complement. The complement of an altitude is the zenith distance, or what aa 
altitude lacks of 90°. 

Composite Sailing. A comhination of parallel and great circle sailing. 

Computation. To ascertain the ship's position by reckoning or calculation. 

Conjunction. Heavenly bodies are in conjunction when they have the same longi- 
tude ; that is, when they meet in the same point or place in the heavens. 

Inferior Conjunction. When a planet is in conjunction on the side of the sun near- 
est the earth. 

Superior Conjunction. When a planet is in conjunction on the side of the sun far- 
thest from the earth. 

What are known as superior planets have no inferior conjunction. 

Constellation. A group of fixed stars, bearing the name of some animal or emblem^ 
such as the Great Bear, the Dipper, etc. 

Co-ordinates. A system of angles and lines, by the employment of which the po- 
sition of any point may be determined with reference to a fixed point known as the 
origin, and an assumed direction known as the axis. 

Co-ordinate Systems. There are two — the polar and rectilinear. 

Copernican System. The true system of the universe, which represents the sun 
to be at rest in the centre, and the planets to move round it in ellipses. 

Cosecant. (See Logarithms.) 

Cosine. (See Logarithms.) 

Cotangent. (See Logarithms.) 

Course. The angle which a ship's keel makes with the meridian when she is sailing. 

Course Made Good. The bearing of the vessel from the point left. 

Course Protractor. A graduated rule or half-circle employed in shaping the course. 

Cross Bearings. Bearings of two or more objects observed from the same point. 
The intersection of these lines of bearing is the place of the observer. They are very 
valuable for locating the position of the vessel when on the coast. 

Cross Observations. A method of regulating a watch at sea by observing n^7jf 
and left altitudes of heavenly bodies with a circle of reflection. 

Cross W^ires. The very fine wires placed in the focus of the object-glass of a tele- 

Culminate. A heavenly body is said to culminate when it crosses the meridian. 
Upper Culmination. When a heavenly body crosses the meridian above the pole. 
Lower Culmination. When a heavenly body crosses the meridian helow the pole. 

Cuinulo-cirro-stratus. A mixed system of clouds. Also known as Nimbus, the 
rain cloud. 

Cumulo-stratus. A blending of cumulus and stratus. 

Cumulus. Known as the summer cloud. A species of cloud assuming more or less 
of a conical figure. 

Current. A current may be defined as a progressive motion of the water of the sea 
at certain places. 

Current Log. (See Ground Log.) 

Current Sailing. When a vessel sails through a sea in which a current is experi- 
enced its effect will be to set the ship in the direction of its flow, and this is considered 
as an extra course, and the rate of the current the velocity of the vessel on such course, 
and this course and distance will be entered regularly in the traverse table. 

Cycle. A revolution or round of time within which events recur in the same order. 
Gi/cle of the Sun. Also known as the solar cycle. A period of 28 years, after which 
the same days of the week recur on the same days of the year. 

Cycle of the Moon. Also known as the meionic cycle. A period of 19 solar years, 
after which the new and full moons fall on the same daj's of the year as they did 19 
years before. This is sometimes referred to as the golden number. 

Cycle of Eclipses. A period of 6,586 days — the time of revolution of the moon's node. 
Cycloid. A curve traced out by any point in the plane of a circle rolled along a 

straight line. 
Cyclone. A revolving wind advancing on a line. 







270 patteeson's ilt,usteated nautical'"dictionaet. 


Darks. Nights during which the moon does not shine. 

David's Staff. An old-fashioned navigating instrument for measuring altitudes. 

Day. The length of time occupied by a complete revolution of the earth on its axis.- 
Soine certain point is chosen to mark the commencement of the day, and, as this is ar- 
bitrary, we have several kinds of days and times to consider, owing to various selec- 
tions. ' 

Astronomical Day. The day commences at noon of the civil day and ends at noon 
— the hours being counted numerically from Oh. to 241i. 

Civil Day. The civil day begins at midnight and ends at midnight, the 24 hours- 
being divided into two equal parts — the twelve from midnight to noon being named 
A.M. {before meridian), and the twelve from noon to midnight named p.ji. {after mer- 

Intercalary Day. A day inserted in the calendar in leap year. 
Circumnavigators' Day. The day added to or subtracted from the date shown by 
the ship's log-book when the vessel crosses the meridian of 180° in sailing easterly 
and westerly respectively. 

- Lunar Day. The interval of time between two successive transits of the moon 
over the same meridian. 

Nautical Day. An old-fashioned way of keeping time at sea. The day began at 
noon, and was 12 hours in advance of the civil day and 24 hours in advance of 
the astronomical day. 

Sea Day. Same as nautical day. 

Sidereal Day. The interval of time between two successive transits of a fixed star 
over the same meridian. Sometimes called a star day. 

Solar Day. The interval of time between two successive transits of the sun's centre- 
over the same meridian. 

Day's Work. Calculating the ship's position by dead reckoning. 

Dead Reckoning'. Finding the true track which the ship has made and the dis- 
tance thereon by correcting the courses sailed for leeway, variation and deviation, and 
entering them in a traverse table, and selecting from the nautical tables the differ- 
ence of latitude and departure for same. 

Declination. The angular distance of a heavenly body from the equinoctial, either 
north or south. 

Degree. A degree is the 360th part of the circumference of a circle. Sixty minutes- 
make one degree. 

Depressed Pole. The pole below the observer's horizon. 

Departure. The easting or westing made by a vessel. Parallel sailing is all de- 
parture. Also, to take departure is to determine the position of the ship after leaving 
port, and before the first course is set. Cross-bearings are generally employed for- 

Depression of the Horizon. (See Dip of the HoEizoif.) 

Deviation. The deflection of the compass needle from the magnetic meridian owing- 
to the attraction of the ship's iron, or elements of magnetism in the cargo. It is named 
easterly oy westerly deviation, according as the north point of the needle is drawn to the- 
eastward or westward of the magnetic north 

Deviation Table. A card showing the 32 points of the compass, and having 
marked opposite each the error on that particular point, and the compass course neces- 
sary to steer in order to make the true or magnetic course given by the chart. 

Diagram Compass. The figure of a compass printed on charts. 

Diameter. The distance through the centre of any object. 

Difference of Latitude. The arc of a meridian included between two parallels. 

Difference of Longitude. The arc of the equator included between two me- 






Dip. When a heavenly body disappears below the horizon it is said to di^j. Also 
after a heavenly body has passed over the meridian it is said to dip. 

Dip of the Horizon. Owing to the elevation of the eye of the observer above 
the surface of the earth the visible horizon is depressed below the sensible horizon, and 
this is known as the dip of the liorizon. 

Dip of tlie Needle. The angle formed with the horizontal by the dipping needle. 

Dipping" Needle. An instrument which shows the direction in a vertical plane of 
the magnetic force of the earth. The contrivance consists of a magnetic needle sus- 
pended at its centre of gravity so as to move freely in'the plane of the magnetic merid- 
ian. A graduated circle surrounds the needle. 

Dipper. The seven stars in the constellation of the Great Bear, and by means of 
which the location of the Pole Star is readily determined. 

Dip Sector. An instrument for measuring the true dip of the horizon. 

Disc Also dish. The face of the sun, moon, or planet. 

Diurnal. Relating to the day ; performed in a day, as the diurnal revolution of the 

Diurnal Arc. That part of a circle which is described by a heavenly body from its 
rising to its setting. 

Dividers. An instrument used in navigation for dividing lines, measuring distances 
on a chart, sweeping circles, etc. 

Doldrums. Certain parts of the sea where calms prevail. They exist between the 
trade winds. 

Domestic Navigation. Coastwise and inland sailing. 

Double Altitudes. Twofold altitudes of a heavenly body employed in the solu- 
■ tion of the same problem. 

Double Star. Two stars apparently so close together that to the naked eye they 
appear to touch. 

Douwe's Method. A short process of finding the latitude from two altitudes of the 

D. R. Capital letters representing the words dead reckoning. 

Drift Lead. A hand-lead resting on the bottom when the vessel is at anchor, the 
fore-and-aft trend of the line telling whether or not the ship is dragging her anchor. 

Dry Bulb. A name given to the ordinary thermometer. (See Wet Bulb.) 

Dry Compass. (See Compass.) 

Dumb Card. A piece of wood or other substance having the points of the compass 
painted thereon. 

Dumb Telescope. The line telescope of an octant or sextant. This tube has no 
glasses, and is employed simply for guiding the eye to the horizon glass. 


Eager. A sudden and violent flow of tide ; the whole of the flood tide moving up a 
river in one or several successive waves. 

Earth. The globe; the terrestrial sphere; in form an oblate spheroid; the third 
planet in order from the sun ; equatorial diameter, 7,926 miles ; polar diameter, 7,899 
miles ; surface, 150,000,000 square miles, of which 51,000,000 is water ; moves round 
the sun in an ellipse in 365^ days ; least distance of the earth from the sun, 94,000,000 
of miles ; greatest distance, 96,000,000 of miles ; velocity of the earth in its orbit, 19 
miles per second ; daily motion on its axis (velocity increasing from the pole), 1,440 
feet per second at the equator ; circumference at the equator, rather less ^than 25,000 
miles ; earth rotates on her axis in 23h. 56m. 4s. ; inclination of the plane of the 
earth's equator to the plane of the ecliptic, about 23° 28'. 





^ >^ 





274 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Earth's Inclination. (See Earth.) 

East. The cardinal point in that part of the horizon where the heavenly bodies rise. 

Easterly Deviation. A compass has easterly deviation when the north point of 
the needle is inclined to the right of the magnetic north, owing to the influence of the 
ship's ii'on. 

Easterly Variation. A compass has easterly variation when the north point of 
the needle is inclined to the right of the true north owing to the angle subtended by 
the true and magnetic meridians. 

Ebb Tide. The reflux of the tide ; the running out of the tide towards the sea ; the 
receding of the waters of the sea. 

Ecliptic. An imaginary great circle of the heavens or of the sphere, which represents 
the path described by the earth among the fixed stars in its annual revolution around 
the sun. The ecliptic intersects the equinoctial at an angle of about 23J^- The 
ecliptic is the apparent path of the sun about the earth. 

Elevated Compass. (See Compass.) 

Elevated Pole. The pole above the horizon of the observer. 

Ellipse. An oval figure ; the orbits of planets. 

Epact. Tlie difference in length between time as measured by the sun and time as 
measured b}' the moon. 

Eplienieris. An astronomical almanac ; a tabulated form assigning the place of 
heavenly bodies for various days and hours. 

Epitome. An abridged work on navigation. 

Equal Altitudes. Double altitudes of the sun — one taken before and the other 
after meridian, when the angular measurements above the horizon equal one another. 

Equation. To make equal. 

Equation of Time. The difference between api)arent and mean time. Apparent 
noon sometimes takes place 16 m. 21 sec. before mean noon, and again 14 m. 28 sec, 
after. It disappears altogether four times in the year — about April 15, June 15, Sep- 
tember 1, and December 24. 

Equation of Equal Altitudes. In measuring equal altitudes of the sun the 
declination of that body changes in the interval between the two sights, and the time 
correction for the hour angle is termed the equation of equal altitudes. 

Equator. Tliat great circle of the earth the plane of which is perpendicular to 
the axis of the earth ; the imaginary line encircling the earth which is equi-distant 
from the north and south poles ; the dividing line between the northern and southern 

Equatorial Cui'reut. The westerly flow of the sea near the equator. 

Equatorial Circumference. (See Earth.) 

Equatorial Diameter. (See Earth. ) 

Equatorial Sector. An instrument employed for ascertaining the difl'erence in 
the declination and right ascension of two heavenly bodies. 

Equatorial Telescope. A telescope mounted in such a manner that the observer 
is enabled to follow the stars in their movement across the heavens. 

Equiangular Spil'al. A rhumb line ; a line cutting the meridians at a constant 

Equinoctial. The celestial equator. 

Eqinoctial Colure. The meridian passing through the equinoctial points. 

Equinoctial G-ales. Storms occurring about the time the sun crosses the equator — 
about March 21 and September 20. 

Equinoctial Points. The two opposite points in which the ecliptic and equinoc- 
tial intersect each other. 

Establishment of the Port. It being of great importance to determine the 
time of high water for various ports, a standard tide is fixed upon, which is indicated 
by a relative position of the sun and moon, and from which the time of every tide may 
be deduced. This is known as the establishment of the port. 

Etesian Winds. Winds that blow at stated times of the year. 

patteeson's iixtisteated nautical dictionaey. 



I f 






Pitch Adjusteb. 

;276 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


Fahrenheit. The inventor of the mercurial tliermometer (a temperature measurer) 
was G-abriel Daniel Falirenlieit, who first made the instrument Itnown in 1714. 

Farewell. To talce departure. (See Dbpaetueb.) 

Fathom. Six feet. 

Field of View. The circular space in a telescope in which, when the instrument is 
in focus, objects are visible. 

First Meridian. Same a,a prime meridian. A great circle selected as the starting 
point of longitude ; the meridian which passes over the national observatory of a conn- 
try is generally counted the^rs^ or prims meridian. Tne French adopt the meridian 
of Paris, the Spaniards that of San Fernando, the English that of Greenwich, the 
Russians that of St. Petersburg, the Americans that of Washington, etc. 

First Point of Aries. The vernal equinoctial point ; the first of the twelve 
signs which the sun enters at the vernal equinox. The commencement of this sign is 
called the first point of Aries, and it is the origin from which the right ascensions of 
heavenly bodies are reckoned upon the equator, and their longitudes upon the ecliptic. 

First Point of Cancer. The summer solstitial point, which the sun enters 
about the 21st of June. 

First Point of Capricorn. The winter solstitial point, which the sun enters 
about the 21st of December. 

First Point of Libra. The autumnal equinoctial point, which the sun enters 
about the 22d of September. 

Fixed Stars. Stars which appear to maintain their places with reference to one 

Flood Mark. High water mark. 

Flood Tide. The incoming tide ; the rising tide. 

Flower of the Winds. The old style of diagram compasses printed on charts, 
having a rose in the middle. 

Flnx. The coming in or the flow of the tide. 

Focal Distance. Also known as focal length. The distance between the centre of 
a lens and its focus, or between the object-glass and the image. 

Fore Observation. To face the body or object when measuring an altitude is 
known as taking a fore observation. (See Back Obsbevation.) 

Frigid Zone. Owing to the obliquity of the ecliptic, the earth's surface is divided 
into five zones, namely, the torrid, situated between the parallels of 23° 28' N. and 
23'' 28' S. ; the temperate, extending from the torrid zone to the parallel 66° 32' 
north and south; the frigid, extending from the temperate zones to the poles. 

Full Moon. When the whole illuminated face or disc of the moon is turned toward 
the earth. 


■G-ained Pay. A ship sailing eastward meets the sun in his daily course, and in the 
circumnavigation of the globe the sun will have crossed the ship's meridian once more 
often than if the vessel had remained stationary ; so it is that an easterly circumnavi- 
gator gains a day. On the other hand, a ship sailing westward runs away from the sun 
in his daily course, and in the circumnavigation of the globe the sun will have crossed 
the ship's meridian once less often than if she had remained stationary. The date is 
altered by adding or subtracting one dav of the month on crossing the meridian of 





■278 patteeson's illustkated nautical dictionaey. 

Cralaxy. The milky way ; the luminous band, composed of millions of stars, stretch- 
ing across the sky. 

Oale. When the word is used without any qualification it signifies a violent wind. 

Oeocentric. Referring to the earth ; the motion or position of a heavenly body as 
viewed from the earth — opposed to heliocentric. 

Oeotlesy. To divide ; land surveying ; the division of the earth's surface. 

Geographical Mile. Also known as nautical and sea mile ; the mean length of a 
minute of latitude ; 6,082.66 feet. 

Greographical Poles. The extremities of the earth's axis. 

Creometry. A branch of mathematics which investigates the measurement of sur- 
faces, solids, angles and lines ; the science treating of the properties of magnitude. 

€rlass. A general name for the barometer, telescope and sand glass. 

Godfrey's Chart. A great circle chart, constructed by one Godfrey, making sim- 
ple the operation of laying down the great circle track. 

Golden Nuinher. The moon's cycle is a period of 19 solar years, and after that 
the new and full moon occurs the same day of the year as 19 years before. The golden 
number shows the years of the moon's cycle, reckoning from 1 to 19. 

Graduated Arc. The scale on the arc of an instrument of reflection. 

Graduated Rulers. The ordinary parallel ruler having one of its edges divided 
into degrees, and the other edge in points, half-points, and quarter-points. It facili- 
tates the shaping of the ship's course, being independent of the diagram compasses. 

Great Circle. The arc of a great circle is the true course between two places, and 
the length of the track is the shortest distance between them. "When a great circle 
trach is drawn on a Mercator's chart it represents a curve, except on north, south, east 
and west courses. A ship sailing on a great circle would be constantly changing the 
direction of her head, according to the curve represented on a Mercator's chart, while 
in reality she would sail in a direct line from place to place. This may be explained 
by stating that a Mercator's chart is distorted, and that which appears to be a straight 
line connecting two places (except when drawn N., S., E. and W.) is in reality a curve, 
and that the represented curve of a great circle is a straight line. 

Great Circle Charts. Used by navigators for laying out great circle tracks. It 
is constructed on the Central or Gnomonic projection, all great circles appearing on it 
as straight lines. 

Great Circle Sailing. The act of sailing upon an arc of the great circle. 

Greenwich Date. The civil date for the meridian of Greenwich. 

Greenwich Time. The civil time for Greenwich represented on board ship by the 
chronometer regulated to the mean time of that meridian. 

Ground Log. This instrument consists of a lead made fast iq the regular log-line 
and cast overboard, and is used in shoal water when the vessel is drifting under the 
influence of a tide or current — no objects being visible whereby to fix the ship's posi- 
tion. The angle made by the line will give the set of the vessel, and the rate will be 
measured by the seconds glass, as usual. 

Gulf Stream. An Atlantic current. The trade winds blow the warm waters of the 
tropics into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, from whence they are poured out 
through the Straits of Florida, expanding as they flow to the northward from 40 to 300 
miles, and following the curve of the United States coast. 

Gunter's Chain. A chain employed in land surveying. It is 66 feet or four poles 
in length. 

Gunter's Line. A scale on which numbers are laid down opposite their logarithms, 
and used for performing the operations of multiplication and division of numbers me- 

Gunter's Scale. A flat rule two feet in length, having marked on one side scales 
of equal parts, chords, tangents, sines, etc. On the other side are marked logarithms of 
these respective parts, and by the employment of which problems in navigation and 
surveying maj!^ be performed mechanically. 

Gunter's Quadrant. An astronomical instrument for finding the hour of the day. 

i'attkeson's illusteatei) nautical diction aey. 





280 patteeson's illustrated nautical diction aey. 


Half Tide. The middle of the tide. 

Half Minute Glass. A sand-glass used in logging the ship. 

Halley's Chart. A chart showing the -variations of the compass by a series of curves. 

Halo. A circle or bright ring about the sun or moon — in the first place termed solar 

halo, and in the latter lunaf halo. 
Hanging Compass. A tell-tale compass. 
Heaving the Log. Determining the ship's rate of speed through the water by 

means of the log and line and seconds glass. 
Heeling Deviation. The alteration of compass deviation owing to the vessel 

being otf an even keel. 
Heeling Error. Same as heeling deviation. 
Height. The angle of a heavenly body above the horizon ; the level of high water;. 

the distance in feet from the hollow of a sea to the crest. 
Heliocentric. In relation to the sun's centre. 

Heliocentric Place. The point in which a planet would appear if viewed from the 

centre of the sun. 
Heliometer. An instrument made use of for measuring the diameters of the sun, 

moon and planets. 
Heliostat. An instrument which reflects the sun's rays by a mirror, and used in 

trigonometrical survej's. Also known as Heliotrope. 
Heliotrope. (See Heliostat.) 
Hemisphere. Half of a globe ; half of the heavens. 

High Latitudes. Parallels far from the equator, and approaching the poles* 
High Tide. The greatest elevation of the flood tide. 
High Water. Same as high tide. 
High Water Mark. The mark made on the shore by the tide at the point of its 

greatest height. 
Horizon. The line of the blending of earth (or sea) and sky ; the apparent meeting 

of the earth and heavens. 

Apparent Horizon. (See Visible Horizon.) 

Artificial Horizon. A reflector of quicksilver placed on shore and used for observ- 
ing altitudes of the heavenly bodies. 

Celestial Horizon. The great circle in which the planes of the sensible and rational 

horizons produced cut the celestial sphere. 

Dip of the Horizon. The angle between the visible and sensible horizons. 

Rational Horizon. An imaginary great circle, the plane of which passes through the 

earth's centre, the poles being the zenith and nadir, and which divides the globe into 

two equal parts — parallel with the sensible horizon. 

Sea Horizon. The circle which bounds the view of the observer — the apparent 

mingling of sea and sky. 

Sensible Horizon. A plane touching the earth at the point where the observer is 

situated, and which meets the celestial sphere in a circle. 

Shore Horizon. When the sea horizon is hidden by the intervention of- land, the 

beach line is known as the shore horizon. 

Visible Horizon. When the observer is elevated above the earth's surface by ordi- 
nary height of eye, or by standing on a vessel's deck, the limit of vie^\- is termed the 

visible or apparent horizon, and the angle between the visible and sensible horizons is 

called the dip of the horizon. 
Horizon Glass. The small half-silvered and half-clear glass on the quadrant, oc- 
tant and sextant. 
Horizontal Parallax. The change of position which a body in the horizon, as 

seen from the surface of the earth, would assume if it was viewed frrom the centre of 

the earth. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 




282 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Horse Latitudes. A region of calms on the borders of the trade winds. 

Hour. Sixty minutes of time ; the twenty-fourth part of a day. 

Hour Angle. The angular distance of a body east or west of the meridian ; art 

angle at the poles included between diiferent hour circles. 
Hour Circle. A great circle of the celestial sphere passing through the two poles \ 

it marks out all places having the same hour angle. 
Hurricane Centre. The central calm space around which the winds revolve. 

(See Bearing oe Storm Centre.) 
Hydrographic Chart. Charts which show sections of the navigable waters of 

the earth, and which describe the rocks, shoals, tides, currents, soundings, etc., to be 

met with in navigation, suggestions for making passages, etc. 
Hydrography. Description of the navigable waters of the earth, rocks, shoals^ 

tides, currents, soundings, etc. 
Hygrometer. An instrument employed for measuring the amount of moisture in. 

the atmosphere. Also known as a wet lulb thermometer. 
Hypothenuse. The longest side of a right-angled triangle. 


Ice. (See Part I.) 

Incidence. When light is reflected from a surface, as in the artificial horizon, the- 

angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. (See engraving.) 
Inclination. i^See Earth's Inclination.) 
Index. A name given to the flat bar on a navigating instrument of reflection which 

has the mirror on one end and the vernier on the other. Also known as sliding limb^ 

Index is also the integer part of a logarithm. 
Index Correction. The adjustment of the index glass of the quadrant, octant 

or sextant, which consists of making the index glass perpendicular to the plane of 

the arc. 
Index Error, When the horizon glass and index glass are parallel to one another, 

zero on the vernier should cut zero on the arc. If this is not effected, then a correction 

f index error) is to be applied to the reading of the altitude as follows : If on the 

vernier is to the right hand of on the arc, the correction will be additive, but if t» 

the left hand it will be subtracted. 
Index Glass. The mirror at the top of the index or sliding limb which reflects the 

image of the sun to the horizon glass. 
Inequalities in Altitude, The slight error due to the expansion and contraction 

of the sextant frame from changes of temperature enters into the consideration of equal 

altitudes, but in practical work the difference is not sensible. 
Inter-cardinals. The North-east, South-east, South-west and North-west points 

of the compass. 
Interpolation. Finding the value of an element falling between two given values, 

as the reduction of the sun's declination for any hour previous to or after noon. 
Instrumental Parallax. The error of an angle measured on a quadrant, octant 

or sextant, due to the horizon glass not being on the same horizontal plane with the 

index glass. This error is only perceptible when the object observed is near to, as 

when attempting to adjust the instrument by an object a short distance removed. 
Iron-bound Coast. Shores composed of perpendicular rocks. 
Intercalary Day. (See Day.) 

Internal Contact A transit of Mercury or Venus across the sun's disc. 
Irradiation, Illumination; apparent enlargement of the diameter of heavenly 

bodies. This seldom exceeds 5" in the case of the sun, so that for all practical pur 

poses irradiation is never considered. 




284 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 


Jacob's Staff, Also known as Cross Staff. A mathematical instrument used for 

taking altitudes. 
Journal. The log-book is sometimes termed a sea-jotirnal. 

Julian. A reform of the calendar was introduced in Rome by Julius Csesar, and 
adopted and used by all Christian countries until 1582, when it was refonued by Pope 
Gregory XIII. 

Julian ExMch. The date of the commencement of the Julian calendar, January 1st, 
46 years' B. C. 

Julian Period. A cycle of 7,980 years, dating from 4713 B. C. 

Julian Year. The year, equal to 365 J days, adopted in the Julian calendar. 


Kepler's Laws. This eminent astronomer, born in Wiirtemberg in the year 1571, 
determined the triie laws of the motions of the planets around the sun. The three 
laws which he discovered, are : 

First. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse having the sun in one focus. 

Second. As the planet moves around the sun its radius-vector, or line joining it to 
the sun, passes over equal areas in equal times. 

Third. The square of the time of revolution of each planet is proportional to the 
Cube of its mean distance from the sun. 


Land. Blink. A brightness in the atSiosphere in the vicinity of land covered with 
■; snow. 

Land Breeze. (See Part I.) 
Landfall. (See Part I.) 

Landmark. Any shore object which serves as a guide to vessels. 
Latitude. The distance of a place on the earth's surface north or south of the 
equator ; the angular distance from tlie equator measured on a meridian. 

Celestial Latitude. The declinaj;i'on of a heavenly body ; the angular distance of a 
heavenly body from the equinoctial, either north or south. 

Difference of Latitude. Thedifference in degrees, minutes and seconds of arc be- 
tween t\\'o parallels. 

Geocentric Latitude. The distance of a heavenly body from the ecliptic, as viewed 
from the centre of the earth. 

Heliocentric Latitude. The distance of a heavenly body from the ecliptic as seen 
from the centre of the sun. 

Terrestrial Latitude. Latitude measured from the equator, north and south, on the 
earth's surface. 

Latitude hy Account. The parallel of the vessel determined by dead reckoning. 
Latitude hy Bead Bechoning. The parallel of the vessel determined by the employ- 
ment of a traverse table. (See Dead Ebckoning.) 

Latitude hy Observation. The parallel of a vessel determined by an observation of 
a heavenly body. 






286 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

lieatl and Line. (See Part I.) 

lieague. A measure of distance, varying in different countries, as follows : United 
States, France, England and Italy, 6,075 yards ; Germany and Holland, 8,100 yards ; 
Spain, 7,416 yards ; Russia, 8,468 yards. 

Lens. The magnifying glasses used in telescopes. 

Level Error. The error of a transit instrument owing to the deviation of the axis 
from the horizontal. 

Limiting' Parallels. Those northern and southern parallels outside of which oc- 
oultations of the stars or planets with the moon is not possible. 

Line. A term used in relation to the equator. 

Line of Chords. The line of chords upon the sector is used for protracting any angle 
when the limited size of the paper will not admit of an arc being drawn upon it with 
the radius of a common line of chords. 

Line of Collimation. The line passing through the centre of the telescope of an 
astronomical instrument — the intersection of the cross-wires in the focus. 

Line of Lines. Found upon Guntei-'s rule, and used to divide a given line into any 
number of equal parts. 

Line of Nodes. That line which passes through the nodes of an orbit. 

Line of No Variation. Two lines on the earth's surface extending from the 
magnetic north to the magnetic south pole ; all places on which the magnetic and 
true meridians coincide. (See chart, page 149. ) 

Line of Polygons. Used to inscribe a regular polygon in a circle. 

Line of Sines, Tangents and Secants. Scales of several radii. 

Liquid Compass. (See Compass.) 

Littrow's Method. A certain rule, named after the inventor, for determining the 
longitude by observation, employing circum-meridian altitudes. 

Local Attraction. Magnetic elements outside the ship, affecting the pointing of 
the compass on board. 

Local Time. The time confined or limited to a place ; time calculated by the pas- 
sage of the mean sun over the meridian. 

Local Transit. The crossing or passage of a heavenly body over the meridian of 
the observer. 

Log. An instrument used for measuring the rate of a vessel's speed through the water. 
There are many kinds, the most ancient being known as the " old-fashioned chip log," 
and the patent logs (working by a series of cog wheels) being known respectively as 
the "Bliss American Taffrail Log," the " Walker Taffrail Log," the "Massey Harpoon 
Log," the " Cherub Log," and the spring log, known as the " Clark Eussell Log." 
(See engravings; Current Log and Ground Log.) 

Log Board. (See Part I.) 

Log Book. (See Part I.) 

Log Chip. A flat piece of board in the shape of a quadrant — a part of the old- 
fashioned log. 

Log Dial. The register of a taffrail log. 

Log Grlaas. The sand-glass belonging to the chip log. 

Logged. Recorded in the log-book. 

Log Line. The line belonging to the chip log, or the line which connects the pro- 
peller of a taffrail log with the register. 

Log Refil. The reel on which the log-line is wound. 

Log Ship. Same as log chip. 

Log Slate. (See Part I.) 

Logarithm. The exponent of the power to which a fixed number, called the base, 
must be raised to produce a certain other number. Logarithms were invented by Lord 
Napier, a Scottish baron. They abridge greatly the labor of trigonometrical calculation, 
multiplication, division, involution and evolution of natural numbers being performed 
respectively by the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of the correspond- 
ing logarithms. Lord Napier's base is 2,71828, and the common, constructed by Prof. 
Henry Briggs, is 10. 

Patterson's illusteateo nautical diction aey. 





288 patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionary. 

Logistic Logarithm. The logarithm of the number of seconds in an hour (3,600) 

diminished by the log of the number of seconds less than an hour. 
Longfitude. The distance, expressed in degrees, or hours, east or west of a given 

Celestial Longitude. The distance of a heavenly body from the vernal equinox, 
reckoned on the ecliptic. Celestial Longitude is reckoned from the first point of 
Aries, eastward, from 0° to 360° and from h. to 24 h. 

Difference of Longitude. The difference in degrees, minutes and seconds of arc, or 
the difference in hours, minutes and seconds of time between two meridians. 

Geocentric Longitude. The longitude of a heavenly body as viewed from the earth. 
Heliocentric Longitude. The longitude of a heavenly body as viewed from 
the sun. 

Terrestrial Longitude. ^ The distance of any place on the earth's surface, east or 
west of a given meridian, expressed in arc or time. 

Longitude hy Account. The meridian of the ship determined by dead reckoning. 
Longitude liy Chronometer. The meridian of the ship determined by an altitude of a 
heavenly body and the corresponding time shown by the chronometer. 

Longitude hy Bead Rechoning. The meridian of the ship determined by the em- 
ployment of a traverse table. (See Dead Reckoning.) 

Longitude hy Equal Altitudes. The meridian of the vessel determined by observing 
equal altitudes of the sun — one before and the other after his meridian passage. 

Longitude hy Observation. The meridian of the vessel determined by an observation 
of a heavenly body. 

Longitude in Arc. Longitude expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds of angular 
measure (° ' " ). 

Longitude in Time. Longitude expressed in hours, minutes and seconds of time- 
(h. m. s.) 
Lost Day. (See G-ainbd Day.) 
L's of Navigation. (See Pabt I.) 
Low Latitudes. Parallels near the equator. 
Low Tide. (See Part I.) 
Lower Transit. The passage (transit) of the sun, moon, planets and stars over the- 

meridian 180° from the upper transit. 
Lubbers' Mark. Same as Lubbers' Point. 
Lubbers' Point. (See Paet I.) 
Lunar. Pertaining to the moon. 
Lunar Distance. The angular distance of the moon's centre from certain other 

heavenly bodies. 
Lunar Inequality. The variation in the moon's motion. 

Lunar Observation. An observation of the moon ; the angular distance of the 
moon from another heavenly body, the altitudes of each, and the chronometer time of 
observation the data for calculating the longitude. 
Lunation. The period between two successive new moons ; the lunar month ; the 

synodical period. 
Luni-solar. Combining the revolutions of the sun and moon. 

Ltmi-solar Period. The period after which the eclipses return in the same order — 
532 years. 
Luni-tidal Interval. The interval of time existing between the moon's transit 
and the next following high water. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 




290 Patterson's iLLusTxtATED nautical dictionakt. 


Macrometer. A double reflecting instrument employed for measuring the distance 
of inaccessible objects. 

Macula}. Dark spots on tlie face of tlie sun. 

Magellanic Clouds. Star clusters near the south pole of the heavens. 

Magnet. A substance which attracts iron. 

A natural magnet is an ore, generally of a gray color, and consisting principally of 
oxides of iron and a small portion of quartz and alumina. 

An artificial magnet is a bar, such as a compass needle, or a mass of iron or steel, 
to which magnetic force has been imparted by direct contact with a magnetic body, 
such as an artificial magnet in the shape of a horse-shoe, or by a dynamo. 

Magnetic Amplitude. The bearing by compass of a heavenly body at rising and 
setting from the east and west points of the heavens — thus we could say the sun's 
bearing at rising was east 10° north, etc. 

Magnetic Azimuth. The bearing by compass of a heavenly body when above 
the horizon^ from the north or south poles of the heavens — as, for example, the sun 
bore N. 85° east, etc. 

Magnetic Axis. The direction of the polarization of the magnetic needle. 

Magnetic Bearing. The bearing of an object by compass. 

Magnetic Dip. The inclination towards the earth of one of the poles (points) of a 
magnetic needle. ' 

Magnetic Equator, A line drawn through those points on the earth's surface 
where the magnetic dipping needle preserves a horizontal position. The magnetic 
equator is not the same as the earth's equator, but an irregular line running round the 
globe, not greatly distant from the earth's equator, which it crosses in two places, one 
near the west coast of Africa, and the other about the middle of the Pacific Ocean. 

Magnetic Induction. The power possessed by a magnet of communicating its 
projyerties to a bar of steel in its near vicinity, though perhaps not touching it ; what 
is known's induction is the communication of magnetism from the earth to 
iron and steel bodies, such as the hulls of vessels, etc. 

Magnetic Meridian. The direction assumed by a magnetic needle when sus- 
pended so as to turn freely, and removed from disturbing magnetic influences. 

Magnetic Needle. A magnetic bar of steel balanced on a pivot so as to turn 
freely and settle in the magnetic meridian. 

Magnetic Poles. Two places on the earth's surface, approximate to the north and 
south poles, where a dipping needle assumes a position perpendicular to the horizon. 
The north magnetic pole is situated in the latitude of about 70° north and the longitude 
of 97° west ; the south magnetic pole in the latitude of about 70° south and the lon- 
gitude of 145° east. 

Magnetism. The power of magnetic attraction ; the power of a magnet to attract 

Magnifying Telescope. A tube fitted with convex glasses or lens by which the 
apparent magnitude of an object seen through it is increased. 

Magnitude. Comparative bulk or dimension ; the stars are of the first, second, 
third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh magnitudes ; stars smaller than the seventh mag- 
nitude cannot be seen with the naked eye, and are called telescopic stars. 

Making tlie Land. To sight the land from a distance when coming from sea- 

Malstrbm. A whirlpool off the Norwegian coast caused by the tides. 

Mariner's Compass. A magnetic instrument used on board vessels which indi- 
cates the cardinals and the intermediate points ; a pathfinder for the mariner across 
the trackless waste. 

Maritime. Eelating to the sea. 

Patterson's ii.lustrated nautical dictionary. 



292 pattebson's illustrated nacttical diotionaey. 

Maritime Positions. The latitude and longitude of certain places on the sea- 
Marks and Deeps. (See Paet I.) 

Mean Low Water. The middle point between low water at the neap (low) and 
low water at the spring (high) tides. 

Mean Noon. When the mean sun crosses the meridian. 

Mean of tlie Altitudes. The average altitude obtained bj' dividing the aggre- 
gate of the observed altitudes by the figure representing the number of altitudes taken. 

Mean of the Times. The average time, obtained by dividing the aggregate of 
the several times by the figure representing the number of times noted. 

Mean Refraction. The refraction for various altitudes calculated for a barometer 
standing at 30 inches and a thermometer at 50°. 

Mean Solar Time. Time measured by the motion of the mean sun. Clocks and 
chronometers represent mean solar time. 

Mean Sun. An imaginary sun conceived to move uniformly in the equator, so as to 
give a value of 24 hours to the day. The mean sun is sometimes in advance of the 
true sun and sometimes behind it to the amount of about 16 minutes, and this devia- 
tion is known as the equation of time. 

Mean Time. Same as mean solar fiinc. 

Mercator's Cliart. (See Chaet.) 

Mercator's Projection. A portion of the sphere represented on a plane, both 
the meridians and parallels being straight lines parallel to one another, the length of 
the degrees of latitude increasing from the equator toward the poles in the same pro- 
portion in which that of the degrees of longitude is increased b}^ making the meridians 

Mercator's Sailinsf. To shape a course and find the distance between two points 
by employing the meridional parts of the two latitudes (also logarithms in some oases) 
instead of using a middle latitude, as in middle latitude sailing. 

Mercurial Barometer. (See Baeombtee.) 

Meridian. The highest point of the great circle which the sun describes from rising 
to setting, and which highest point it crosses at apparent noon ; an imaginary great cir- 
cle of the sphere which passes through the earth's axis and the observer's zenith ; the 
highest point of anything. 

First Meridian. The meridian from which longitude is reckoned, its choice being 

Celestial lleridian. A great circle of the celestial sphere passing through the poles. 
Prime Meridian. The same as first meridian. 
Terrestrial Meridian. Same as meridian line. 

Meridian Altitude. The altitude of a heavenly body when in the meridian — 
when it bears true north and south. 

Meridian Line. A terrestrial meridian, or a meridian as drawn on the surface of 
the earth. 

Meridian Observation. An altitude of the sun, moon or planets when on the 

Meridian Passage. The passage of a heavenly body over the meridian. 

Meridian Sailing'. Sailing due north or south — opposed to parallel sailing. 

Meridian Zenith Distance. The complement of the meridian altitude, or 
what that altitude lacks of 90°. 

Meridional Difference of Latitutle. The amount representing the same 
proportion to the difference of latitude that the difl^erence of longitude represents to the 

Meridionally. In the direction of the meridian. 

Meridional Parts. According to Mercator's system, parts of the projected merid- 
ian which correspond to each minute of latitude from the equator towards the poles. 

Meridional Projection. A projection of a sphere, the plane of projection being 
parallel to the meridian. 

Middle Latitude. The point situated midway on a north and south line between 





No. 145. 



two parallels ; middle latitude is half of the sum of two latitudes of the same name, but 
half of the difference of two latitudes of different names. 

Middle Liatitude Sailing. Shaping a course and finding the distance between 
two points by considering that the parallel to sail on is the mean between the latitude 
in and the one sought. 

Mile. A measure, of distance ; the common mile is called a statute mile — 5,280 feet ; 
the nautical, geographical and sea mile is the mean length of a minute of latitude — 
6,082.66 feet ; a nautical mile is termed a knot. 

The Midnight Sun. In high northern and southern latitudes during the summer 
season of the year the sun does not set, and at 12 o'clock at night it crosses the me- 
ridian 180° (half circle) distant from the meridian which it crossed over at noon ; hence 
the name, the midnight sun. 

Minute. The sixtieth part of on hour and the sixtieth part of a degree ; a mile of 
latitude is expressed as a minute of latitude. 

Minute of Arc. A minute of angular measure; a minute division on the quad- 
rant, octant, sextant, etc. 

Mistrals. A northwest wind experienced in the Mediterranean Sea. 

Moon. Diameter about 2,160 miles ; mean distance from the earth, 238,800 miles ; 
average velocity of revolution, 2,280 miles per hour ; sidereal period of revolution, 
27d. 7h. 43m. ; mean apparent diameter, 32'. 

Moon Culminating Star. A star coming to the meridian at the same time with 
the moon. 

Moon's Age. Time elapsed since the last conjunction — given for every day of the 
month in the nautical almanac. 

Moon's Apogee. The moon's greatest distance from the earth. 

Moon's Perigee. The moon's least distance from the earth. 

Moon's Transit. The moon's passage over the meridian. 

Monsoons. Winds in the Indian Ocean which blow from the southwest from April to 
October, and from northeast from October to April. 

Morning Star. The planet Venus when it rises before the sun ; when it appears 
in the west just after sunset it is called the evening star. 

Mountain Winds. The Pampero, which blows chiefly in the summer season from 
the Andes across the pampas of Buenos Ayres to the sea-coast. It is a dry, northwest 
wind, conveying large quantities of sand and dust, and extending at times to consider- 
able distance seawards. 

Multiple Star. Several stars appearing in close proximity to each other so as to 
form a cluster. 


Nadir. That point in the invisible heavens diametrically opposite to the zenith. The 

Nadir and Zenith are the two poles of the horizon. 
Napier's Method. A diagram of a compass card exhibiting a combination of a 

curved line and a straight line, the deviation between which shows at once the amount 

of compass deviation for each point. 
Nauropometer. An instrument used for ascertaining the ship's heel. 
National Observatories. Astronomical stations situated in the capital cities of 

the different nations. 
Natural. When the term natural is. used. \n navigation it has reference to natural 

sines, tangents, etc., and natural numbers. Natural sines, tangents, etc., are sines, 

tangents, etc., taken in arc, whose radii are 1. Natural logarithms are those taken 

in a system whose modulus is 1. 
Nautical. Marine; maritime; pertaining to ships ; navigation, etc. 
Nautical Almanac. (See Almanac.) 

























1 - 


I ^ 


^96 patteeson's illusteated nautical dictionaky. 

Nautical Astronomy. That part of astronomy which is made use of in naviga- 
IVautical Mile. (See Mile.) 

Nautical Stars. Certain bright stars employed by navigators for determining the 
ship's position. 

Nautical Tables. Tables computed for the solution of various navigation prob- 

Navigation. The science of conducting a vessel from one port to another. 

Neap Tides. The lowest tides in the month, oocnmng four or five days before the 
new and full moons — when the attractions of the sun and moon on the waters do not 
act in the same line. 

Needle. The magnetized steel bar of the compass. 

Neutral Points. In relation to the compass, the points of no semi-circular devi- 

New Moon. The moon is said to be new immediately after her conjunction with 
the sun — when she commences to increase. 

Nimbus. A combination of cumulo-cirro-stratus ; a system of clouds discharging 
rain, hail or snow : also known as the rain cloud. 

Noall's Ark. EUiptically-parted clouds seen after a storm, and considered by sea- 
men as a promise of fine weather to come. 

Nocturnal. Pertaining to the nigbt. 

Nocturnal Arc. That part of a circle described by a heavenly body between its 
setting and rising. 

Node. In geometry an oval figure formed by the intersection of one branch of a 
curve with another ; in astronomy one of the two opposite points at which the orbit 
of a planet or comet intersects the plane of the ecliptic. 

Ascending Node. The node which a planet, etc., crosses from south to north. 
Descending Node. The node which a planet, etc., crosses from north to south. 
Line of tlie Nodes. A straight line joining the two nodes. 

Noon. Midday ; 12 hours from midnight; when the sun is in the observer's meridian. 
Ajiparent Noon. When the sun's centre is in the meridian. 
Mean Noon. When the mean sun is in the meridian. 
Sidereal Noon. When the first point of Aries comes to the meridian. 

Northern Hemisphere. That part of the globe on the north side of the 

Nutation. A small and slow giratory motion of the earth's axis, producing a peri- 
odical fluctuation of the apparent obliquity of the ecliptic, and of the velocity of the 
regression of the equinoctial points. 


■Object Glass. The lensiin the large end of a telescope; the lens which is the 

first to receive the rays of light. 
Observation. The act of measuring an altitude of a heavenly bod}'. 

Working an Observation. The process of calculating the latitude or longitude of 

the ship from the observed altitude. 
Observed Altitude. The angular distance of a body measured on an instrument 

of reflection, such as a quadrant, etc. 
Occultation. The eclipse of one heavenly body by another. The commencement 

of the occultation is known as the immersion, and the termination as the emersion. 
Octant. A navigating instrument of reflection. An octant is really a metal-frame 

quadrant, and is divided so as to read to 15" of arc. 
Off Shore Tide. A tide setting from the shore. 

tatteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 29Y 

Off Shore Wind. A wind blowing fvom the land. 

Off Soundings. Water so deep that soundings cannot be obtained with the deep- 
sea lead and line, which is marked to 80 fathoms. 

On Soundings. A depth of water capable of being measured with the deep-sea 
lead and line. 

Opposition. "When the longitude of a heavenly body is 180° from the sun (half the 
circumference) it is said to be in opposition. 

Orbit. The imaginary line described by a planet round the sun, or a satellite round 
its primary. 


Parallax. The apparent angular variation in the position of a body as seen from two 
different points of view. 

Parallax in Altitude. A term made use of in contradistinction to horizontal par- 

Annular Parallax. The maximum value of the heliocentric parallax. 
Binocular Parallax. The angular difl'erence of an object as viewed by the eyes of 
the observer. 

Diurnal or Geocentric Parallax. The difference between the place of a body as 
viewed at the same instant from the surface and from the centre of the earth. When 
viewed from the surface of the earth we have the apparent place, but could it be 
viewed from the centre of the earth we would have its true place. Thus the arc inter- 
cepted between the true and apparent places is the diurnal or geocentric jj«.rft?/«x, which 
varies with the altitude of the body observed, being zero when the body is in the zenith, 
and having the greatest parallax when the body is 0°, or without altitude. 

Heliocentric Parallax. The difference in the place of a body as seen from the 
earth and from the sun ; the angle drawn from the body to the centre of the earth 
and the centre of the sun. 

Horizontal Parallax. The maximum value of the geocentric parallax — when the 
body observed is in the horizon, hence the term. Horizontal Parallax varies mth the 
latitude of the observer, having its greatest value at the equator. 

Parallel Rulers. An instrument employed in navigation for shaping the ship's 
course on the chart. In construction it is two flat rules of ebony or gutta percha, con- 
nected by pivoted cross-pieces of brass so that the rules may be spread apart, yet still 
preserve their parallelism to each other. •► 

Parallels. Lying in the same direction ; all parts equally distant ; small circles of 
the terrestrial sphere parallel to the equator ; small circles of the celestial sphere par- 
allel to the ecliptic. 

Parallel Sailing. Sailing true east or west ; sailing on a parallel of latitude. 

Parhelia. Mock suns appearing at the same height above the horizon as the true 
sun, and connected with the same by a horizontal halo. 

Par liine. The normal level of the barometer at a given place. 

Passage. The crossing of a heavenly body over the meridian is also known as the 
meridian passage ; the journey from one place to another by water. 

Patamometer. An instrument employed for measuring the force of currents. 

Patent Log. (See Log.) 

Pelorus. An instrument for taking bearings, on the principle of the alidade. (See 

Penumbra. In astronomy that portion of the shadow in an eclipse which is not en- 
tirely deprived of light. 

Perigee. Near the earth ; the point in the orbit of a heavenly body (particularly the 
moon) which is nearest the earth — opposed to apogee. 

Perihelion. Near the sun; the point in the orbit of a heavenly body which is near- 
est the sun — opposed to aphelion. 

298 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Personal Equation. Difference in judgment, such as in measuring angles, etc., 

by different observers. 
Personal Error. Same as Personal Equation. 

Perturbations. Irregularities in motion of a heavenly body in its orbit. 
Pilot Water. Certain limits within which the law obliges a vessel to pay pilotage 

Place. The point on the celestial sphere to which a heavenly body is refen-ed by the 

Apparent Place. The point to which a body is referred by an observer on the 
earth's surface, viewing it through the earth's atmosphere. 

Geocentric Place. The point to which a body would be referred were the observer 
at the earth's centre. 

Heliocentric Place. The point to which a body would be referred were the observer 
at the sun's centre. 

Trtie Place. The point to which a body would be referred were the observer at the 
earth's centre viewing it through an atmosphere of uniform density. 
Plane. A level sm-face. In astronomy planes are ideal, passing through certain 
points of the heavens — as, for instance, the planes of the horigon, ecliptic, equator, etc. 
Plane Chart. A chart (Mercator's projection) so constructed that the parallels and 
meridians are represented by straight lines parallel to each other, and preserving the 
same distance from one another in all latitudes. 
PJane Sailing. Calculating the position of the ship on the supposition that the sur- 
face of the earth is a plane. 
Plane Scale. A rule used in navigation, on which are graduated chords, sines, tan- 
gents, secants, rhombs, etc. 
Planet. An opaque celestial body which receives its light from the sun, and arouud 
which it revolves. The eight principal planets are the following, which are named in 
the order of their distances from the sun : Mercury (nearest to the sun), Venus, Earth, 
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Near the sun is a small planet named 

Inferior Planets. The planets whose orbits are within that of the earth — Vulcan, 
Mercury and Venus. 

Minor Planets. A name given to the small planets collectively. 
Primary Planets. Planets which revolve only about the sun. 
Secondary Planets. Satellites which revolve also about their primaries. 
Superior Planets. The planets whose orbits are without that of the earth — Mars, 
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. 
Planetarium. An astronomical machine which exhibits the relative motion and po- 
sition of the planets. 
Planetoid. One of the minor planets between Mars and Jupiter — an asteroid. 
Planetule. A small planet. 
Planisphere. A map of the stars. 
Pleny Tide. A full tide. 

Plottinff. Delineating ; marking down ; to trace on a chart the courses sailed by a 
ship, in order to ascertain the position of the vessel — the simplest kind of dead reck- 
P. M. Past meridian ; the 12 hours of the day from noon to midnight. 
P. M. Altitude. An altitude of a heavenly body measured in the P.M. ; an after- 
noon observation. 
Pocket. A bight in the land on a lee shore. 
Pointers. The two stars in the Dipper [Ursm Majoris) pointing to Polaris — the. 

North Star. 
Point. A certain place in the heavens ; one of the 32 divisions of the compass card. 
Autumnal Point. Where the sun descends towards the South Pole. 
Equinoctial Points. Where the equator and ecliptic intersect. 
Solstial Points. The highest and lowest points of the ecliptic. 
Vernal Point. Where the sun ascends towards the North Pole. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaet. 299 

Polar. Pertaining to the pole. 

Polar Angle. The angle at the terrestrial pole formed by two meridians, and the 

angle at the celestial pole formed by two hour circles. 
Polar Circles. The two parallels of latitude situated 23° 28' from the poles of the 

earth. The northern is called the Arctic and the southern the Antarctic circle. 
Polar Circumference. Rather less than 25,000 miles. 

Polar Diameter. The eai-th's polar diameter is 7,899.1 miles — the polar compres- 
sion being about 1-300 of the diameter. 
Polar Distance. The complement of the declination ; the angular distance from 

the elevated pole. 
Polaris. The Pole Star, so-called on account of its being near the north pole of the 

heavens. Also known as the North Star. 
Poles. The extremities of the earth's axis. (See Magnetic Poles.) 
Pole Star. (See Polaeis.) 

Position. The latitude and longitude of a ship calculated by dead reckoning, cross- 
bearings, etc., or by observations of the heavenly bodies. 
Portable Micrometer Telescope. An instrument constructed on the divided 

object-glass principle, and used in marine surveying. 
Portable Transit Instrument. A small telescope instrument used for the 
purpose of regulating chronometers on shore, for establishing secondary meridians, etc. 
Precession of the Equinoxes. The slow shifting of the equinoxes toward the 
west, the annual rate being 50." This is caused by the earth's rotation on its axis, 
and the unequal action of the sun and moon on the equator. Precession of the equinoxes 
is so termed because the place of the equinox among the stars, at every subsequent 
moment, precedes, with reference to the diurnal motion, that which it occupied the mo- 
ment before. 
Prestel's Method. A rule sometimes made use of when working Sumner's method, 

so as to confine the ship to a limited portion of the line of bearing. 
Primary PJanets. (See Planets.) 

Prime Meridian. First meridian ; the starting point of longitude ; the meridian 
from which longitude is reckoned east and west as high as 180^ ; the meridian estab- 
lished by a country from which to reckon longitude in laying out their charts. The 
French use the meridian of Paris as 0° ; the English that of Greenwich ; the Russians 
that of St. Petersburg ; the Spaniards that of San Fernando ; the Americans that of 
Washington, etc. The meridian passing through the national observatory of a country 
is selected as the prime or first meridian of that country. It is to be explained that 
a chronometer must be regulated to the meridian of the country whose chart is being 
used for navgating the ship. A ship having a chronometer set to G-reenwich time 
must use English charts ; a chronometer set to Paris time must have French charts, 
Prime Vertical. The vertical circle perpendicular to the meridian, and which 

passes through the east and west points of the horizon. 
Primitive Plane. The plane upon which projections are to be made ; the surface 

to be drawn upon. 
Principal Plane. In spherical projections the plane upon which the different cir- 
cles of the sphere are projected. 
Prismatic Compass. An azimuth compass fitted with a prism glass, so that the 

bearing of an object can be read from the graduated card by reflection. 
Projections. Delineations; maps; plans; representation. 

Proportional Logarithms. These logarithms are employed in lunar observa- 
tions for finding the mean time at Greenwich corresponding to the true distance of the 
moon from the sun or star. 
Proportional Parts. A table for facilitating the process of interpolation in the 

employment of logarithms. 
Protractor. An instrument employed in plotting for laying off angles. 



Quadrant. A navigating instrument of reflection, reading to minutes, and graduated 
so as to measure angles up to 90° (See engraving.) 

Quadrantal Deviation. The en-or caused by the difference of the induced mag- 
netism in thwartships and fore-and-aft horizontal iron in the ship. This error is cor- 
rected by two iron balls attached one on each side of the binnacle bowl. 

Quadrature. Said of the moon when that luminary is 90° from the sun— at one of 
the two points in her orbit equally distant from the opposition and conjunction. 


Badiant. A point from which rays of light or heat proceed ; a point from which 
shooting stars diverge. 

Kadius. Half the diameter of a circle ; distance from the centre to the circumference j 
the imaginary line joining the centre of the sun and the centre of a planet. 

Sadius JBar. A bar secured at one end so as to tm-n around on a pin, and guiding 
a movable body in an arc. 

Kadius Vector. The distance from the origin to the point. 

Hadix. A base ; a root ; 10 is the radix of the common system of logarithms. 

Rapier's Method. A method of drawing the great circle track so as to find the 
course from one place to the other, and lay off both courses on the Mercator's chart j 
next to ascertain the maximum separation in latitude, and to draw through this point a 
line parallel to the rhumb line between the two places. These three points being de- 
termined, the track can be approximately drawn by hand. 

Rate. The daily variation of a timepiece ; to determine the running of a chronometer 
in respect to a variation fiom a standard ; to ascertain the extent of gain or loss in re- 
spect to true time. 

Gaining Hate. When the chronometer runs too fast. 
Losing Bate. When the chronometer runs too slow. 

Sea Bate. On arrival in port after a voyage it will generally be found that the ac- 
cumulated error of the chronometer, according to the record kept by the navigator, and 
which is based upon the shore rate furnished by the chronometer-makers, does not 
represent the correct aggregate amount of the chronometer deviation ; thus proving 
that the daily rate given the navigator before sailing was not maintained by the instru- 
ment at sea. Now, in order to ascertain the sea rate, subtract between the error on the 
day of sailing and the gross error, determined when the vessel reached port, and then 
divide the remainder by the number of days at sea, and the answer will be the sea rate 
of the chronometer. 

Shore Rate. (See Sea Rate.) 

Rating' a Clirononieter. No chronometer will run for any length of time with- 
out variation, consequently its deviation from true time is determined, and allowance 
made for it by the navigator in his calculations. This variation can be determined in 
a variety of ways — by comparing the chronometer with the clock of an observatory, by 
time balls, by transit instrument, and by the employment of the sextant and artificial 
horizon in a time sight. To determine the rate, find the error made on different days, 
and divide the aggregate by the specified number of days. The answer will be the 
daily rate of the chronometer. 

Rational Horizon. (See Horizon.) 

Reading. To learn by observation ; to discover by signs or characters. 

Heading an Altitude. To observe the angular measure of an object as shown on 
the arc of an instrument of reflection. 

Patterson's illustrated natttioal dictionary. 301 

Beading the Log. Observing the numerals indicated by the log liands, and which 
figures represent the number of miles sailed by the ship. 

Beading the Time. Noting the hour, minute and second shown by a chronometer or 
other timepiece at a given instant. 

Reciprocal JBearingS. A process employed in compass adjusting. One observer 
is stationed on shore with a compass set up in a position free from magnetic disturb- 
ances, and from which an unobstructed view can be obtained of the standard compass 
(over which a conspicuous mark is placed) on board ship. As the ship's head is 
brought to eacli one of the 32 points of the compass, mutual bearings are taken sim- 
ultaneously by the observers on shore and on board. 

Reckoning. The ship's latitude and longitude, by determined observations of the 
heavenly bodies, and by calculating the distances sailed on the various courses made. 

Rectangular Co-ordinates. A system of co-ordinates in which the axes are at 
right angles to each other. 

Reduction. Changing the form of an expression without changing its value ; to 
change hours, minutes and seconds into arc is called reduction of time; reduction of the 
elements in the nautical almanac is accomplished by interpolation or by proportional 
logarithms ; reduction to the meridian consists of applying a calculated quantity in arc 
to the observed altitude, taken either in the A.M. or p.m., when working an ex-meridian 
sight, in order to ascertain the meridian altitude of the body for the place of observa- 

Reflux. TJie reflux of the tide has reference to its running out — a state of ebbing. 

Refraction. Astronomically considered, refraction is the change of direction assumed 
by rays of light passing through atmospheric mediums of varying densities. All the 
visible heavenly bodies, out of the zenith, are apparently elevated above their true 
place owing to refraction. The refracting power of the atmosphere changes according 
to the density — its temperature and moisture. As shown on page 263, when a heavenly 
body is in the zenith there is no refraction, the rays of light passing through the 
earth's atmosphere in direct lines ; but the nearer the body is to the horizon the greater 
is the refraction. At the horizon refraction amounts to 33' of arc ; consequently, that 
being about V more than the diameter of the sun or moon, those two bodies may actu- 
ally be entirely below the horizon and yet appear slightly above it. The table of 
mean refractions considers the barometer to stand at 30 inches, and the temperature to 
be 50° F. Terrestrial refraction has reference to the apparent change in position as- 
sumed by a terrestrial object owing to the difference in density of various portions of 
the earth's atmosphere — the amount varying from i to A of the intercepted arc. 

Repeating Circle. An astronomical instrument for reducing the error of imper- 
fect graduation by repetitron of the observation, reading it on different parts of the 
graduated limb, and striking the mean of the values found. 

Residual Errors. When a compass is adjusted the deviation is compensated as 
much as possible by the employment of magnets, but the remaining amounts of error 
for the respective points are tabulated and given the name of residual errors. 

Retard of the Tide. This is also known as the age of the tide, and has reference 
to the interval between the transit of the moon at which the tide originates and the 
making (appearance) of the tide. 

Retrograde Motion. The motion of the planets among the stars is eastward, but 
when they arrive in the quarter of the heavens opposite the sun their motion is west- 
ward, and this latter motion is termed retrograde — motion contrary to the order of 
the signs. 

Revolution. The course of a heavenly body round a centre ; the interval of time 
occupied by a heavenly body in its consecutive return to the same meridian. 
Sidereal Bevolution. The time occupied by a planet in passing round the sun. 
Synodic Bevolution. When the earth, the planet and the sun come again in the 
same relative positions. 

Revolving Storms. Also known as hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones. Currents 
of air within the limits of the storm disc moving in concentric circles around a centre 
of low pressure. 

302 patteeson's illdsteated nautical dictionary. 

Khumb. A vertical circle intersecting the horizon ; the track of a ship which sails 
constantly toward the same point of the compass. 

BJiumb Line. A line which cuts all the meridians which it crosses at the same 
angle, forming a spiral which approaches nearer and nearer to the pole but only 
reaches it after an infinite number of turns — this is also known as the loxodromic curve; 
a line prolonged from any point of the compass on a nautical chart. 

Angle of the jRJiumb. The angle at which the rhumb cuts the meridian. 
Complement of the Rhumb. The angle made by the rhumb with the prime vertical, 
Ehumh Sailing. The course of the ship, or the line shown on a chart which con- 
nects the place of departure with the place of destination. 

Eight Ascension. The distance of a heavenly body from the first point of Aries, 
considered in time eastward on the equinoctial, from Oh. (0°) to 24h. (^360°). Right 
ascension and declination determine positions of the heavenly bodies on the celestial 

Right Sailing. Sailing on one of the four cardinal points (N. S. E. W.) 

Rigorous Method. Calculations performed according to exact principle ; precise , 
accurate ; allowing no abatement. 

Rising. The coming into view of a heavenly body over the horizon line ; the 
mounting of a body in the heavens. All heavenly bodies continue to rise until they 
cross the meridian, when they 'commence to fall. 

Rough Log. The deck journal kept by the watch officers, the contents of which 
are copied daily into the smooth log book. 

Rules of the Road. (See Paet I.) 

Running Survey. Taking bearings of various points on the shore line as the ship 
runs along the coast. The track of the ship is the base line, and the intersection of 
the bearings fixes the positions of the shore line ; the position of the ship is determined 
by altitudes of the sun measured on the sea horizon. This method is by no means ac- 
curate, owing to leeway, currents, deviations in steering, etc., but is profitably em- 
ployed when landing is impossible from various causes. 


Sailings. Under this head are classed rhumb, great circle, plane and spherical sail- 

Satellite. A secondary planet ; the moon of a planet. 

Sea Breeze. A wind blowing from the sea toward the land. 

Sea Horizon. The circle at sea which bounds the observer's view ; the blending of 
the waters with the sky. 

Sea Log. The log-book kept at sea, in contradistinction to the harbor-log, which is 
kept in port. 

Sea Rate. (See Rate.) 

Secant. In trigonometry a line drawn from the centre of a circle through one end of 
an arc, and terminated by a tangent drawn through the other end. 

Secondary Circle. A great circle of the sphere which passes through the poles of 

Secondary Meridians. Meridians other than the first or prime meridians. 

Secondary Planet. A planet which revolves around or attends another — in con- 
tradistinction to primary. 

Second of Arc. Division of a minute ; the sixtieth part of a minute of angular 

Second of Time. Division of a minute ; the sixtieth part of a Tninute of time. 

Sector. An astronomical instrument for determining the zenith distance of stars — 
sometimes referred to as senith sector ; an instrument for determining the difference in 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 303 

declination and right ascension between two bodies whose distance is too great to 
be observed through a telescope with the aid of a micrometer. 

Self- Registering Gauge. An apparatus, an adjunct to the box-gauge, soar- 
ranged that the rising and falling float carries a pencil with which it describes a curve 
upon paper wrapped about a cylinder, which revolves by clockwork. 

Semicircular Deviation. Deviation caused by the magnetism of the ship and 
the induced magnetism of vertical iron, which changes with time and the latitude of 
the ship. 

Semi-diameter. Half a diameter ; the radius of a circle. 
Semi-mensal Inequality. An inequality in the tides. 

Sensible Horizon. A plane, tangent to the earth's surface at the place of the ob- 
server, and which extends to all ^des until it is bounded by the sky. 
Set. A heavenly body is said to set when it dips below the horizon line ; the set of a 
current is the direction of its flow ; to set the course is to bring the ship's head to the 
required direction in sailing. 
Sextant. A navigating instrument of reflection used for measuring altitudes of heav- 
enly bodies and vertical and horizontal angles of objects ; its graduated arc is divided 
into equal parts, the angle possible to measure on the instrument ranging from 12CV to 
140=. (See engraving.) It is cut to 10" (ten seconds) of arc. 
Shaping the Course. Ascertaining by the employment of the parallel rules and 
the chart, or by middle latitude or Mercator's sailings, the bearing of the port of des- 
tination from the position of the ship. 
Ship Pendulum. (See Olinometek.) 

Ship's Position. The place (latitude and longitude) of the ship at sea is determined 
by observations of the heavenly bodies, or by dead reckoning, and when in sight of 
land by cross-bearings of two shore objects, or by one bearing and the depth of water, 
Ship Time. The solar time at the place of the ship — 12 o'clock (noon) being made 
known by eight bells when the sun crosses the meridian. 

Mean Time at Ship. The ship's time converted into mean time by applying to it 
the equation of time. 
Shore Horizon. The waterli ne on the beach. 
Sidereal. Relating to the stars. 
Sidereal Clock. Astronomical clocks regulated to sidereal time are called sidereal 

Sidereal Day. The interval of time between two successive transits of the star 

over the same meridian. 
Sidereal Time. Time measured by the daily motion of the stars — by the daily mo- 
tion of that point in the equator from which the true right ascension of the stars is 
counted, this point being the vernal equinox, and its hour angle is called sidereal time. 
Sight. To observe the altitude or angular distance of a heavenly body. 
Simoon. A hot, dry wind blowing from a desert. 

Sine. A perpendicular line from one extremity of an arc to the diameter drawn through 
the other extremity. 

Artificial Sines. Logarithms of the sines. 
Line of Sines. A divided line on Grunter's scale. 
Sine of an Angle. The sine of the arc which measures the angle. 
Sine of Incidence. The sine of the angle of incidence. 
Sine of Reflection. The sine of the angle of reflection. 
Sine of Refraction. The sine of the angle of refraction. 
Sine of the Complement. The cosine. 

Versed Sine. Distance from the foot of the sine of an arc to the extremity of the 
arc, the distance being measured on the radius passing through that extremity. 
Single Altitude. One observation of a heavenly body ; one angular measurement. 
Sliding Limb. ' The movable limb on an instrument of reflection, having the mir- 
ror or index glass on one end and the vernier on the other. 
Slip of Wheel. The diiference between the distance run by a steaming vessel and 

304 patteeson's illusteated nautical uictionaey. 

the distance that would have been covered had the propeller acted upon a solid sub- 
stance, instead of a fluid ; in other words, the expression slijo of wheel may be under- 
stood as the lost motion of the propeller. It is usual to allow a certain number of revo- 
lutions of the propeller or paddles to the mile, and at the end of a stated time the 
estimated distance run by the ship, according to the number of turns made, is compared 
with the- distance run according to observation, or by the log, and the difference is ex- 
pressed as a per centum, and entered in the log book as slip of ivheel. The retardation 
by reason of head winds, opposing currents, and head seas are counted as slip. 

Solar. Pertaining to the sun. 

Solar Day. The interval of time between two successive transits of the sun over the 
same meridian. 

Solar System. The sun and the various bodies that revolve round it, 

Solar Time. Time measured by the sun. (See Time.) 

Solstices. The time of the year (June 21 and December 21) at which the sun is at 
his greatest distance from the equator, north and south respectively. The turning 
points in the sun's declination, known as the summer and ivinter solstices, according to 
the hemisphere of the observer. 

Solstitial Colure. The hour circle passing through the solstitial points. 

Solstitial Points. The fii-st points of Cancer and Capricorn, or the points of the 
ecliptic at which the sun arrives at the time of the solstices. 

Sounding. Ascertaining the depth of water by the hand or deep-sea lead and line, 
or by a sounding pole. 

SouildinST Machines. Contrivances for ascertaining the depth of water. There 
are various kinds in use, being known respectively as Massey's, Walker's Harpoon, 
Ericsson's, Troivbridge's Electric, Sigsbee's and Sir William Thompson's Sounding 

Sounding' Meter. A name sometimes applied to a sounding machine. 

Sounding Pole. A pole marked in feet and inches, and used for sounding in 
shallow rivers. 

Soundings. Any part of a coast or ocean where the depth of the water can be 
measured ; also the act of measuring the depth of the water. 
Off Soundings. Water that exceed 80 fathoms in depth. 
On Soiindings. Water that does not exceed 80 fathoms in depth. 

Southern Cross. A brilliant .constellation in the southern hemisphere, its principal 
stars forming a well-defined cross. 

Southern Hemisphere. That half of the sphere which is south of the equator. 

Speed Indicator. A patent log. 

Sphere. In geography, a representation of the surface of the earth. In astronomy, 
the concave expanse of the heavens. 

Spherical. In the form of a sphere ; globular. 

Spherical Sailings. Parallel, middle latitude, Mercator's and great circle 

Spherical Triangle. A three-sided spherical polygon — a portion of the surface 
of a sphere bounded by the arcs of three great circles. 

Spherical Trigonometry. That branch of trigonometry which explains the 
method of solving spherical triangles. 

Spring Log. Also known as the Clark Bussell Log. An instrument for measuring 
the velocity of a vessel, and consists of a spring on the principle of an ordinary spring 
weighing-scale. This has attached to it a line and chip, and the pressure exerted 
upon the latter when being towed indicates the vessel's speed. 

Spring Tides. The highest tides, which occur at the time of the new and full 
moons; opposed to neap tides. 

Spy Grlass. Another name for the marine telescope. 

Staff Grange. A staff graduated upwards in feet and tenths, and so placed that its 
zero will lie below the lowest tides ; an instrument for measuring the range of tides. 

Standard Compass. A compass on board ship situated where it is least subject 
to deviation; the compass by which bearings are taken and the ship navigated. 


Standard Time. Time shown by a clock, which is regulated to mean solar time, 
which see. 

Stars. _ Apparently small luminous bodies visible in the heavens at night, which shine 
by their own light, and which to the observer maintain their places with reference to 
one another. About 6,000 may be seen with the naked eye in the whole heavens ; 
and about 3,000 may be seen on a clear night when the moon is not shining. (See 

Star^Tinie. (See Sidereal Time.) 

Station Pointer. An instrument used in marine surveying, consisting of a gradu- 
ated circle of brass having one fixed and two moveable arms radiating from its centre, 
the latter being set to anv desired angles. 

Statute Mile. 8 furlongs, 326 rods, 1,760 yards, or 5,280 feet. 

Stellar. Relating to the stars. 

Storni Track. The course of a storm ; the path of a hurricane in its forward or pro- 
gressive motion — not its circular or gyratory movement. 

Stratus. The lowest of clouds, sometimes called the night cloud; an extended 
liorizontal formation of clouds, the surface of which sometimes rests on the earth, form- 
ing mists and fogs. 

S tream C urrent. An accumulation of the parts of a drift into a collective mass by 
the intervention of some obstacle; it then runs off by means of its own gravity, and 
takes the direction imposed on it. 

Submarine Currents. Currents which do not correspond either in direction or 
velocity with those of the surface. 

Submarine Navigation. The navigation of the waters below the surface by 
means of submarine vessels. i 

Submarine Telescope. A telescope for viewing objects below the surface water, 
consisting of two united tubes, one of them being thrust into the water, and the other 
arranged to throw light into it. 

Sumner's Method. A process for finding the ship's longitude and place when 
the latitude is in doubt, by employing two assumed latitudes, one greater and the other 
less than the latitude by account ; then, after the sun has changed its azimuth, ob- 
serving another time sight and working it twice again, using the same two assumed 
latitudes as in the first workings. These four positions are marked on the chart and 
crossed with lines, the point of crossing indicating the position of the vessel at the time 
of the first sight. 

Sun. The centre of the solar system and the source of light and heat; diameter, 885,- 
000 miles ; circumference, 2,780,000 miles ; the sun rotates on its axis in 25d. 7h. 
48m. ; mean distance from the earth, 95,000,000 miles. 

Sun Dog. A luminous spot sometimes seen near the sun. 

Sun Time. (See Solar Time.) 

Sunrise. The appearance of the sun above the eastern horizon ; the time of tlie sun's 
appearance in the morning. 

Sunset. The time of the sun's descent below the western horizon in the evening. 

Surface Current. The flowing of the surface water. 

Surveying. Determining boundaries, extent and contour of a jDortion of the earth's 
surface, and delineating same on paper. 

Swinging Ship. Turning the ship around to the 32 points of the compass and 
observing while on each point the bearing of some remote but well-defined object, for 
the purpose of adjusting the ship's compass. 
Symbols. Characters used as abbreviations to represent the weather. Beaufort's 
weather notation is as follows : 

b. Blue sky. h. Hail. 

c. Clouds (detached). I. Lightning. 

d. Drizzling rain. m. Misty. 

/. Foggy. 0. Overcast. 

g. Gloomy. p. Passing showers. 

306 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

q. Squall}'. o. Ugly, threatening. 

r. Rainy. r. Visibility, clearness. 

5. Snow. IV. Wet, dew. 
t. Thunder. 

A bar ( — ) under any letter augments its signification, and a bar and a dot (— ) in- 
dicates heavy and continuous weather of the kind denoted. 

Wind is indicated by the following symbols : 

0. Calm. 7. Moderate gale. 

1. Light air. 8. Fresh gale. 

2. Light breeze. 9. Strong gale. 

3. Gentle breeze. 10. Whole gale. 

4. Moderate breeze. 11. Storm. 

5. Fresh breeze. 12. Hurricane. 

6. Strong breeze. 

Sea Swell is indicated as follows : 

S. Smooth. C. Cross. 

M. Moderate. H. Heavy. 

L. Long. V. H. Very heavy. 
JR. Rough. 

Syzyg'y. In astronomy, the position of the moon, or planet, when it is in conjunction 

with, or in opposition to, the sun. 
Syzygy Tide. The tide occurring on the afternoon of the day that the sun and 
moon are in sysygy. 

2Ieridional Sysygy Tide. When the sun or moon is on the meridian at the taking 
place of the sysygy. 

Line of Sysygies. The line connecting the centre of the earth and the moon when 
the moon is in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the sun. 


Taffrail Log. A patent log, the indicator of register of which fastens on the 

Taking Departure. Observing the bearing and distance of a light-house or a 
point of land (the latitude and longitude of which is known) from which to calculate 
the position of the vessel. This is done upon the commencement of the voyage, and 
before losing sight of the land. 

Tangents. A right line which touches a curve at a single point. 
Artificial Tangents. The same as logarithmic tangents. 
Logarithmic Tangents. Logarithms of the tangents of arc. 
Natural Tangents. Tangents of arc expressed by natural numbers. 

Tangent Screw. The thumb-screw set at a tangent to the arc of a sextant, and 
which affords a means of gradual motion to the sliding limb after it has been clamped. 

Telemeter. An instrument used in coast surveying, being a scale of equal part& 
painted upon a wooden rod, and used for determining the distance of objects whose 
lengths are known, from their apparent lengths as viewed between the wires of the 

Telescope. An optical instrument which makes distant objects more visible by en- 
larging their images formed in the eye. ' (See Magnifying Telescope.) 

Tell-tale. (See Part I.) 

Temperature. As relating to the atmosphere, the degree of heat or cold. 

Terrestrial. Relating to the earth. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionaey, 307 

Tertiary Meridians. Meridians connected witti secondaries by carrying time in 
the most careful manner with all the corrections which can be devised. 

Secondaries, or Secondary Meridians, are those connected with the prime meridian, 
directly or indirectly, by exchange of telegraphic time signals. 
The Liead. (See Lead and Line.) 
The Line. (See Line.) 

The Midnight Sun. (See Midnight Sun.) 
Theodolite. An instrument used in surveying for measuring angles in vertical and 

horizontal planes. 
Theoretical Navigation. Navigation depending on or based upon theory ; such 

as calculating the ship's position by observations of the heavenly bodies. 
Thermometer. An instrument used for measuring degrees of heat and cold of 
water and air. It consists of a glass tube containing mercury or colored alcohol, and 
is secured against a graduated scale. 

Deep Sea Thermoineter. A thermometer so constructed as to resist the pressure of 
water at great depths, and to record the temperature of those waters. 

Dry Bulb Thermometer. The ordinary thermometer for recording air tempera- 

Wet Bulb Thermometer. Also known as the Hygrometer. A thermometer having 
its bulb wrapped in thin absorbent muslin with a wick reaching from it into a small 
cup of water. This instrument measures the humidity of the air. 
The Sailings. (See Sailings.) 
Three Li's of Navigation. (See Part I.) 
Three Point Problem. A problem employed in surveying for determining a 

certain point when three signals are in view. 
Tidal Constants. (See Part I.) 
Tide. (See Part I.) 

Age of Tide. (See Ebtard of Tide.) 
Change of Tide. (See Change of Tide.) 
Ebb Tide. (See Ebb Tide.) 
Flood Tide. (See Flood Tide.) 
Height of Tide. (See Tide Range.) 
Inferior Tide. (See Superior Tide.) 
Lagging of the Tide. (See Tide Day, Part I.) 
Neap Tides. (See Neap Tides.) 
Priming of the Tide. (See Tide Day, Part I.) 
Range of the Tide. (See Tide Range, Part I.) 
Retard oftM Tide. (See Retard of the Tide.) 
Spring Tides. (See Spring Tides.) 

Superior Tide. That tide which takes place in the hemisphere having the moon 
above the horizon. The inferior tide is that tide which takes place simultaneously with 
the superior tide, but in the hemisphere having the moon below the horizon. 
Sysygy Tide. (See Syzygy Tide.) 

Tide and Half Tide. (See Tide, Tide and Half Tide, Part I.) 
Tide and Quarter Tide. (See Part I.) 
Tide Bench. (See Tide Bench Marks, Part I.) 
Tide Current. (See Part I.) 
Tide Day. (See Part I.) 
Tide Establishment of the Port. (See Part I.) 
Tide Gate. (See Part I.) 
Tide Gauge. (See Part I.) 
Tide Pole. (See Part I.) 

Tide Mark. The horizontal line worn on the shore, on a sea-wall, etc., which indi- 
cates the limit of high water. (See Tide Bench.) 
Tide Range. (See Part I.) 
Tide Rips. (See Part I.) 
Tide Tables. (See Part L) 

308 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Tide Water. The water of the ocean which is alternately elevated and depressed 
by the influence of the moon and snn. 
Tide Wave. (See Part I.) 
Tide Way. (See Part I.) 

True Tide. A tide setting in a regular direction — not thrown out of its course l>y 
the intervention of land, etc. 

Vulgar Establishment of the Port. Rough determination of the establishment of 
the port. 

Time. (See Apparent, Astronomical, Civil, Greenwich, Local, Mean, 
Mean-Solar, Ship, Sidereal, Solar, Standard, Star, and Sun Time ; also 
Equation op Time.) 

Time Azimuth. An azimuth calculated from the latitude, declination and 

Altitude Aeimuth. An azimuth calculated from the altitude, latitude and declin- 

Time Ball. A sphere caused to drop from the summit of a pole at a specified hour, 
in order to indicate exact mean time. 

Time Courses. To run time courses is to consider the speed of the vessel, the 
course sailed, and the time run on such course. This is employed during fog when 
navigating in waters where it is necessarj' to change the course of the vessel oocasion- 
allv in order to keep in the channel, to avoid certain dangers, etc. 

Time Sight. An observation of a heavenly body for the purpose of ascertaining the 
longitude ; the chronometer time of the horizon contact of the body being noted. 

Top. (See Troughton's Top.) 

Topography. A delineation of the surface of a portion of the earth, showing natural 
objects, such as trees, rocks, etc. 

Track Chart. (See Chart.) 

Trade _ Winds. (See Part I.) 

Transit. The passage of a heavenly bodji- over the meridian. (See Lower Tran- 
sit; Upper Transit.) 

Transit Instrunient. A telescope instrument for observing the passage of 
heavenly bodies over the meridian. 

Traverse. (See Part I.) 

Traverse Board. (See Part I.) 

Traverse Sailing'. To solve a problem in traverse sailing is to determine the ves- 
sel's latitude and longitude by dead reckoning, and the bearing and distance of the 
vessel from the point left. This is known as working the traverse. 

Traverse Tables. Tables calculated by natural sines. These tables contain the 
difference of latitude and departure corresponding to distances up to 300 miles, for 
every quarter point of the compass, also for degrees, and are employed in the solution 
of right-angled triangles, which enter into the consideration of dead-reckoning. 

Traverse Wind. A wind blowing directly into the harbor's mouth. 

Triangle. A geometrical figure of three sides. 

Triang'illation. A term used in surveying, meaning the determination of the tri- 
angles into which the country is supposed to be divided. 

Trigonometry. The science of measuring triangles. 

Triple Star. Three stars so close together as to resemble a single star when viewed 
without the aid of a telescope. 

Tropic of Cancer. The parallel north of the equator, the latitude of which is 
equal to the sun's greatest declination — 23° 28' ; the point which the sun passes over 
on the 21st of June. 

Tropic of Capricorn. The parallel south of the equator, the latitude of which 
is equal to the sun's- greatest declination — 23^ 28' ; the point which the sun passes 
over on the 21st of December. 

Troughton's Top. (See Whirler.) 

True Amplitude. The geographical bearing of a heavenly body, calculated for 
its declination and the parallel of the observer. 


Tl'ue Azimuth. The geographical bearing of a heavenly body, calculated for its 

declination, the horn-, and the parallel of observation, and found tabulated in special 

books on navigation. 
True Bearing. The angle which the direction of an object makes with the 

True Central Altitude. The altitude deduced from the observed altitude by 

correcting it for semi-diameter, dip, parallax, refraction, and instrumental error. 
True Water. The depth of the water as measured from its mean surface. 
Typhoon. A violent hurricane peculiar to the China Sea and Indian Ocean at the 

time of the change of the monsoons. 


Udometer. A rain gauge or measure. 

Ultra-tropical. Beyond the tropics. 

Ultra- zodiacal. Beyond the zodiac. 

Under-hright. The bright streak often seen under clouds near the horizon. 

Undercurrent. A current beneath the surface water, flowing in a contrary direc- 
tion. The supposition is that an imdercurrent in the Straits of Gibraltar carries the 
same amount of water into the Atlantic Ocean from the ^Mediterranean as the surface 
current carries from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean. 

Upper Transit. The passage of a heavenly body across the meridian which is 
above the horizon — 180^ from the lower transit. 


Variables. {See Part I.) 

Variable Winds. Inconstant winds. 

Variation. Change; alteration. 

In astronomy, a periodic irregularity in the motion of the moon owing to the dis- 
turbing action of the sun. 

In magnetism, the declination of the magnetic needle from the true or geographical 
meridian ; the angle which the magnetic meridian makes with the geographical merid- 

The variation of the magnetic needle is not constant. In 1663, in Paris, the com- 
pass needle pointed true north, previous to which year the variation had been easterly. 
From 1663 to 1814 the variation in Paris was westerly, increasing steadily until 1814, 
when it amounted to 22^° W, from which year it has steadily decreased, but is still 

Vernal Equinoctial Point The first point of Aries. 

Vernal Equinox. The 21st of March. 

Vernier. The small graduated scale on the sliding limb of a sextant, etc., which 
subdivides the divisions of the arc. 

Vertex. In astronomy, that point of the heavens which is situated perpendicularly 
above the observer. 

Vertical Circles. Great circles of the sphere passing through the zenith and nadir 
of a place. . 

Vertical Line. A line in any plane which is perpendicular to the horizon. 

Visible Horizon. (See Horizon). 

Vulgar Establishment of the Port. (See Tide). 



Water Sky. A dark blue sky seen in the arctic seas, and which is caused by the 
reflection of deep water. 

Weather. (See Symbols.) 

Weather Gall. A halo on the border of a distant cloud which is discharging rain — 
considered a forerunner of bad weather. 

Weather Glass. The barometer. 

Weather Gleam. A clear streak in the sky to windward, near the horizon, follow- 
ing stormy weather. 

Weather Symbols. (See Symbols.) 

Westerly Variation. The angle between the geographical and magnetic merid- 
ians when the latter inclines to the left, or westward of the former, causing the north 
end of the compass needle to point to the westward of the true north. 

Wet Bulb. (See Theemometee.) 

W^hirler. A spinning instrument like a top, used on shipboard as an artificial 

Whirlwind. A violent wind having both a circular and a progressive motion. 

Whole Gale. (See Symbols.) 

Wind Classification. Trades, Anti-trades, Land-breeze, Sea-breeze, Monsoons, 
Variable winds, Mountain-winds, Bora, Mistrals, and Puna winds. 

Wind Gall. (See Weaxhee Gall.) 

Wind Gauge. (See Anemometee.) 

Wind Table. (See Symbols.) 

Working the Traverse. (See Teaveesb Sailing.) 


Zenith. That point in the celestial sphere which is situated vertically over the head 
of the observer, and distant 90^ from every point of the horizon — opposed to nadir. 

Zenith Distance. The angular distance of a heavenly body from the zenith — the 
complement of the altitude, or what an altitude lacks of being 90°. 

Zenith Sector. An astronomical instrument used for exact observation of stars in 
or near the zenith. 

Zero. The point at which the graduation of a sextant, etc., commences. 

Zodiac. An imaginary zone in the heavens within which the sun, moon and larger 
planets appear to perform their annual revolutions. 

Zone. A belt ; a girdle. There are five zones : the torrid gone, which extends 1'i'^ 
28' on each side of the equator ; the two temperate sones, which extend from 23° 28' 
to 66'' 32', and the two frigid zones, which extend from 66° 32' to the poles. 





Air Casing'. The thin sheet-metal lining of the hole in the deck through which the 
smoke-pipe passes. 

Air Chamber. A closed vessel communicating with the discharge side of a pump. 
Air is confined in it above the liquid, and by its elasticity equalizes the flow of the 

Air Duct. A pipe leading air from the blower to the ash pit. 

Air Grange. An instrument attached to an air duct to register the pressure therein. 

Air Punap. That pump which removes air and water of condensation from the con- 

Ash Chute. A tube at the side of a vessel through which to deliver ashes over- 

Ash Hoist ilechanism for lifting ashes out of the fire-room. 

Ash Pan. A receptacle placed in the bottom of the ash pit in which to collect ashes. 

Ash Pit. The space in a furnace below the grate bars. 

Atmosplieric Line. The line on an indicator diagram traced by the pencil-point 
when the connection between the interior of the cylinder and the instrument is closed. 

Auxiliaries. Small engines, pumps and boilers that may operate independently of 
the main plant. 


Back Connection. A space in a boiler, back of the furnace, bounded on the for- 
ward side by the back tube sheet, provided to allow gases from the furnace to com- 
bine more thoroughly, and to give room to make repairs. 

Back Pressure. The pressure in a steam cylinder which resists the movement of 
the piston during the time of exhaust. 

Balanced Valve. A valve arranged so that the pressure tending to force it against 
its seat is wholly or in part counteracted. 

Banked Fires. The burning fuel is heaped up in one part of the furnace, leaving 
the grate partly bare. The heap is then covered with coal or ashes that combustion 
may be almost entirely checked, while enough heat is furnished to keep the water hot 
in the boilers. 

314 pattekson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 

Beam. A vibrating lever tbrough which power is transmitted from the cylinder to 
the crank. 

Beam Centre. The cast iron framework of a built-up beam. 

Beam Pillow Blocks. Tlie bearings which support the beam. 

Beam Strap. The wrought band about the beam centre. 

Bearing^. A support for a shaft journal, and in which it revolves or vibrates. 
3£ain Bearing. That nearest to the crank. 

Spring Bearing. Those supports between the engine and wheel which support the 
weight of and steady the shaft. 

Stern Bearing. The long bearing built into the after-end of a screw vessel, and 
through which the shaft passes. It is arranged to support the after-end of the shaft, 
allow it to revolve freely, and prevent water leaking past it into the vessel. 

Thrust Bearing. Tliat one about a screw propeller shaft which is arranged to re- 
ceive the pressure due to the revolving screw and transmit it to the hull of the vessel. 

Bearing Bars or Bearers. Iron bars across the furnace supporting the ends 
of the grate bars. 

Bed. Plate. The foundation piece upon which an engine is erected. 

Bilge Injection. The system of pipes and valves through which water from the 
bilge can be drawn into the condenser if desired. 

Bilge Pump. One connected to draw water (which may collect) from the bottom 
of the vessel and deliver it overboard. 

Binder. The cap of a bearing covering the journal. 

Bleeder. Pipe and valves for leading steam from boiler or main steam pipe to con- 
denser direct. 

Blowers. Fans for moving air, either for ventilation or to aid furnace draft. 

Blowing Off. Discharging dirty or super-salted water from a boiler. 

Blow Pij)es and Valves. These are surface and bottom. Those through which 
water and sediment are discharged from boiler. 

Boiler. A closed vessel in which steam is generated from water. The various kinds 
of boilers come under the following heads : 

Droj} Flue Boiler. One in which the course of the gases is direct from the furnace 
through flues back to a connection, then down, returning towards the front through 
flues underneath the flrst series, thence into another connection and down and through 
a third series of flues to the smoke-box at the back end of boiler. 

Fire Tube Boiler. The water circulates about the tubes and the fire through them. 
Horizontal Return Tubular, or Flue, Externally Fired. Cylindrical in shape, con- 
taining small tubes reaching from end to end. The furnace is directly under the shell, 
the products of combustion passing along the bottom of shell to back end, thence re- 
turning through tubes or flues to the smoke-box. 

Horizontal Meturn Tubular, Internally Fired — " Scotch." Cylindrical in shape, con- 
taining one or more oylind-rical-ftn-'nace -flues. — -Eronvihe furnace the gases pass back 
into a connection, thence return through tubes above the furnace to the smoke-box on 
front end. 

Lobster Bach. One in which the course of the gases is from the furnace into a low 
connection, and from thence into flues leading forward to another connection, returning 
over these flues and the furnace through other flues to a front connection, thence 
back through tubes to a middle connection and up to chimney. 

Locomotive. Has an arched, flat-sided part called " wagon-top," containing one 
flat-sided furnace with arched crown, and built on to the back of it a cylindrical part 
called the " barrel." The gases pass from the furnace back through small tubes direct 
to smoke-box at back end. 

Beturn Tubular ; Leg ; Flue and Return Tubular. Has an arched, flat-sided part 
called " wagon-top," containing one or more flat-sided furnaces with arched crowns ; 
built on to the back of this is a cylindrical part called the " barrel." The gases pass 
out of the furnace through flues at the bottom of " barrel " to back connection, thence 
returning through small tubes over flues and furnaces to the smoke-box at 
front end. 

Patterson's illdstbated nautical dictionaey. 




Crown- -plaU. 

Steam, gauge. 
Gaiigc cocks 
Test cocks 


Drain pipe, 

Manlwh -door 


Sludge, hoh doors 

Blow-off cock, 

Yurncuc door 

Ask -pit 

316 Patterson's illustkated nautical dictionaky. 

Upright Tubular. In shape a cylinder set on end. The furnace is at the lower end 

and the gases pass npward through tubes to the smoke-box at top. 

Water Tube Boiler. The water circulates through the tubes, and the fire circulates 

about them on the outside. 
Bore. The inside cylindrical surface of an engine cylinder. Any cylindrical hole 

that has been turned out with a tool. 
Boss. A small projection from the body of a piece, the end of which is surfaced to 

form a seating ; or it is metal added to thicken a plate about a hole. 
Boxes. (See Brasses.) 
Brace. A rod whose ends are secured to two parts of a boiler-shell to resist internal 


Heel Brace. One having the ends turned up at an angle with the brace, forming a 

foot through which the rivet passes. 
Bracket. A stationary supporting arm. (See Strut.) 
Brasses. Tecbnically, the brass wearing pieces about pins, in which they revolve or 

Breecllilig'. The tliin metal structure, attached to a boiler, leading the products of 

combustion from the tubes to the smoke-pipe. 
Bridge. The metal in a valve seat separating the ports. 
Britlgewall. A structure forming a wall at the back of the furnace grate. 
Brine Cock. (See Cock.) 
Bucket. The broad piece of plank or iron plate secured to the outer ends of the arms 

of a paddle wheel. 
Bunker. Space enclosed in which to stow fuel. 

Busll. An annular shell for lining, or reducing the diameter of a hole. 
Butt Joint. A joint in boiler construction formed by bringing together the edges of 

two plates and holding them by a plate secured to both. 
Butt Strap. A long, narrow plate laid lengthways over butt joint, and riveted to 

both sheets. 
By Pass. An arrangement of pipes and valves whereby steam or water can be led 

out of its regular course past a given point and back to its course again. 


Calorimeter. The area of a group of openings in a boiler through which the products 
of combustion pass. 

Caulking. With a special tool, driving a part of the edge of one sheet against the 
other sheet at a riveted joint to make the joint tight. 

Centrifugal Pump. A pump which, in general, consists of a number of blades 
mounted on a shaft and revolving with it, one blade following another. The whole 
is enclosed in a circular case. The suction pipe leads to a hole in the centre of one or 
both sides of the case, and the discharge is through a nozzle at the circumference. 

Channel Plate. The plate or frame in a channel way to which the foot valve is 

Channel Way. The passage leading water from the bottom of the condenser to the 
bottom of air pump. 

Check Valve. A valve in a pipe which operates automatically, allowing a fluid to 
pass it in one direction only. 

Chock. A solid piece used to support the weight of sliding parts, or to fill space be- 
tween two or more pieces. 

Circulator. An apparatus attached to a steam boiler by means of which the water is 
moved about in the boiler as soon as fires are started, equalizing the temperature of 
the ■\\'ater. 

patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



■ " ■ ^ ^**jJi 

Furnace Joi 

318 Patterson's illustkated nautical dictionaey. 

Circulating Pump. That pump which supplies the condensing water to a surtace 

Circulating- Water, or Condensing Water. That which is ran through 

a surface condenser to absorb the heat from the exhaust steam. 
Clearance. The least distance between piston and cylinder head when the piston is 

at one end of its stroke. Also, the volume in cylinder and passages between the piston 

at one end of its stroke and the under side of the valve covering that port. In general, 

the amount by which two pieces, to which the clearance is referred, are separated. 
Coal Heaver. One of the engineer force whose duty it is to take the fuel from the 

coal bunkers and deposit it on the-fireroom floor before the furnaces. Also known as 

a coal passer. 
Coal Passer. (See Coal Heavee.) 
Cock. A contrivance for regulating the flow of fluids, the passage being through the 

movable part. 

Brine CocJi. A small cock attached to a boiler for drawing off samples of the water. 
Gauge Cock, or Tri/ Cock. A small cock inserted in a boiler-shell, at or near the 

water line, by which the height of the water within can be approximately determined. 
Combustion Chamber. An enlarged space in a boiler, beyond the furnace, 

where the gases may combine more thoroughly as their velocity is reduced. 
Compression. The result of confining a small portion of steam in a cylinder by 

closing the exhaust valve before the piston reaches the end of its stroke. 
Compression Line. That line traced on an indicator diagram from the time the 

exhaust valve closes until either the steam valve opens or the piston reaches the end 

of its stroke. 
Condenser. The closed vessel in which steam discharged from the engine cylinder 

is reduced to water by coming in direct or indirect contact with the cold injection water. 
Jet Condenser. The water is brought in direct contact with the steam. 
Surface Condenser. The water and steam are separated by thin metal, usually in 

shape of tubes. 
Connecting Kod. The long rod, one end of which takes hold of the wrist-pin in 

cross-head and the other end takes the crank-pin. 
Core Plug. A piece of metal screwed in to stop the holes left in hollow castings 

by the core supports, and through which the core sand is afterward removed. 
Counter. A mechanism for registering the number of revolutions or strokes made by 

an engine. 
Counter Bore. A bore of slightly increased diameter at each end of a cylinder bore. 
Coupling. A device for securing together the adjacent ends of two pieces of shaft. 
Crank. A lever attached to the end of a shaft. Rectilinear motion applied to its 

outer extremity causes it and the shaft to revolve. 
Crank Disc. (See Disc Crank.) 

Crank Pin. The cj'lindrical pin near the outer end of a crank, whose axis is paral- 
lel to axis of shaft and a certain distance from it called the throw. 
Crank Pit. The space in the engine-bed through which the crank revolves. 
Crank Shaft. That part of the main shaft which is contained in the engine-bed 

and has the crank attached. 
Cross-head. The sliding block attached to the exposed end of piston-rod. 
Crowfoot. The end of a boiler brace divided and spread, forming feet, each secured 

to shell. Also the piece spanning a man or hand-hole which holds the plate in position. 
Cro'wn Sheet. The sheet forming the top of a furnace. 
Cushion. The compressed steam in a cylinder, at or near the end of the stroke, which 

takes up gradually the momentum of the reciprocating parts. 
Cut Off. The gear for stopping the admission of steam to the cylinder before the pis- 
ton has reached the end of its stroke. 
Cylinder. The vessel in which the steam is brought in contact with the piston to 

perform useful work. 
Cylinder Cover. (See Oylindee Head.) 
Cylinder Head or Bonnet. The plate which closes the end of a cj'linder. 


















rr ^ •— cv; crs "<!f- 
^ cv cv< gv( TV 5V 

-i C" I'-j -j-iO <<i "^^ ^ <^, 



I>asll Pot. A small, cylindrical vessel, open at the top. It is fitted with a piston, 

to the spindle of which is attached some part that is periodically released to fall 

quickl}'. The momentum is taken up by air or liquid confined under the piston. 
Dead Centre. The corresponding position of crank when the piston is at the end 

of its stroke. 
Dead Plate. The fiat plate at the mouth of a furnace. 
Delivery Valve. The valve in a pump which prevents the fluid from returning to 

the pump cj'linder after being discharged tlierefrom by the piston. 
Disc Crank. A circular plate or wheel attached to the end of a shaft, and carrying 

crank-pin near its circumference. 
Disc Valve. A flat, circular valve, one side of which covers a grated or annular 

opening. The valve moves in the direction of its axis. 
Discharge Water. Circulating water as it leaves the condenser, having absorbed 

heat from the exhaust steam. 
Donkey Boiler; Donkey Engine; Donkey Pump. Terms applied to 

the various auxiliaries. (See Auxiliaeies.) 
Dome. (See Steam Dome.) 
Dowel. A small pin fast at one end in one of two adjacent pieces, and snugly 

fitting in a hole in the other. It prevents the two pieces sliding one on the other 
Draft. The flow of air through a furnace. 

Forced Draft. That created by supplying the furnace with air under pressure. 
Natural Draft. That due to the difference in weight of the column of hot air in the 

chimney and an equal column of cold air outside. 
Drag Link. A short link connecting the pins of two cranks attached to the adja- 
cent ends of two shafts in line. 
Drain Cocks. Attachments to pipes or vessels, :through which fluids can be led to 

Drain Pipes. Same as above. 
Drum. (See Steam Drum.) 
Dry Pipe. A continuation inside of a boiler and above the water, of the main steam 



Eccentl'ic. A circular disc or frame bored out and fitted on a shaft, the centres not 
being coincident. The circumference is the wearing surface. The distance between 
the centre of shaft and centre of eccentric is called the throw, or eccentrkity. 

Eccentric Rod. The rod connecting the eccentric strap with the other part of the 
valve gear. 

Eccentric Strap. The band which encircles the circumference of an eccentric and 
in which it revolves. 

Engine. The mechanism by means of which part of the energy stored in steam is 
converted into useful work. The various kinds of engines come under the following 
heads : 

Atmospheric. One stroke is caused by the steam, and the return stroke by the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere made effective by condensing the steam under the piston after 
it has performed its work. 

Bach Acting. The crank is between the cross-head and cylinder. 
Beam. (See Walking Beam or Woeking Beam.) 



O^ n o a o 






Compound. The steam, after doing work in one cylinder, is discharged into another 
of larger diameter, and thence to the condenser. 

Condensing The exhaust steam is discharged into a condenser. 
Direct Acting. When the crosshead is between the cylinder and crank. 
Doid)le. When steam is used in two cylinders and the power is exerted on the same 
shaft, each cylinder receiving the same initial pressure. 

Grassliopper. A side-lever engine, the beams of which are pivoted at one end, and 
the connecting rods take hold of the beams near their middle points. 

High Pressure. A term commonly applied to an engine that exhausts into the 

Inverted Cylinder. One the cylinder of which is supported above the crank shaft. 
Low Pressure. A term commonly applied to an engine using steam of less than 
about 60 lbs. pressure per square inch, and exhausting into a condenser. 
Non-Condensing. The exhaust steam is discharged into the atmosphere. 
Oscillating. The cylinder is supported and vibrates on two trunnions, which also 
form the inlet and outlet for steam. The outer end of the rod is connected directly to 
the crank pin, and the cylinder follows the vibration of this rod. 

Quadruple Expcmsion. When the steam used passes successively through four cyl- 
inders, each being larger in area than the one preceding it. 

Side Lever. A beam engine having two beams, one on either side of the cylinder 
and below the level of the cylinder top, the whole engihe being below the shafts. 

Simple. When the steam after doing its work is discharged into the atmosphere or 
a condenser. 

Single. When the steam is used in only one cylinder. 

Steeple. A vertical, back-acting engine, the axes of whose shafts pass through or 
above the cylinder, intersecting and perpendicular to its axis. 

Tri])le Expansion. When the steam used passes successively through three cylin- 
ders, the area of each being larger than the one preceding it. 

Trunk. The connecting rod is connected at one end to the piston, and vibrates in a 
cylindrical shell, one end of which is secured to the piston, and reciprocates steam tight 
through the cylinder head. 

Verticid, Inclined, or Horizontal. Dependent upon whether the axis of the cylinder 
is perpendicular with, inclined to, or parallel with the foundation. 

W(dhing Beam,, or Working Beam. The cylinder is vertical, and the power is trans- 
mitted upward to one end of a vibrating lever or beam; from the other end of the 
beam hangs a connecting rod through which the power is transmitted to the cranks. 
Engfiiieer. A person responsible for the care and operation of the engine and 

Engine Frame. The parts connecting the cjdinder to the bed-plate. 
Engine Keelson. The fore-and-aft timber or iron framework, made fast to the in- 
side of the bottom of the vessel, on which the engine bed-plate is secured. 
Engine Room. The compartment in which the main engine is located. 
Engine Room Telegraph. An electrical or mechanical system of wires, indi- 
cators, etc., located in and between the pilot house or bridge and the engine room, by 
means of which the orders for moving the engines are indicated on dials. 
Equilibrium Valve. (See Balaxced Valte.) 

Escape Pipe. The pipe leading waste steam from the safety valve to the atmos- 
Exhaust. The steam discharged from the cvlinder after having performed its work. 
Exhaust Hook. The hook on the end of the eccentric rod which works the ex- 
haust valve gear. 
Exhaust Lap. (See Lap.) 
Exhaust Lead. (See Lead.) 
Exhaust Line. The line which is traced on an indicator diagram from the time the 

exhaust valve opens until the piston reaches the end of its stroke. 
Exhaust Pipe. The pipe which leads the exhaust steam from the cylinder to the 
atmosphere or the condenser. 



Midship-Section of a Steamer, showing end of Boilers, Coal-bunl<ers, etc. 

/. Fiumel 

,V Stoke-hole Ventilators 
3 Steatn escape -pipe 
4-. Funnel cape. 
5 Funnel casing 
G. Aircasmg 
I. UpitLke. 
8. Safety <>alves 

D Simokt-hox 
10. Smoke, lo.-cdooTS 
//. Furnace fronts 
I Z. Boiler-hearccs 
IS. Coal 'hunkers 
14-. Banker-stays 
15. fitringer 



324 pattkrson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 

Exhaust Port. The opening in the valve seat communicating with the exhaust 

passage and pipe. 
Exhaust Valve. That valve which controls the periodical release of steam from 

the cylinder. 
Expansion. That property of steam which enables a given quantity of it to fill an 

increasing volume at a decreasing pressure. 

WorJcing Steam Expansively. (See Cut Off.) 
Expansion Gear. The mechanism for controlling the movements of the expansion 

Expansion Joint. A joint in a line of pipe which allows the pipe to expand or 

contract, the distance from end to end remaining constant. 
Expansion Line. The line iraced on an indicator diagram from the time the steam 

valve closes until the exhaust valve opens. 
Expansion Valve. The valve which shuts off the admission of steam to the 

cylinder before the piston has reached the end of its stroke. 
Eyeholt. A screw-bolt having a thread cut on one end and an eye formed at the 


Feathering Float. One of the floats or buckets of a feathering paddle wheel. 

Feathering- Paddle Wheel. (See Paddle Wheel.) 

Feathering Screws Propeller. One in which the blades can be twisted on 

the hub to present the least resistance to the water when being dragged by the vessel 

when under sail. 
Feed Pipe. The pipe conducting the feed water from the feed pump to the 

Feed Pump. The pump which supplies the boiler with water. 
Feed Tank. The reservoir from which the feed pump draws its supply. 
Feed Water. Tlie water which is forced into a boiler to be evaporated into steam. 
Fillet. The filling in a corner formed by the intersection of two planes, or of a plane 

with a cylinder. 
Fire Bars. (See Geate Baks.) 
Fireman. One of the engineer force whose duty it is to supply fuel to and regulate 

the fires. 
Fire Koom. The space in front of the boilers from which the fires are worked. 
Fire Surface. (See Heating Sueface.) 
Fires. The burning fuel in the furnaces. 

Banked Fires. The burning fuel is heaped up in one part of the furnace, leaving 

part of the grate bare, and covered with ashes or coal to check combustion, and yet 

keep the water hot in the boiler. 

Hauled Fires. Fires are hauled when the burning fuel is pulled out of the furnaces 

onto the fireroom floor and the grate left entirely bare. 

Spread Fires. Fires are spread by distributing the burning fuel over the grates and 

adding fresh fuel and supplying draft to hasten combustion. 
Fire Tools. Instruments used in working the fires under a boiler. 
Flange. The strip along the edge of a boiler plate which is turned over at an angle, 

usually a right angle, with the plane of the plate. The ring of larger diameter about 

the end of a pipe or nozzle. 
Float. (See Bucket.) 

Flooding a Condenser. Admitting too much injection water to a jet con- 
Flue. A large tube; usually a flue is built up of plates bent and riveted together. 



Bearing- surface 

Parts OF Machinery 

Crai^k-shaft Plummer-block 

'Fliuige ccaphng 

Oil cup 



^L .Sr -Bolt 

Bolt J' (lilt 




SpindU or Stem 



326 patteeson's illustrated nautical dictionakt. 

Foaming'. Violent ebullition in a steam boiler, due to whioli particles of water are 
^^ detached from the main body and carried upward with the steam. 

Follower. In a piston, the ring or plate which holds the packing rings in place. 

Follower Bolts. The bolts which secure the follower to the piston-head. 

Foot Valve. A check valve in the suction passage to a pump ; the valve in the 
channel way between condenser and air pump. 

Forced Draft. (See Draft.) 

Friction. The resistance which is met when one piece slides on another. 

Friction Band. A band encircling a drum which can be tightened at will to con- 
trol the revolutions of that drunj. 

Front. The side pipes, chests and valve gear attached to the cylinder of abeam 

Front Connection. The space into which the products of combustion are dis- 
charged when they leave the tubes. 

Fnnnel. (See Smoke Pipe.) , 

Furnace. The space in or under a boiler where the fuel is burned. 

Furnace Door. The door closing the opening into a furnace through which the 
fuel is introduced. 

Fusible Plug. A small metal plug through the centre of which is a hole filled with 
a metal that will fuse at a temperature a little higher than the temperature of steam. 
It is screwed into and through the plate at the highest heating surface of a boiler, one 
end being exposed to the heat, the other to the water or steam. 


Gab Lever. The ami attached to the rock-shaft across the front of a beam engine, 

and to the pin of which the eccentric rod hook is connected. 
G-allOWS Frame. The frame which supports the beam of a beam engine. 
Gasket. Material placed between flanges to make the joint tight. 
Gate Valve. A valve used in a line of pipe. It has two faces and seats slightly 

wedge-shaped, the plane of one face being perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. 
Gauge. An instrument for registering pressures. 
Gauge Cock. (See Cock.) 
Gauge Glass. An apparatus consisting of a small glass tube, the ends of which 

are held water-tight in metal connections, which, in turn, are secured to the boiler-shell, 

one above and the other below the water-line. A hole through all allows the water 

to stand at the same height in the boiler and tube. Literally the gauge glass is the 

glass tube only. 
Generator. A term applied to boilers consisting of coils of pipe in which steam is 

Gib. A wearing-piece in contact with the slides, held in the jaws of a cross-head. 
Gland. The ring in a stuffing box by which the packing is compressed and held 

in place. 
Governor. Mechanism for controlling automatically the speed of an engine. 
Grate Bars. Iron bars on which the fuel is supported while being burned in a 

Gl'Ommet. A ring formed of cotton-wicking, or similar material, put under the head 

of a bolt to prevent leakage when the bolt is in place. 
Guard. A metal piece over a disc or flap valve to prevent it from leaving the seat 

too far. 
Guide. A bar or plate on which the cross-head travels. 
Gusset Plate. A plate sometimes used in the construction of a boiler. It stands 

edgeways between two flat or curved surfaces, is secured to both, and acts as a brace. 



Parts ofMachinery. 


Flange- -coupUng-^ 

Gland siiid 
, ^ianAxLhvflam 

Siuffiaghox bid, 

328 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


Half-lllOOU. A bar bent to a V shape, with botli ends flattened and turned up for 
feet, through which it is riveted to the' interior of boiler-shell. It is used in connec- 
tion with a fork-end brace. 

Hand-hole. A small opening provided in a boiler-shell for cleaning and examining 
the interior. It is closed with a plate covering the hole from the inside. 

Hauled Fires. (See Fires.) 

Heater. An apparatus for heating the feed water for a boiler with the exhaust steam 
or other waste heat. 

Heating Surface. That surface of a boiler which is exposed to the hot gases on 
one side and has water on the other. 

Heel Brace. (See Brace.) 

Higll-pressure Cylinder. The smallest cylinder of a compound or triple 
expansion engine. 

Holding"-down Bolts. The bolts which secure the bed-plate to the foundation. 

Hot Well. The space above the delivery valves of an air-pump iuto which it dis- 

Horse Power. A conventional unit used in expressing the power developed by an 
engine. It is the result obtained by multiplying together the area of piston, the aver- 
age unbalanced pressure of steam acting thereon during the stroke, and the speed of 
piston expressed in feet per minute, and dividing the product by the constant number 

Hul>. The body of metal about a shaft hole. 


Incrustation. (See Scale.) 

Indicator. An instrument for registering the pressure in a cylinder at all parts of 

the stroke. 
Indicator Card, or Diagram. The closed curve or figure traced by the pencil 

of the indicator. 
Initial Pressure. The pressure of the steam as it enters the cylinder. 
Injection. The cold water supplied to the condenser for condensing the exhaust 

Iiyection Pipe and Valve. Those leading the injection water from overboard 

into the condenser. 
Injector, or Inspirator. An instrument for feeding water into a boiler in which 

the steam acts upon the water direct. 
Intermediate Cylinder. That between the high and low-pressure cylinders of 

a triple expansion engine. 


Jack Bolt. A small bolt screwed through the flange of a bonnet or cover against 

the other part, to aid in breaking the joint. 
Jacket. The covering of a cylinder, boiler or pipe. (See Steam Jacket.) 
Jack Screw. An instrument consisting of a screw and nut used for moving heavy 





Mean spur •.vitrei 




Rc-crsiuy Ic-jcr 





Base -plate 




/Siav lyrticTod 




Barrel -sliaft- 


^teatn. -pipe 




Small spuv-whcd 




Pisti?n -red 





Key. A taper piece of rectangular cross-section, two opposite sides of whicli are flat 
and parallel ; a wedge. 

Kingston Valve. A valve in the bottom of a vessel into which discharge the 
boiler blow-pipes, the pumps, etc. The valve is a truncated cone and opens down- 
wards against the pressure of the water outside. 


Liagging'. The covering of a cylinder or pipe which prevents radiation of heat. 

Lap. A term applied to that joint in boiler construction in which the edge of one sheet 
is laid over the edge of the other far enough to be held by rivets. 

The distance the end of the valve extends beyond the outside edge of steamport 
when the valve is in mid-position. 

Li'dzy Bar. An iron bar supported horizontally across the furnace or ash pit door 
opening to take the weight of the fire-tools while they are being used in working 
the fires. 

Lead. The distance the port is open when the piston is at the end of its stroke. 

Lead. A strip of soft metal laid on top of a journal and squeezed down by the cap, 
the reduced thickness of which indicates the amount of play which the journal has in 
the bearing when the edges of the bearing and cap come together. 

Left-hand Screw Propeller. (See Screw Peopellee.) 

Leg. The water space about the furnace of a flue-and-return tubular boiler. 

Levers. Handles vibrating about a pin, or attached to a shaft, for actuating various 

Lifters. The arms of the lifting rods of a beam engine that receive the impulse 
from the vibrating toes on the rock shaft. 

Lifting" Rods. Tlie four upright rods in a beam engine front that transmit the mo- 
tion from the steam and exhaust toes to their respective valves. 

Lining. (See Steam Chimney.) 

Link. The bar which is connected at either end to the eccentric rods from each of 
t\yo adjoining eccentrics on the same shaft. 

Link Block. The block sliding on the link through which the motion of either ec- 
centric at will is transmitted to the valve. 

Link Motion. The combination of two eccentrics on the same shaft, two rods, and 
the link and block for operating the steam valve of an engine. 

Live Steam. Steam as it comes from the boiler. 

Lock-np Safety "Valve. A safety valve whose adjusting parts are so protected 
that they cannot be tampered with. 

Low-pressure Cylinder. The largest cylinder in a compound or triple expan- 
sion engine. 

Lubricant. Any substance that may be applied to wearing surfaces to reduce 

Lubricator. An apparatus for supplying a lubricant to the interior of a steam 

Lug. A fiat projection from the body of a piece to which to fasten other pieces. 

Patterson's elmistratep nautical dictionary. 



iSpincUe anidt/ » 

low pressure, cyl.nd*^^,^;;]^ ^&' J^-^'pr-^ssun vaUc ccu>i,ig 

Escape s^ixIk'c I 1^ / f^-Escape calve 

^HijJi pressure cylinder cover 

High pressviK 
Valve- casing 

-Valve aisinq dear 

* Expatision va7fe spinJJt 
fiaXve. spuidle' guide, 

— Conruchng-rod, 
Slide valve, spindle 

■Reversing wheel 
■Go-ahead. etuxntric-rocL 

I ^—-Expansion, valve- rotZ 
Go-astern, ■ eccentric i<oJL 

onnecting rod. Brasses 
zzEccentric- straps 

Baclc T>alancc weights 
Hain beamiyhrusses 

Cranl- shaft 
Bearing cap 

Esca-pe. vajv 

Front piung;I«tj 

Front cohim 


Taming wheel 

332 pattekson's illusteated nautical dictionajry. 


Manhole. An opening in a boiler large enough to admit a man to examine and re- 
pair. It is closed with a plate covering the hole from the inside. 

Manifold. A pipe or chamber to which are connected several branch suction pipes 
■with their valves and one or more main suctions to pump. 

Mean Pressure. The average pressure in a steam cylinder from the beginning to 
the end of a stroke. 

Monkey Tail Valve. (See Starting Valve.) 


Natviral Draft. (See Deaft.) 

Nozzle. A short pipe-like extension on a casting or other part. 


Oil Cups. Small cups through which oil is fed to wearing surfaces. 

Oiler. One of the engineer force whose duty it is to keep the wearing parts supplied 

with the proper lubricant, and to watch their condition. 
Oil Ways. Grooves cut in the wearing surface of a bearing, which allow the oil to 

reach all parts of the journal. 
Outboard Bearing. That which supports the outer end of a paddle-wheel shaft. 
Outboard Delivery Pipe and Valve. Those at the side of the vessel 

through which the discharge water from the condenser is led overboard. 


Packing. Elastic material confined about piston rods in the stufiing box to prevent 

Packing Ring. (See Piston Ring.) 

Paddle Wheel. A propelling Avheel suspended and revolving at the side or stern 
of a vessel, its shaft being above the water and perpendicular to the vertical fore-and- 
aft plane of the vessel. It is provided with floats or buckets, secured at intervals 
around the circumference, only a few of which are in the water at the same time. 

Radial Wlieel. In this arrangement the buckets are secured rigidly to the arms of 
the wheel and the planes of their faces are practicallj' radial planes. 

Feathering Wlieel. In this an-angement the buckets are supported at their ends on 
gudgeons or journals, and controlled by a mechanism which holds them with the plane 
of their faces practically perpendicular to the surface of the water during the time they 
are in the water. 

Pillow Block. A shaft-bearing that is complete in itself and secured to the rest of 
the structure by bolts. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 




v lirulcr cover 

Front column ^ 

■L'ow pressure Cylinder 
-Eujli pressure Cyliridir 

-Throttle valve, 
-Edxutunty pipe. 
Stuffmfj box 

n rod 

Drain pipe 

Vessel forcondaised-si 

Starting vatve^JuOidlt 

Connecting rod 

Co-aJuad eccctUric-rod ' 
Go-astern. eecentncmSc - 
"hxmmu wheet- 
Miornv shaft l+ 

Bed, plate 

'Brag li'nlc 

Cvraiiatuu/ dtscliarge piti 
'Backpiunp Uiik 


irculaUng piimp 

'•Expansion aeur 
Forward- Craiikaliafi Connhny 


Piston. The circular disc in the bore of a steam cylinder which receives and trans- 
mits the pressure of the steam. 

Piston Head. The principal piece composing a piston. 

Piston EingS. Small metal rings closely fitted at the circumference of the piston 
between the flange and follower, and held out by springs against the bore of the cyl- 
inder to prevent leakage. 

Piston Rod. The rod which is attached at one end to the piston, passes out through 
the stuffing box in head, and is attached at the other end to the cross-head. In some 
styles of engine the free end of the rod takes hold directly of the crank pin. 

Piston Valve. A small single or double piston which reciprocates in its cylinder 
past ports which are in the circumference of that cylinder. It is a slide valve with 
curved face and seat, and is balanced. 

Pitch of Sci'ew. The distance that any given point in the screw would move in 
the direction of the axis if turned through one revolution in a solid fixed nut. 

Pitcll of Rivets. The distance between their centres. 

Pliimnier Block. (See Pillow Block.) 

Plnngei'. The cylindrical piece of equal diameter which, reciprocating in a pump 
cylinder through a stuffing box in one head, forces the fluid out past the delivery valve 
by displacing it in the cylinder. 

Poppet Valve. A circular valve with a conical face and seat. It moves in the 
direction of its axis. There may be one or two on the same stem. 

Port. An opening in a valve-seat leading to the interior of the cylinder, or to the ex- 
haust passage. 

Priming. (See Foamii^g.) 


Racing. A sudden increase of speed of a marine engine due to the propeller being 
lifted wholly or partly out of the water when the vessel is pitching. 

Receiver. The confined space between two cjdinders of a compound or triple ex- 
pansion engine into which the smaller discharges, and from which the next larger 
draws its supply. 

Relief Valve. An automatic valve attached to a cylinder, pump or line of pipe, 
which opens when the pressure exceeds that for which it is set. 

Reversing G-ear. The apparatus for changing at will the distribution of steam to 
the engine, to make it run either ahead or back. 

Right-hand Screw Propeller. (See Screw Peopellee.) 

Rock Arm. An arm or lever attached to a shaft that vibrates only, receiving or 
transmitting motion from its outer end. 

Rock Shaft. One that vibrates only, not making complete revolutions. 


Saddles. The supports on which a boiler rests. 

Safety Valve. An apparatus attached to a steam boiler or pipe for relieving it auto- 
matically of any pressure in excess of that for which it is set. 

Salinometer Pot* A small vessel connected with the interior of a steam boiler 
into which a sample of the hot water can be drawn to determine its density. 

Saturation. A term referring to the proportionate amount of saline matter held dis- 
solved in the water in a boiler. 





















■ e^i' o^ -*' "^ Vi '^ <>i sS -S ?^ 

336 Patterson's illtjsteated nautical dictionaky. 

Scale. Mineral matter from the water in a boiler which has settled on and adhered 

to the heating surfaces. 
Screw Propeller. A submerged propelling wheel. It is virtually a section of a 
screw of two or more threads or helices, each blade representing a thread. 

Left-hand Screio Propdlcr. A propeller which revolves from the starboard to 
the port side during the upper part of its revolution while the engines are working 

Might-hand Screw Propeller. A propeller which revolves from the port to the 
starboard side during the upper part of its revolution while the engines are working 
Sea Valve. A valve in the bottom of the vessel with which pipes are connected 

leading to the pumps. 
Seat. That surface upon which a valve makes its contact. 
Separator. A vessel forming part of a steam pipe, in which the water entrained and 

carried through the pipe with the steam is separated from it. 
Set Screw. A small finished bolt with a square head and the thread cut up to 

the head. 
Shaft. A piece usually circular in cross-section which is used to transmit rotary motion. 
Shaft Alley. The passage-^ay from the engine aft to the stern bearing through 

which the shaft passes. 
Shoulder. The jog formed by the change from one diameter to another in a 

Side Pipes. The pipes connecting the upper and lower chests of a poppet valve 

engine. There is one on the steam side and one on the exhaust side. 
Slice Bar. An iron bar with one flattened end used to clear the grates of ashes and 

Slide. (See Guide.) 

Slide Valve. A valve having a flat face reciprocating over ports in a flat seat. 
Slip of a Screvr Propeller. The difference between the pitch of the screw 
and the distance that the vessel moves during one revolution of that screw. (See 
Slij) Joint. An expansion joint in a line of pipe which is made by inserting an end 
of one of the lengths into the enlarged end of another length, as a stuffing bos, and 
packing with soft material to make it tignt. 
Smoke Box. (See Feoxt Connection.) 

Smoke Pipe. The pipe erected above a boiler which carries away the products of 
combustion from the fm-nace. It also confines the heated gases in a column of suf- 
ficient height to produce draft. (See Deaft, Natueal.) 
Snifting' Valve. A relief valve opening outward formerly attached to a condenser. 
Socket Bolt. A stay-bolt through two parallel flat surfaces of a boiler, holding 
them together against internal pressure. There is a head on one end, the other being 
riveted over. Between the two sheets and about the bolt is a sleeve called a socket. 
A scre-iv stay-bolt screwed through both plates has no socket about it. 
Spread Fires. (See Fiees.) 
Standing Bolt. A small bolt with thread out at both ends. One end is screwed 

permanently into place, and the other is fitted with a nut. 
Starting Bar. A bar used when starting an engine, to work the valves by hand 

while the mechanical gear is disconnected. 
Starting- Valve. A small valve by which steam may be admitted into a cylinder 
when the engine stands in such a position that the main steam valve covers both steam 
Stay Tube. A boiler tube that is secured in the tube sheet more firmly than bv 
merely expanding and beading over the ends, in order that the tube may act as a brace 
to hold the flat tube sheet against internal pressure. 
Steam. An elastic vapor generated from boiling water. 

Dry Steam is that which has no particles of water held in suspension. 
Satnrafed Steam is that which has a temperature due only to its pressure. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical mcTioNAKY. 























338 Patterson's illustrated >iautical dictionaet. 

Superheated Steam has received an additional amount of lieat and its temperature is 

in excess of that due to its pressure. 
Steam Chest. The chamber attached to an engine cylinder into which the main 

steam pipe discharges and in which the main steam valve operates. 
Steam Chimney. A large steam dome built about the base of the chimney, and 

the annular space thus formed connects directly with the interior of the boiler. The 

inner cylinder through which the gases pass is called tte " lining." 
Steam Dome. A cylindrical reservoir built on the top of a boiler-shell. One end 

has a head riveted in, the other end is riveted to the shell. 
Steam Drum. A cylindrical reservoir having two heads. It is attached to the 

boiler by one or more short nozzles, through which steam reaches its interior. 
Steam Jacket. The outer casing about an engine cylinder. Into the space en- 
closed is admitted live steam to heat the walls of the interior cylinder or lining. 
Stoke Hole. An English tenn for fire room. 
Steam Lead. (See Lead.) 
Steam-packing". That system in which live steam is admitted behind packing 

rings to set them out tight against the walls of the cylinder. 
Steam Port. (See Port.) 

Steam-room. Space in a steam boiler above the surface of tlie water therein. 
Steering^ Propeller. A screw propeller so arranged that it may be swung through 

a limited range about a vertical axis, thus altering the direction of the thrust in refer- 
ence to the centre line of the hull. 
Stoker. An English term for a fireman. 
Stop Valve. The valve in a steam pipe close to the boiler by which the passage 

may be closed or opened. 
Straightway Valve. One through which fluid passes without its direction being 

Strap. A flat band used to bind various loose parts securely together. 

Connecting Mod Strap is a U-shaped piece over the end of the rod which holds the 

brass boxes about the pins and to the rod. 
Stroke. The distance the piston travels in moving from one end of the cylinder to 

the other. 
Stud. (See Standing Bolt.) 
Stuffing' Box. The cavity in a cylinder head in which packing is confined about 

the piston rod to prevent leakage. 
Strut. A support for the outer end of a twin-screw propeller shaft. 
Superheater. A closed vessel in which steam, separated from water, is brought 

in contact with heated plates or pipes. 


Tap Bolt. A small finished bolt with thread out only part way from point to head. 

Tappet. A rotating or vibrating piece applied to move periodically another part. 

Telescopic Smoke Pipe Or Funnel. The pipe is made in two or more 
lengths, the higher one smaller in diameter than the one below it, into which it can be 

Tell-tale. An instrument for indicating at all times the position of a mov- 
ing part. 

Throttle Valve. That valve in the steam pipe next to engine by which the flow of 
steam to the engine is controlled. 

Throw. The distance from the centre of shaft-hole in a crank to the centre of the 
pin ; and the distance from the centre of shaft-hole in an eccentric to the centre of the 




Pc/l&' Gampasf 




340 Patterson's ir.LUSTUATEi) nautical orcTioNARr 

Thrust. The pressure on the hull produced by the screw revolving in the water. 
Thrust Bearing. (See Bearing.) 

Thrust King's. Collars turned on the thrust shaft and in the thrust bearing. 
Thrust Shaft. That piece of shaft laying in the thrust bearing which transmits 

the thrust of the screw to the vessel. 
Tube. Small welded pipe used in boiler construction for the passage of products of 

Tube Expander. A tool used to expand the end of a boiler tube against the inside 

of the hole in the tube sheet, making the joint steam tight. 
Tube Plate, or Tube Sheet. The plate into which the ends of the boiler 

tubes are fitted and secured. 
Twin Screws. The two screws fitted to one vessel, each driven by a separate 

engine. One is right hand, the other left. 


Uptake. The smoke passage between the smoke box and chimney. 


Vacuum. Space containing no matter. As used in steam engineering the term is 
applied to the partial vacuum obtained by abstracting, in a closed vessel, the heat of 
vaporization from steam, reducing that givea volume of steam to an approximately 
equal weight of water of much less volume. Vacuum is measured by the height of a 
column of mercury sustained in the long leg of a bent tube, the long leg being con- 
nected with the enclosed space in " condenser," the other open to the atmosphere. 
The sustaining force is the difference between the pressure of the atmosphere and the 
slight pressure in the " condenser." In case of a perfect vacuum this slight pressure 
would be zero. 

Vacuum G-auge. An instrument attached to the condenser to register the height 
in inches of the column of mercury that would be sustained by the partial vacuum 
within. It may be the primary mercury column or a spring gauge adjusted by one. 

Valve. An appliance for controlling the flow of liquids and gases through a pipe or 

Valve Chamber. The casting which encloses the valve. 

Valve Gear. The combination of parts by which an engine valve is operated. 

Valve Seat. (See Seat.) 

Valve Stem. The rod entering the steam chest and connected to the valve which 
it moves. 

Viscosity. Oil is said to have viscosity when it possesses good body. 


Walking Beam. (See Beam.) 
Walking Beam Engine. (See Engine.) 

Washer. A small plate about a bolt ami next to the nut. Its use is to distribute 
the strain which the nut resists over a greater area than the nut possesses. 






Academy. (See Natal Academy.) 

Action. An engagement between two or more vessels. 

Clear Ship for Action. To make preparation for battle by removing everything 
liable to obstruct the working of the guns, also such material as hatch-railings, etc., 
that would naturally be shattered and scattered bv the enemy's shot. 

Admiral. The highest ranking officer in the navy. The respective ranks of admiral 
and vice-admiral no longer exist in the U. S. Navy, having died out with the deaths 
of Admiral Porter and Vice- Admiral Eowen. 

Aid. An officer of the rank of lieutenant, attached to the admiral's staff. This officer 
is also known as flag lieutenant. He transacts the secret official business of the com- 
mander-in-chief and does duty as an amanuensis. 

Altiscope. An instrument so constructed as to permit the observer to look over 
intervening objects, and by the employment of which guns may be pointed, or trained, 
from the deck below. 

Aimnunitioil. Explosives and projectiles designed to be fired from ordnance. 
(See PowDEE; Explosives; Chaeges; Table of U. S. Naval Beeech Load- 
ing Guis's.) 

Apprentice. (See Naval Appeentice.) 

Armed Stem. The forward part, or entrance, of the ship strengthened with armor, 
for the purpose of ramming. 

Armor. A metal protection against artillery projectiles. 

Belted Armor. A plating completely encircling the ship in the vicinity of the water 
line, and from ten inches to twenty inches in thickness. 

Compound Armor. A combination of iron or steel, or nickel and steel, or other 
metals. Compound armor is generally considered to refer to a layer of steel facing an 
iron plate. 

Internal Armor. This applies to two denominations of armor ; first, as a backing 
for main or outboard armor ; second, for transverse bulkheads, extending from side to 
side, forward and aft, enclosing the battery and protecting the vessel against a raking 
fire. These bulkheads extend from the water line to the lower part of the 
upper deck. 

JSfickel-steel Armor. A combination of steel and nickel. This is the standard 
armor for the U. S. Navy. Its advantage is its superior resisting power — the mixing 
of the two metals makes a very tough substance, and renders it less liable to split 
upon impact with projectiles. 

Armored Cruisex*. A man-o'-war protected with heavy plates of iron and steel, 
especially surrounding the guns. 

Armorer. A petty officer who keeps the small arms in condition. 

Armory. A room set apart for the storage of small arms. 

Attaclied. When an officer serves on board a vessel he is said to be attaclied to her. 

Aye! Aye! (See Hail.) 

346 patteeson'& illustrated nautical dictionary. 


Barbette. A circular breastwork of metal inside of which guns are mounted. A 
gun is said to be in barbette when it is fired over a parapet instead of through an 

Barbette Gun. A gun mounted in barbette. 

Barge. A large double-banked boat used by flag oificers. 

Bargemen. The crew of a barge. 

Battery. Mounted ordnance. The guns on the sides of the ship, taken collectively, 
are respectively referred to as jMrt and starboard batteries. 
Barbette Battery. A gun or guns mounted in barbette. 
Covered Battery. (Ordnance concealed by a breastwork. 
Floating Battery. Ordnance mounted on a raft or hulk. 
Masked Battery. Same as covered battery. 

Mortar Battery. Mortars are fired at an angle of 45°. These guns have no 

Water Battery. Ordnance mounted close to and almost on a level with (he water, 
so as to penetrate the hulls of vessels in the vicinity of the water line. (See Table 
OF U. S. Naval Breech Loading Guns.) 

Battle Liantern. Until recently an oil lantern placed near eacli gun for the pur- 
pose of lighting the deck during an engagement at night. Since tlie introduction of 
electricity on board men-o'-war, battle lanterns have been electric. The lamps are 
shaded, and the light is thrown down on the deck, thus furnishing sufficient illumination 
for working the guns without dazzling the eyes and making outside objects obscure. 

Battle Ship. A modern armored man-o'-war carrying a heavy battery. 

Bay. The hospital on board ship, situated forward between decks. Also known as 
Sich Bay. 

Baymaii. A hospital nurse. 

Bed. A platform for raising a gun carriage above the level of the deck when the gun 
is too low for the port. A platform for supporting a mortar. 

Belted Armor. (See Armor.) 

Berth. The sleeping-place between decks allotted to a seaman. 

To berth a ship's company is to assign each member of the crew a certain number, 
which will be found tacked over the hammock-hook below decks. 

Berth Deck. The deck below the gun deck ; the upper deck of a man-o'-war is 
called the spar deck. 

Binnacle List. Sick men have their names recorded on a list which is sent to the 
ofiicer of the deck by the surgeon, and are excused from duty. This list of names is 
called the Binnacle List. (See Sick List.) 

Blue Jacket. A name for a man-o-'war's man. 

Boarders. Certain members of the ship's company detailed to board the enemy's ' 

Boaa'dingf. As applied to a naval engagement, to enter the enemy's vessel witli 
hostile purpose. 

Boarding Nettings. A strong meshwork, the lower edge of which is made fast 
to the rail, and the upper part triced up by whips, and employed to prevent boarders 
from entering upon the ship's deck. 

Boarding Pike. A lance having a steel head, and used in repelling an attack 
by boarders. 

Boatswain. A warrant officer whose duty it is to care for the rigging, anchors 
and cables; to see that his mates get the men quickly on deck after the word has been 
passed, and to note that their work is performed quickly and well ; to observe that the 
boats and booms are properly secured ; to square the yards, and in fact to keep the 
vessel looking ship-sliape and trim so far as masts, spars, sails and rigging are con- 

Patterson's iLi,usTKATf:D nautical dictionakv. 













Boatswain's Mate. The chief petty officer of the watch, who, in the absence of 

the boatswain, repeats the orders of the officer of the deck and observes that the same 

are executed by the men. 
Bomb. A hollow shell of iron filled with an explosive substance so arranged that the 

shell is blown to pieces a certain number of seconds after it is fired, or upon coming 

in contact with an object. 
Bomb Bed. A mortar platform. 
Bomb Ketch. A mortar vessel. 
Bombshell. (See Bomb.) 
Bomb Vessel. A mortar boat. 
Bow Chasers. Guns situated so as to fire through the bow ports, or sharp on either 

bow from the main deck. 
Breech. That section of a gun which is abaft the chamber — the aftermost part of 

the gun. 
Breech Block. The hinged shape of metal in a breech-loading gun which closes 

the breech and receives the thrust of the charge when the gun is fired. 
Breechingf. The rope which is rove through the cascabel of a muzzle-loading gun 

and secured to each side of the port, so as to limit the recoil. 
Breeching Bolts. Bolts in the ship's side by which the two ends of the breeching 

are secured. 
Breech-loader. A gun which is charged at the breech instead of the muzzle. 
Breech Mechanism. The mechanism which opens and closes the breech. 
Breech Plug. (See Beeech Mechanism.) 
Breech Sight. (See Sight.) 
Bridle Port. The forward port on the gun deck. 
Brig. The prison on board ship. 
Broad Pennant. A broad piece of bunting, cut swallow-tail, for a commodore, 

and rectangular for a rear admiral — the commodore's has one and the rear admiral's 

has two stars in the flag. 
Broadside. A simultaneous discharge of all the guns on one side. 
Broadsword. A cutlass; a cutting sword with a heavy, broad blade. 
Buckler. A tompion to fit into the circular opening in the half-ports. 
Bureaus. The business of the Navy Department is divided under eight heads, 

called Bureaus, each one being presided over by an officer of the navj', who, if below 

the rank of commodore, is given that rank, or, in the case of a staiF officer, the relative 

rank of commodore. The eight bureaus are as follows : Ordnance, Equipment and 

Recruiting, Navigation, Yards and Docks, Medicine and Surgery, Provisions and 

Clothing, Steam Engineering, Construction and Repair. 


Cadet. A student in the art of militarj'^ science. 

Cadet Engineer. The lowest grade of staff officer in the navy. A student at 
the Naval Academy belonging to the steam engineering branch of the service. After 
graduating he pursues the same course as the cadet midshipman. (See Nayal Acad- 

Cadet Midshipman. The lowest grade of line officer in the service. After gradu- 
ating from the Naval Academy, two years must be spent at sea, after which the cadet 
midshipman returns to the Naval Academy and undergoes a final examination, and if 
successful in passing same he is promoted to midshipman. (See Natal Academy.) 

Canister. A thin sheet-iron shell filled with cast-iron shot, and closed at each end 
by discs of wood. When the piece is fired the mass is scattered. 

Cannon. Under this head belong guns, mortars and howitzers. 

Captain. A naval captain is the next grade below a commodore, and the next grade 



350 HATTERSOn's illustrated NAUTFCAL niCTIONAKV. 

above a corauiander. The comiiianding officer of a man-o'-war is called captain, 
irrespective of bis rank. The leading men among the crew are called respectively : 
captain of the top, hold, and after fjuard. The captain of the head is a jocular title 
given to the man, generally a negro, whose duty it is to keep the head clean. 
Captain's Clerk. This office was abolished by act of Congress in 1878 ; previous 
to which it signified an officer holding the relative rank of midshipman, appointed 
from civil life by the commanding officer of a man-o'-war, to act as his amanuensis. 
The appointment was subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Navy, and 
remained in force until the expiration of the cruise of the vessel, or until the com- 
manding officer was detached. Midshipmen and ensigns are now detailed by the 
commanding officer to perform such duties. 
Carpenter. A warrant officer, whose duty it is to care for the spars, boats and hull 

of the vessel, also the pumps. 
Cari'Onade. A short piece of ordnance, carrying a large ball, and taking its name 

from the place where it was originally made — Oarron, Scotland. 
Carry. A gun is said to cany well when it propels shot a long distance. 
Cartouch. A case filled with shot to be fired from a cannon. 

Cartridge. A case of paper, pasteboard, cloth or metal containing a charge of 
powder for a fire-arm. 

Blank Cartridge. A cartridge for practice or for salutes, in which there is no 
Cascabel. That part of the gun which is abaft the base of the breech. 
Casemate Battle Sllip. A vessel having guns mounted en casemate, which 
signifies that they are fired from behind a heavy armored immovable breastwork, inside 
of which the guns revolve horizontallv. 
Caterer. The ward-room, uteerage, wari'ant officers' and chief petty officers' messes 
elect a caterer from their number, whose duty it is to manage all the afikirs of the 
mess, keep an account of receipts and expenditures and render a statement to the mess 
on the first of each month. 
Cliaplain. A clergyman who performs divine service on board a man-o'-war. Chap- 
lains in the tJ. S. Navy have the relative rank of captain, commander and lieutenant 
Charge. The nature and quantity of the powder used for ordnance. 

Hoivitzer Charges. The only howitzer used in the U. S. Navy to-day is the 3-inch, 
weighing 300 and 500 pounds respective!}' — the lighter one being used in boats. 
The charge for the 300-lb. gun is 12 ounces of cannon powder ; for the 500-lb. gun 
16 ounces of cannon powder; the weight of the projectile is 10 pounds, and the range 
about 2 miles. 

Bifle Charges. The maximum charge foj- the 0-inch rifle is 43 pounds of brown 
prismatic powder, with about 1 pound of black prismatic in the rear of the charge for 
(pick ignition. The weight of the projectile is 100 pounds, and the range between 5 
and 6 miles. The A^elght of this rifle is 10,000 pounds; this is exclusive of the 

Tlie maximum charge of the 8-inch rifle is 120 pounds of brown prismatic, with two 
pounds of black prismatic powder in the rear of the charge. The weight of the 
projectile is 250 pounds, and the range about 8 miles. The weight of this rifle is 
27,000 pounds, without the carriage. 

The maximum charge for the 10-inch rifle is 250 pounds of brown prismatic, with 
4 pounds of black prismatic powder in the rear of tlie charge. The weight of the pro- 
jectile is 500 pounds, and the range about 10 miles. The weight of this rifle is 57,000 
pounds, not including tlie carriage. 

Service Charges. These are divided into two classes, full and reduced. The first 
is used when extreme range and penetration are required, and with armor-pierping 
shell. The latter is used when only ordinary ranges and penetration are required, so 
that the gun may not be subjected to an unnecessarilj' heav}^ strain. 

Sitell Charges. An amount of explosive contained in a shell sufficient to break and 
scatter the same when it strikes; or when it attains the limit of its flight, as when a 










time fuse is used. The amount of shell charges varies with the size and thickness 

of the shell. 

Torpedo Charges. The regulation torpedo charge is about 30 pounds of gun cotton, 

exploded by nieans of 30 grains of fulminate of mercury, which is itself first exploded 

by electricity. 

Small Ann Charges. The standard small arm for the U. 8. Navy is the Lee 

detachable magazine rifle of 45 calibre. The revolver is the Colt double action of 

38 calibre. (See Table of U. S. Naval Bkeech-Loadixg Guns.) 
Chase. A vessel pursued. That section of a gun contained between the reinforce 

and the muzzle. 

Stern Chase. When the pursuing vessel follows directly in the wake of pursued. 
Chase G-UllS. Guns mounted so as to fire ahead or astern. 
Chase Ports. Ports forward and aft used for chase guns. 
Chasers. Same as Chase Guns. 
Chevron. Stripes on the sleeve of a non-commisjsioned officer of marines, also on the 

sleeve of petty oflicers. 
Chief. A title applied to the senior engineer of a vessel. A line of petty officers on 

board a man-o'-war are termed chief boatswain's mate ; chief gunner's mate ; chief 

quartermaster, and chief musician. 
Chief of StaflF. The senior line ofiicer attached to a flag-ship, whose duty it is to 

assist the flag officer in the management of the fleet. 
Civil Engineer Corps. The Civil Engineer Corps of the U. S. Navy consists of 

one civil engineer A\'ith the relative rank of captain ; two with the relative rank of 

commander; three with the relative rank of lieutenant-commander ; and four with the 

relative rank of lieutenant. 
Classification. The vessels of the navy are divided into classes, under the heads 

of first, second, third and fourth rates, tugs and sailing vessels. 
Class Marks. (See Unifoem.) 
Coast Defence Vessel. A man-o'-war constructed of steel, with low freeboard 

and carrying a heavy battery either in turrets or in casemates. 
Colors. The national ensign. In port colors are made at 8 a. m. and haaled down 

at sunset. When at sea colors are shown upon falling in with another vessel. When 

colors are half-masted it is a symbol of mourning. When absent from the ship, boats 

keep their colors flying from a pole in the stern. 
Commandant. The title of an officer commanding a navy-yard or station. 
Commandant of Cadets. The title of the commanding officer of a naval 

Commander. A rank next below that of captain, and next above that of lieutenant- 
Commander-in-Chief. The President of the United States is commafider-in- 

cMefoi the army and navy. This title is also applied to the flag ofiicer of a fleet. 
Commission. A document investing one with authority, issued by the President 

or sovereign, and by which an officer is constituted. A vessel is put in commission by 

hoisting the ensign and the pennant of the commanding ofiicer, and reading to the 

ship's company the order authorizing said officer to assume command. 
Commissioned Officer. An officer who holds a commission issued to him by the 

President or sovereign. 
A Non-Commissioned Officer is made by military authoritv. (See Navy Pay 

Commodore. The rank next below that of rear-admiral, and next above that of 

Conning Tower. A small, strong metal house, raised above the deck and furnished 

with peep-holes, in which the commanding officer is stationed, and from which place 

he directs the movements of the ship during an engagement. 
Constructor. An officer who designs and superintends the building and repairing 

of men-o'-war. Constructors in the U. S. Navy have the respective relative ranks of 

commodore, captain, commander, lieutenant and lieutenant, junior grade. 









Corvette. A French sloop-of-war carrying from 20 to 32 guns. 

Coston'is Signals. (See Paet I.) 

Court Martial. A court composed of military or naval officers for the purpose of 
trying offenders. 

Coxswain. A seaman who steers and has charge of a boat in the absence of a line 
officer. In a single-banked boat he pulls the stroke oar when an officer is present ; 
but in a double-banked boat his duty is to steer, sitting in the coxswain's box. 

Coxswain's Box. The space contained between the backboard of the boat and the 

Cruiser. A fast modern man-o'-war, and designed to prey upon an enemy's com- 


Darning the Water. When a fleet is cruising to and fro before an embargoed 

port it is said to be darning the water. 
Descriptive List. When a inan is discharged from the service, or transferred from 

one vessel or station to another, a personal description of the man is furnished, to- 
gether with his name, naval service, place of birth, rating, etc. 
Despatch Boat. A swift vessel employed in carrying despatches between men-o'- 

war situated at a distance from one another, from one naval station to another, etc. 
Devices. (See Uxifoem.) 
Division. A number of vessels of war detached from the main fleet. A division is 

smaller than a squadron. A separation of the ship's company under the heads of 

powder division, gun divisions, etc. . , 

Detached. When an ofiioer is relieved permanently from a certain duty he is said 

to be detached. 
Detonator. (See Explosives.) 

Double-decker. A term applied to a man-o'-war having two gun decks. 
Double-headed Shot. Two balls connected by a short bar of metal. 
Double-sided. When a double-deck ship is painted so as to show both rows of 

ports she is said to be double-sided. 
Dynamite. (See Explosives.) 
Dynamite Gun Vessel. This term is somewbat of a misnomer, as the guns 

of these so-called dynamite vessels throw gun-cotton instead of dynamite. 


Engineer Corps. The engineer corps of the U. S. Navy consists of one engineer- 
in-chief with the relative rank of commodore ; chief engineers with the relative rank of 
captain ; chief engineers with the relative rank of commander ; chief engineers with 
the relative rank of lieutenant-commander ; passed-assistant engineers witli the relative 
rank of lieutenant; passed-assistant engineers with the relative rank of lieutenant, 
junior grade; assistant engineers with the relative rank of ensign, and cadet engineers 
with the relative rank of cadet midshipman. 

Fleet Engineer. The senior chief engineer attached to the flagship, who has juris- 
diction over all the engineers of the fleet. 

Engineer's Yeoman. A first-class petty officer who has charge of all engineers' 
stores, keeps the accounts of his department, and writes up the engineer's log-book. 
The engineer's yeoman is under the direct orders of the chief engineer. 

Ensign. An officer next below the rank of lieutenant, junior grade, and next above 
that of midshipman. 



ll,H).0 iU:Ail-:rb. 



Entering^ Port. In old line-of-hattle sliips an entering port was cut down to the 
level of tlie deck on the middle deck. 

EqxiipmPiit Yeoman. Formerly called ship's yeoman. A first-class petty 
officer who has charge of all stores in the way of spare gear, spars, canvas, small 
stores, etc., belonging to the deck department. Tlie equipment yeoman is under the 
direct orders of the executive officer. 

Evening Gun. The gun fired at tattoo (9 p. si.). 

Executive Officer. "The ,^rs< Zw-wfewaw^ of the ship, or the officer next in rank to 
the commander. The executive officer is the hardest-worked man on hoard a man-o - 
war, for it is his duty to station officers and crew for sail, spar and boat drill, exercise 
at the great guns, fire quartei-s, small arms, arrange the messes, look after the dis- 
cipline of the ship day and night, keep a conduct book of the entire ship's company, a 
liberty and punishment book, suppress smuggling of liquor, gambling, fighting, take 
the ship in and out of port, stimulate a feeling of contentment among the crew so as to 
make a " happy ship," preserve a cleanly and orderly ship from keel to truck, receive 
all reports from officers for transmission to the commanding officer, listen to complaints 
from an^' member of the ship's company, always to be at the gangway when the cap- 
tain leaves the vessel or returns to her, 1o receive the reports of the warrant and petty 
officers at 8 p. m. concerning the security of their respective departments for the night, 
and in fact to be on the alert all hours of the day and night, and to almost entirely 
forego the pleasure of a " run ashore," owing to the exactions of his duties. 

Explosives. Under this head are classed dynamite, gun-cotton, nitro-glycerine, 
fulminates, gelatine and picrates. The liigh explosive at present in use in the U. S. 
Navy is gun-cotton, on account of its safety. It possesses as great explosive force as 
No. 1 (highest grade) dynamite. Gun-cotton is used for torpedo charges exclusively, 
which may be employed for submarine work or in military operations on shore. 
Gun-cotton can only' be exploded by detonation, for which purpose a 30-grain 
detonator of fulminate of mercury is used. 

A detonator is a small cartridge of fulminate of mercury employed for exploding 
gun-cotton, it being a higher and quicker-acting explosive than gun-cotton. (See 


False Muster. A wrong statement as to the number of persons borne on the ship's 

False Papers. When a vessel carries papers certifying falsely as to her cargo, 
name, destination, nationality, etc., she is a lawful prize. 

Fire Bill. (See P^et I.) 

Fire Qxiarters. (See Part I.) 

First liieuteiiant. The executive officer of a man-o'-war. (See Marine Corps.) 

First Kate. A qualification for the highest grade ships in the navy. 

Flag Captain. The commander of a flag-ship — also known as chief of stajf. 

Flag Liiexitenant. An aid to the flag officer. 

Flag Officer. An officer above the rank of captain — such as commodore, rear 
admiral, vice admiral and admiral. 

Flag of Truce. A white flag is used as a flag of truce by all nations. When 
shown it is an evidence of a desire to communicate, and its nature is of sacred char- 

Flag Share. The share of prize money which goes to the flag officer of a fleet in 
consequence of prizes captured within the limits of that officer's command. 

Flag Ship. Any vessel flying the flag of an officer above the rank of captain. 

Fleet. A collection of men-o'-war. A fleet is divided into divisions and squadrons. 

Fleet Captain. Same as flag captain. 

Fleet Gig. The boat used by the fleet captain. 













358 pattbeson's illustrated nautical diotionaey. 

Fleet Engineer. (See Engineer.) 

Fleet Marine Officer. The senior marine officer in the fleet, who is attached to 
the flag-ship. 

Fleet Paymaster. The senior paymaster in the fleet, who is attached to the flag- 

Fleet Snrgeon. The senior surgeon in the fleet who is attached to the flag-ship. 

Fleet Tactics. Naval evolutions. 

Floating Coffin. A name applied particularly to monitors, and in general to 
unseaworthy vessels. 

Flotilla. A fleet comprised of small vessels. 

Frigate. A ship of war having a quarter-deck and forecastle raised above the main 
deck. A vessel carrying a gun deck and spar deck battery, numbering from 20 to 
50 guns. 

Fulminates. (See Explosives.) 

Fuze. The mechanism attached to a shell or torpedo, and by which the latter are ex- 
ploded. (See Time Fuze.) 


Gratling. A repeating macliine-gun, named after its inventor, Dr. G-atling, of this 
country, and is also known as a mitrailleuse ; consists of a number of breech-loading 
rifled barrels revolving about a common axis. Twelve hundred shots per minute have 
been fired by this gun. 

Grape. Small shot done up in a strong canvas bag and bound together by a cord 
network on the outside of the bag. 

Grenade. (See Hand Grenade.) 

Guard. The marines attached to a vessel or navy-yard. 

Guard Boat. A picket boat. 

Guardo. A receiving ship. 

Guard Ship. A man-o'-war which looks after the marine afi"airs in a harbor,- and is 
distinguished by a guard flag flown at the fore. 

Guns. Heavy ordnance — mortars and howitzers not included. 

Breech-loading Guns. Guns in which the charge is inserted at the breech. 
Built-up Guns. Parts formed separately and then united by welding the parts to- 
gether, or by shrinking- one part over another. 
Hooped Guns. Same as huilt-up guns. 

Muegle-loading Guns. Guns in which the charge is inserted at the muzzle. 
Bifled Guns. Guns having spiral grooves cut in the surface of the bore. 
Smooth Bore Guns. Guns having a perfectly smooth bore surface. (See Table of 
U. S. Naval Breech-loading Guns. 

Gunboat. A small vessel carrying one or more guns. 

Gunboat Cruiser. A fast v.essel, carrying a moderate battery, and designed to 
prey upon the enemy's commerce. 

Gun Carriage. A support for a piece of ordnance, offering facilities for elevating, 
depressing and training the same. 

Gun Cotton. (See Explosives.) 

Gun Deck. A deck on which cannon are carried below the spar deck. 

Gun Fire. The morning or evening gun. 

Gun Gear. All the tackles and implements belonging to the gun and carriage. 

Gun Lod. A vessel containing explosives. 

Gun Metal. A bronze made of ninety parts of pure copper alloyed with ten parts of 
pure tin. 

Gun Pendulum. A contrivance employed for determiaing the initial velocity of a 



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360 patteeson's illusteatkd nautical dictionary. 

Gun Room. An after-room found on old line-of battle ships in wliicli the midship- 
men and ensigns lived. It was situated on the deck next below the wardroom, being 
directly under the latter. 

Gun Kooni Ports. The stern ports of the gun room. 

Gun Slings. Iron chains or wire rope to pass about the chase of the gun, and used 
for hoisting guns on and off a vessel. 

Gunner. A warrant officer, under whose special charge are the battery, magazines, 
small arms, ordnance stores, torpedoes, etc. 

Quarter Gunner. A third-class petty officer who takes care of the guns and gear of 
the division to which he belongs. 

Gunner's Gang. The chief gunner's mate, gunner's mates, quarter gunners, armorer, 
and armorer's mate. 

Gunner's Mate. A petty officer of the second class, whose station is in the maga- 
zine when in action. The chief gunner's mate assumes the duties of gunner in the 
event of accident to or absence of that officer, and rates in the latter case as a. first- 
class petty officer. 

Gunnery. The science of managing ordnance. 

Gunnery Ship. A training ship for officers undergoing ordnance instructions. 

Gunpowder. (See Powder.) 

Gunshot. The distance that a projectile is thrown by a gun. 


Hail. The various responses made by officers at night to the sentry, and by which he 
may learn the rank of the officer approaching, are as follows : The flag officer answers 
" Flag !" ; the captain gives the name of his ship ; the wardroom officers answer "Aye ! 
aye ! " ; the steerage and warrant officers answer " No ! No ! "; and a petty officer and 
members of the crew answer " Hello ! " 

Hail Sliot. A charge of small cannon-shot fired for cutting purposes. 

Half Port. Ports made in two pieces and hinged top and bottom, so as to open by 
tricing up the upper one and dropping the lower one. A circular hole is provided in 
the centre of the shutter so that a length of the gun may project outboard. 

Hand Grenade. A shell filled with an explosive, and thrown by hand from the 
tops to the enemy's deck when vessels are fighting at close quarters. It is also used 
to repel boat attacks. 

Handspike. A wooden lever. 

Hang Fire. When slow ignition occurs a piece is said to hang fire. 

Hello ! (See Hail.) 

High Explosives. Dynamite, gun-cotton, nitro-glycerine, fulminates, picrates, 
and gljxerine. 

Hotcllkiss Guns. These guns are divided into two classes, and are known as 
rapid fire (R. V.) and machine (M.), and throw 1-lb., 3-lb. and C-lb. explosive pro- 
jectiles respectively. The Hotchkisswac/Hwe-^MW is on the principle of the Galling — 
a revolving cannon, has five barrels, and throws 1-lb. and 3-lb. projectiles. The 
greatest range of the 3-lb. machine-gun is about 1^ miles at an elevation of, say, 30°, 
and the range of the 1-pounder is about 1 mile for the same elevation. There are also 
1, 3 and 6-pounder Hotchkiss rapid-fire guns, which are loaded at the breech and 
throw single projectiles, the ranges of the 1 and 3-pounders being respectively 2 miles 
and IJ miles, and the penetration about 1^ inches and 1 inch of steel at 1,000 yards. 
The range of the 6-pounder is about 3 miles with an elevation of 30°, and its penetra- 
tion is about 2 inches of steel at 1,000 yards. The Hotchkiss machine-guns may be 
tired at the rate of tifty projectiles per minute, the rapid-fire guns at the rate of twelve 
per minute. The cartridges used in these machine-guns have metallic oases, on the prin- 
ciple of the revolver cartridge, and they are fired by revolving a crank. The rapid-fire 
guns are fired by a trigger, as in a small arm. 



362 patteeson's illu6tkated nautical dictionaky. 


Idlers. TLoge raemliers of the ship's company who do not stand watch, such as the 

cooks, stewards, yeomen, musicians, writers and apothecary. 
Incendiary ISliell. A shell charged with an inflammable substance, which escapes 

when the shell is broken by coming in contact with another body. 
Insignia. (See UnnroRM.) 
Internal Armor. (See Aemoe.) 
International Code. (See Paet I.) 
Ironclad. A term applied to monitors during the war of the llebellion. The quiili- 

fication is applicable to all vessels that are protected with arn.or against projectiles. 

(See Monitor.) 


Jack of the Dust. One of the crew, who acts as an assistant to the paymastei-'s 

Jimmy Leg's. A nickname for the master-at-arms. 


Landsman. A rate signifying that the person has no knowledge, or very little 
knowledge, of seamanship. It is a rate next below that of ordinary seaman. 

Letter of Marque. A commission granted by government to a privateering 

Lieutenant. The grade next below that of lieutenant-commander, and next above 
that of lieutenant junior grade. Lieutenants junior grade were at one time called masters. 
A lieutenant of marines ranks the same as an army lieutenant. (See Relative Rank.) 

Lieutenant Coimnander. A line ofKcer one grade lower than a commander, 
and one grade higher than a lieutenant. ' 

Lieutenant, Junior G-rade. A line officer one rank under a lieutenant, and 
one rank higher than an ensign., 

Line-of-Battle Ship. An obsolete type of man-o'-war, having three rows of 
ports and carrying from 74 to 120 guns. 

Line Officers. Admiral, vice-admiral, rear-admiral, commodore, captain, commander, 
lieutenant-commander, lieutenant, lieutenant junior grade, ensign, midshipman, cadet- 
midshipman, mate, boatswain and gunner. 

Loaded Shell. A fuzed shell charged with powder. 

Loading Tray. A metal shelf for assisting the passage of a shell into the breech. 

Long Tom. A gun of great length and range as compared with the broadside gun. 


Machine Guns. (See Hotchk;iss,-Gatling.) 

Machinist. A petty officer of the first class, who stands watch in the engine-room 

when the vessel is under way ; belongs to the artificer class. 
Magazine. An apartment on board a man-o'-war in which explosives are stored. 

Also a chamber in a repeating rifle for containing a number of cartridges with which 

the gun is fed automatically. 




364 pattkeson's illustrated naittical dictionaky. 

Magazine Cocks. A faucet contrivance connected with the outside of the vessel 
for flooding the magazine in case of fire. 

Magazine Dress. A worsted frock and shoes of canvas — metal of whatever nature 
being absent. 

Magazine Gun. A repeating rifle, The magazine is detachable in the rifle used in 
the U. S. Nav}', and the detaching of the same converts the rifle into a single-fire arm. 

Magazine Passage. An alleyway in the magazine. 

Magazine Screen. A screen of thick cloth arranged so as to prevent sparks from 
entering the scuttle in the magazine passage. 

Magazine Scuttle. The scuttleway in the magazine passage through which the 
charges are passed. 

Marine Corps. The duty of the marine corps is to furnish a guard to ships of war 
and to garrison navy yards. Commissioned ofKcers of the marine corps are: colonel- 
commandant, colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, captain, first lieutenant and second 
lieutenant. The non-commissioned officers are : sergeant-major, quartermaster-sergeant, 
drum-major, first sergeant, sergeant and corporal. 

Marine Rams. Vessels of war constructed with a projecting "snout" or "spur," 
with which to ram and sink an adversary by bursting in the side of such vessel below 
the water line. 

31 ark. Marks I, II, and III are intended to express the difference in the dimensions 
of chamber and gun, the charge of powder being regulated according to the respective 
marks. When carriages are distiii^uished by a wark number, they are supposed to 
accommodate guns of like mark. 

Master-at-Arms. The chief petty officer on board a man-o'-war. The ship's 
corpoials are subordinate to him, and together the^' police the ship, confine and have 
charge of offenders, etc. 

Mate. A line officer who is not eligible for promotion, and ranks about the same as 
a warrant officer. Mates are no longer appointed, and the raTik will become obsolete 
with the death of the few now in the service. 

Medical Corps. The medical corps of the U. S. Navy consists of one surgeon- 
general with the relative rank of commodore, medical directors with the relative rank 
of captain, medical inspectors with tjie relative rank of commander, surgeons with the 
respective relative ranks of lieutenant-commander and lieutenant, passed assistant 
surgeons with the relative rank of lieutenant junior grade, passed assistant surgeons 
with the relative rank of ensign. 

Medical Survey. A personal examination m^de to determine the physical and 
mental health of a person. 

Mess. A number of officers, petty officers, seamen or mariners who take their meals 

Master-ai- Arms' Mess. To this mess belong all the yeomen, ship's writer, school- 
master, apothecary, machinists, boilermakers, and the orderly sergeant of marines, who, 
however, may form his own mess if he so desires, in which case all the sergeants and 
corporals of marines are members of it. 

Orderly Sergeant's Mess. (See Mastee-at-Aems' Mess.) 

Steerage Mess. This mess is composed of midshipmen, ensigns, clerks and mates. 
Ward-Boom Mess. Composed of staff officers (medical, engineer, and pay) above 
the rank of ensign, and line officers from lieutenant-commander to lieutenant junior 
grade inclusive. Marine officers are always members of the ward-room mess. 
Should an ensign be assigned to regular watch duty on board ship, he is entitled to 
mess and live in the ward-room. Also, if a staff officer, holding the relative rank of 
ensig-n, is the senior officer of his corps (in charge of a department) on board ship, he 
also is entitled to live in the ward-room. 

Warrant Officers' Mess. Composed of the boatswain, gunner, sailmaker and 

Mess Cloth. A sailor's table-cloth — a tarpaulin spread on the deck, and designed 
to protect the latter from contact with the seamen's tin plates, cups, etc., as well as the 
spillings from the same. 



366 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 

Mess Gear. Pots, pans, plates, spoons, forks, knives, etc. 

Messenger Boy. A boy who carries messages to various parts of the ship from 
the quarter-deck, being under the personal command of the oflBcer of the deck. 

Metre. The unity of the French measure of length, being equal to 39.37 English 

Midshipiliail. A line officer one rank lower than an ensign, and one grade higher 
than a cadet midshipman. 

Military Masts. Mast designed to support military tops. 

Military Tops. Tops encircled with a barbette of steel, from behind which machine- 
guns are worked when the vessel is in action, and by which a plunging fire is 

Millimetre. In French measure a thousandth part of a metre, or .03937 of an 
English inch. Hotchkiss guns are often refen-ed to as " 37 " and " 47," meaning that 
they are respectively 37 millimetre and 47 millimetre in relation to the diameter of the 

Mitrailleuse. A Gatling gun. (See Gatling Gun.) 

Monitor. The turreted ironclad vessel designed by Mr. John Ericsson in 1861 was 
named the Monitor, and that name has become a general designation for all vessels 
of that type. The Monitor drew about twelve feet of water, the hull was almost im- 
mersed, and the cylindrical turret revolved so that an all-round fire could be main- 
tained while the vessel remained stationary. The Confederates called this vessel 
" cheese box on the raft." 

Morning Gun. The gun fired from the flag-ship announcing daybreak. 

Mortar. A very short piece of ordnance possessing a large bore, and used for throw- 
ing shells at an angle of 45°. 

Mortar Float. A vessel designed for can-ying and working a mortar, and resem- 
bling a platform or raft. 

Mount. A vessel mounts ten guns, i. e., carries ten guns. When a gun is placed on 
its caniage it is said to be mounted. The term also applies to carriages for Gatling 
and rapid-fire guns. 

Muzzle-loader. A gun which is charged at the muzzle instead of the breech. 


Naval. Pertaining to the navy. 

Naval Academy. An institution where young men are educated in naval science. 
At the U. S. Naval Academy a four years' course of study is undergone, after which 
follows a probationary course of two years, then final graduation. During this six 
years the student is known as a cadet-midshipman, or cadet engineer, but after a suc- 
cessful final examination he becomes a midshipman, or an assistant engineer, as the 
case may be. The pay of naval cadets while at the academy is $500 a year, and at 
sea $950 a year. 

Cadet Midshipman. Candidates must be physically sound and between the ages of 
fourteen and eighteen j'ears. A satisfactory examination in the following branches must 
be passed by candidates : arithmetic, geography, grammar, writing, reading and spelling. 
The curriculum of study is as follows : seamanship, naval construction, naval tactics, 
gunnery, infantry tactics, field artillery, fenciug, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, 
calculus, steam engineering, astronomy, navigation, surveying, physics, chemistry, 
English studies, French and Spanish. 

Cadet Engineer. The examination for cadet engineer is competitive. Candidates 
must be between the ages of sixteen and twenty years, and physically sound. A satis- 
factory examination in the following branches must be passed by candidates : arithmetic, 
algebra, plane geometry, natural philosophy, reading, writing, spelling, grammar, 
geography, free-hand drawing, and elementary principles of the steam engine. The 
curriculum of study is as follows: mathematics, analytical mechanics, physics, chem- 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaky. 


pi ; 

368 pattekson's ilt-ustrated nautical diction aey. 

istry, theory and practice of steam engineering, designing of machinery, French, 
Spanish, and naval architecture. 

Naval Apprentices. Boys between the ages of fifteen and eighteen years enlisted 
to serve in the navy until they shall arrive at the age of twenty-one years, provided 
they shall have the consent of their parents or guardians. These boys are sent on 
board of suitable naval vessels to be trained for the naval service, under the following 
regulations : every boy previous to being enlisted must satisfy the examining board 
of officers that he is of robust frame, of good moral character, intelligent, of perfectly 
sound and healthy constitution, and able to read and write. The education of these 
boys comprises the elements of an ordinary English education, practical seamanship, 
and other professional studies designed to prepare them for sailors in the navy. They 
are enlisted as "third-class" boys, at the pay of $9.50 per month and one ration. 
While serving on training ships they may, if deservin^^be promoted to the rating of 
"second-class" boys, ^l, the pay of $10.50 and $11.50 ,;Jfer month respectively, and on 
cruising vessels will be entitled to higher ratings at the'dfscretion of their commanding 
officer, as a reward of proficiency and good conduct. The highest rank that a naval 
apprentice can look forward to is that of a warrant officer. 

Naval Asylum. A home, supported by the governm&t", for men who have served 
twenty years in the U. S. Navy. Each member has a separate room, is given three 
wholesome meals each day, supplied with all necessary^^clothing, and allowed one 
pound of tobacco, and one dollar per month for spending money. The Asylum is 
situated within the limits of the city of Philadelphia. 

Naval Brisrade. A body of seamen and marines forming a landing party for 
infantry and field artillery operations. 

Naval Constructor. (See Consteuctoe.) ■'■*'\, 

Naval Institute. The headquarters of the U. S. Naval Institute is at Annapolis, 
Md., and the object of the society is to bring interesting professional subjects under 
discussion. These discussions are forwarded in writing to headquarters from the 
various branches of the society, and are there printed and circulated among the mem- 
bers. Officers holding positions under the Navy Department are eligible to member- 
ship, and provision is made to accept as associate and honorary members such desirable 
persons outside of the profession as may make application to join. 

Naval Keserve. A body of men recruited as an auxiliary naval force to be 
employed in time of emergency. State naval reserves are on about the same footing 
as the militia. 

Naval station. A rendezvous where coal and stores may be secured and where 
minor repairs may be made. A naval station has not the dignity of a navy yard. 
The naval stations of the United States are situated as follows : Key West, Fla.; 
New London, Conn.; Port Eoyal, S. C, and Newport, R. I. 

Naval Tactics. Disposing and arranging ships for battle. The science of naval 

Naval Training Ship. A vessel employed as a school ship for the instruction of 
naval apprentices. 

Navigating Officer. A line officer on board a man-o'-war, next in rank to the 
executive. His duty is to navigate the ship, and all the instruments of navigation are 
in his special keeping. He also has supervision over the ground tackle, steering-gear, 
etc., and the disposal of the ballast and the stowage of water, provisions, etc., and is 
also the ordnance officer of the vessel. 

Navy. The ships of war belonging to the nation. The table, under the head of 
"List of Vessels of the U. S. Navy," gives the names of the vessels of the U. S. 
Navy, together with particulars as to type, hull, propulsion, rig, battery, and displace- 

Navy Department. A bureau presided over by the Secretary of the Navy, who 
controls and directs the naval forces of the country. 

Navy Pay Table. (See Pay Table.) 

Navy Register. (See Registee.) 

Navy Yard. A government shipyard in which men-o'-war are built and repaired. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


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Also a depot of provisions, stores belonging to tlie various departments, coal, etc. The 
navv vards of the United States are situated as follows : Portsmouth, N. H.; Boston, 
Mas"s.; Brooklyn, N. Y.; League Island, Pa.; Norfolk, Va.; Washington, D. C; Pen- 
sacola, Fla.; Mare Island, Cal. 

Nitro-glycerine. (See Explosives.) 

No! No"! (See Hail.) 

Non-commissioned Officer. (See Commissioned Officer.)' 


Officer of the Deck. The watch officer in charge of the deck and the general 
management of the ship. When at sea the officer of the deck directs the movements 
of the vessel, and follows the course laid down by the navigating officer. When enter- 
ing or leaving port the executive officer takes charge of the deck and handles the ves- 
sel. When at quarters the navigating officer assumes charge of the deck, and the watch 
officer relieved takes command of his division. When in port the officer of the deck 
obsei-ves that the routine of the ship is carried on, that the boats leave and return to 
the ship at proper times, and keeps the rough-log, entering therein an account of all 
happenings and work going on during his watch, makes a memorandum of the names 
of liberty parties leaving and returning to the ship, etc. (See Watch Officee.) 

Ordnance. A term embracing cannon, mortars, howitzers, and machine-guns. 

Ordinary. Vessels laid up — out of commission. 

Ordinary Seaman. A rating next below that of seaman, and next above that of 

Ornaments. (See Uniform.) 


Parrot Gnn. A rifled gun named after its inventor. 

Partially-protected Cruiser. A modern man-o'-war built with not less than 
a 2-inch steel deck, forming an arch and curving from a point a short distance below 
the water-line on either side, the highest point of the curve being over the midship 
line, or keel, of the vessel, and in contact with the first deck above the water-line. 
The idea is that a projectile striking and penetrating the vessel in the vicinity of the 
water-line will naturally be deflected by the curve of the steel deck, and thus be pre- 
vented from doing injury to any vital part in the ship's interior. 

Partridges. Grenades fired from a mortar. 

Pay Clerk. An appointed officer who acts as clerk to the paymaster, keeping the 
lattei"'s books and exercising care over the paymaster's stores, consisting of provisions, 
clothing, etc. 

Pay Corps. The paymaster's corps of the U. S. Navy consists of one paj^niaster- 
general with the relative rank of commodore ; pay directors with the relative rank of 
captain ; pa\' inspectors with the relative rank of commander ; paymasters with the 
relative rank of lieutenant-commander; paymasters with the relative rank of lieuten- 
ant; passed assistant paymasters with the relative rank of lieutenant junior grade, and 
assistant "pa3'masters with the relative rank of ensign. 

Pay Table. The table, under the head of " Navy Pay Table,'' gives the pay of 
officers, petty officers, seamen, etc., in the U. S. Navy. 

Petty Officers. ^See Pay Table.) 

Pivot Gun. A gun that can be revolved horizontally and fired on either side of 
the ship. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



first rate. 










Partially protected 


Twin screws . . 





Two military masts. 

3 mast schooner 


Protected cruiser.. 






3 mast schooner 






Twin screws . . 
Twin screws .. 

3 mast schooner 

Two military masts . 

Two military masts. . 











6, MS 



Protected cruiser.. 








Partially protected 















' 11 









Double-turret mon- 



Twin screws... 

One military mast. .. 





















Sinffle-tunet moni- 








:: ---■•• 



























* Mostly smooth bore. 

f Smooth bore. 

372 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaby. 

Plebe. A term applied to mcMnbers of the fourth, or lowest, class at the Naval 

Point-blank. In a direct line with the object at which the ^un is aimed. 

Point-hlank Range. The distance at which a projectile, fired nt point-blank, will hit 
the object at which it is aimed. 

Port. In gunnery, an opening in the side of a raan-o'-war through which a gun 
is fired. 

Powder. The powders explained following are in use in the U. S. Navy. 

Brown Prismatic. A slow-burning powder, brown in color, in shape hexagonal 
prism, having a hole in the centre through which it is strung when putting the charge 
together, and through which also the circulation of the flame is accelerated throughout 
the mass. This powder is used for service charges for the modern breech-loading rifles. 
Black Prismatic. A quick-burning powder used in small quantities as a primer for 
brown prismatic powder. (See Charges.) 

Cannon Powder. A black grain powder, used for service and saluting charges for 
the old smooth-bore guns. 

Healed Powder. The only use for this powder in the service is for filling primers. 
As its name implies, it is very fine. 

Mushet Powder. This is a black, fine-grain powder and is used for filling small 
arm cartridges and shell. 

Powder Hoy. A vessel designed for conveying powder, and may be distinguished 
by the red fiag which she exhibits. 

Powder Mag-azine. (See Magazine.) 

Powder Monkey. A term applied to a boj' who passes powder charges to 
the guns. 

Powder Tank. A copper case for containing powder. 

Powder Vessel. Same as Poivder Hoy. 

Prime, To prepare a muzzle-loading giln for being fired by pricking the cartridge 
through the vent and inserting a primer in the same. 

Primer. An instrument for firing the cartridge in a gun. 

A Percussion Primer is made of a quill tube, the lower end being closed. It is 
filled with powder, and capped with fulminating mercury and powder, and exploded 
Ijy concussion. 

A Friction Primer is made of a brass tube the size of a quill, filled with powder, 
and in the cap is a brass wire with teeth, the outer end of the wire having an eye 
formed by twisting. The cap is filled with sulphuret of antimony and chlorate of 
potassa. This primer is exploded by pulling the lanyard and breaking the primer, 
which causes the necessary friction. 

A Quill Friction Primer is made of two quills, one inside of the other, and is filled 
with antimony tri-sulphide, potassium chlorate, flower of sulphur and a small propor- 
tion of gum arable. Wires are contained within the quills, and the action of the lan- 
yard Is to withdraw these wires and explode the primer by friction. 

Priming Wire. A steel wire used to prick the cartridge after it is rammed home 
in the gun. 

Prisoner-at-Large. A captive who Is not placed in irons or kept confined, but 
who is granted a certain amount of liberty. 

Prisoner of War. One captured by the enemy and entitled to protection. 

Prison Ship. A vessel fitted up for the safe keeping of prisoners of war. 

Prize. A vessel captured by the enemy. 

Prize Court. A court having jurisdiction to adjudicate and dispose of vessels 
captured from the enemy. 

Prize CrOOds. The freight of prizes. 

Prize List. The names of all the persons on board a vessel or vessels which has, 
or have, captured a prize. Should any of the regular crew of such successful vessel 
be absent in the line of duty, they, too, are sharers in the prize money awarded. 

Prize Master. The officer sent on board a prize for the purpose of navigating 
her to port. 











*8 ' 















1 370 







steel '.'.'/" 

Twin Screws . . 



3-mast schooner 














Despatch Vessel. .. 

;: I ::;::;;; 

3 mast schooner 











































Tesnvins . 

Michigan . 
Despatch. . 





Torpedo ram . 


Dynamite-gun ves- 


Despatch vessel . . 

Torpedo boat. 

Iron . '. Mallory propel- 

I ler. 

Steel Ssrew 

" ....--[Twin screws . 

Barkentine . 

Iron [Paddle . 

Wood , Screw - 


Wood . 
Steel .. 

Single screw . 
Twin screw . . 

Scbooner — 









Cohasset . . . 
Fortune — 


Mayflower . 





Standisb ... 




Iron . . 


Iron . . , 
Wood . 
Iron . . . 

Screw - 

Scbooner . 


Schooner . 


Schooner . 


Schooner . 



* Mostly smooth bore, t Howitzers. ; Smoothbore. 5 Pneumatic dynamite guns. jj 3 torpedo tubes. 


Prize Money. The proceeds of the sale of vessels captured. The captures are sent 
to port and turned over to the prize court, which adjudicates in relation to thera, and 
either declares the capture illegal, or in the other case a U. S. Marshal is authorized 
to dispose of the property, and the proceeds are awarded by the prize court as follows: 

If the prize was of equal force to the vessel engaged in its capture the net proceeds 
go to the captors ; but if of inferior force, one-half of the proceeds go to the captors 
and the other half to the government. The rules of distribution are as follows : 

The commander of the fleet or squadron receives one-twentieth part. 

The commander of a division of the fleet or squadron, one-fiftieth part from the 
moiety due the government, provided there be such moiety due, and if not, then from 
the amount due the captors. If, however, his vessel is the captor, then he may decide 
which he will receive, the fiftieth part, or the regular share as commander of the captor; 
he cannot receive both. 

The fleet captain receives one hundredth part, unless the capture is made by his 
vessel, in which case he shares in proportion with his officers and crew. 

The commander of a single vessel receives one-teinth awarded to the vessel, provided 
she was at the time of capture under the command of the commanding oflicer of the 
fleet or division, and three-twentieths if his vessel was acting independently of the 
above superior oflicer. 

The remainder of the prize money is awarded to the remaining officers and men on 
board in proportion to their rates of pay. 

All men-o'-war within signal distance of the one making the capture, provided they 
are in condition to contribute aid if necessary, are entitled to a share in the prize. 

Members of the crew absent temporarily are entitled to a share in the prize. 

The prize court decides concerning the vessels entitled to prize money. 

The Secretary of the Navy decides concerning the persons entitled to prize money. 

The Fourth Auditor of the Treasury figures the amount of money due each pei'son 
according to the foregoing rules, and issues certificates to the persons so entitled after 
Congress has made an appropriation for said payment. 

The prize money awarded to the government is used exclusively as a fund out of 
which to pay to naval officers, seamen and marines the pensions to which they are 
Professors of Mathematics. The Corps of Professors of Mathematics in the 
U. S. Navy consists of three with the relative rank of captain, four with the relative 
rank of commander, and five with the relative i-ank ot lieutenant. 
Projectile. A mass of metal discharged from a gun by the explosion of a charge of 
gunpowder or some high explosive, or by compressed air. 

The projectiles used in the U. S. Navy for breech-loading cannon are armor-piercing 
shells, which are distinguished from the ordinary explosive shell by having thicket 
walls, not provided with a fuze, and having a smaller bursting charge. The bursting 
of these shells is insured by the heat generated by the blow. 

The ordinary shell is of moderately thick walls, has a large bursting charge, and is 
furnished with a percussion fuze to cause the shell to explode on striking. These 
latter shells are for use against stone forts and earthworks, and vessels other than 

Shrapnel is furnished with a time fuze, has a small bursting charge, and is for use 
against boats and exposed masses of men on shore. 
Protected Cruiser. A modern man-o'-war built with not less than a four-inch 

steel protective deck. (See Paetially-peotected Ceuisee.) 
Protective Deck. (See Paetially-peotected Ceuisee.) 





New Eampahlre. 


Independence. . 


ConsteUatiou . . 
Jamestown — 



St. Mary's.. 
St. Louis... 









Dismantled . 


Dismantled . 

ter; ). 









Station or Condition. 

Eeceiving-ship for boys, New 

London, Conn. 
Keceiving-sliip, New York. 
Receiving-ship, Maie Island. 
Portsmouth, Jsl. H. 
Fitting-out, Portsmouth, N.H. 
Naval Acaueniy. 
Appreutice training-ship. 

Public Marine School, Phila- 

Public Marine School, New 

Receiving-ship, League Is- 

Receiving-ship, Washington, 
D. C. 


Franklin^ — 
Minnesota t - 


Old-type frigate 


Screw. . 





Receiving-ship, Norfolk, Va 
Receiving-ship for bo>s, Ne* 

Receiving-ship, Boston. 



. (1891.) 


Steel belted 



Twin screws. 

One military 




























192 4 

Building at William Cramp & 
Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Building atDiiion Ironworks, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Building at William Cramp & 

Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Building at Union Iron WorliS, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Building at Bath Iron AVorks , 
Bath, Me. 

Building at William damp & 
Sons, Philadelphia. Pa. 

New Tork 


Armored steel 

Steel low free 
board bar- 
bel te - turret 

.. " 

Two military 

One military 



No. 12 

No. 6 


Triple screws 
Twin screws. 

Twin screws. 

Two • roasted 

Two - masted 
"with mili- 
tary tope. 

Two military 

Two - masted 

Two - masted 


San Prancinco, Cal. 

Building at navy-yard. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Building at navy-vard, Nor- 
folk, Va. 

Building at Columbian Iron 



ito, 9 


Ko 10 

Works, Baltimore, Md. 

No 11 ... 


Building at City Point Works, 


No. 5 



Boston, Mass. 
Baildiiig at Bath Iron Works, 

No 6 



Practice cruiser. . 


Cruiser for na- 
val cadets. 


Twin screws. 

Barkentine . . 

Building at Moore & Somi, 
Eliza bethport, N. J. 

Building at City Point Works, 

No 2 




Boston, Mass. 

No 3 





* Howitzers. 

t Smooth bore. 

I Not recommended for further sea service. 

376 pattekson's illustrated nadtical diction aey. 


Quarter £111. A written or printed fonn showing the various stations assigned to 
the officers and men for going into action. 

Quartermaster. A petty otficer who assists the navigating officer of the ship in 
the care of the sounding leads, the lights, bunting, etc., who has charge of the wheel, 
reads and hoists signals, and stands a regular watch, day and night, whether at sea or 
at anchor. His duty is to observe signals made to the ship from the shore or other ves- 
sels, the approach of small boats or boats containing officers, and report same to the 
officer of the deck. 

Quarters. (See Paet I.) 

Quarter Watch. A division of one-fourth part of the ship's company. 

Quick Match. There are various kinds. One kind is cotton wick saturated with 
mealed powder, spirits and gum. It will burn about 15 feet per minute. (See Slow 

Quill Tube. That part of a primer which contains the powder. 

Quoin. An old-fashioned wooden instrument, in the shape of a wedge, which was 
used for elevating guns belore the introduction of elevating screws. 

Chocking Quoins. Shapes of wood to chock the wheels of an old-fashioned gun car- 
riage and prevent the same from running in or out. 

Hake. To fire into a vessel in the direction of her length — in her fore-and-aft line. 

Kain. (See Marine Rams.) 

Kandoni Shot. A shot fired when the gun has an angle approaching 45°, which 
would give the utmost range. An angle of 45° is considered to give a range about ten 
times greater than the point-blank. Also a shot fired without regard to aiming at the 
object struck. 

Kaiig'e. The distance from the muzzle of the gun to the point struck by the projectile. 

Hank. (See Relative Rank.) 

Rate. (See Classieication.) 

Kating Badges. (See Unieokm.) 

Ration. The daily allowance of food served out on government vessels to seamen 
and marines. Officers are entitled to one ration, which may be stopped, and in lieu 
thereof 30 cents per day credited to their accounts. Petty officers may also stop their 
rations, and draw commutation therefor at the rate of 30 cents per day. At the dis- 
cretion of the commanding officer permission to stop one or more rations may be given 
to a seamen's, firemen's, or marines' mess, and the commutation paid to said mess by the 
paymaster. This is done to enable the mess to purchase such small stores and fresh 
vegetables for the mess as are not furnished in the ration list. Rations are not allowed 
except to the members of a vessel in commission. 

Razee. A vessel cut down or reduced by a deck. 

Rear- Admiral. A line officer one rank lower than a vice-admiral and one rank 
higher than a commodore. A rear-admiral is the highest offiQpr in the U. S. navv. 
(See Admiral.) 

Receiving Ship. A man-o'-war, unfit for sea duty, stationed at a navy yard for 
recruiting seamen. 

Retl-hot Shot. This projectile is obsolete, and was once used for incendiary pur- 

Register. A book issued by the Navy Department giving the names of the commis- 
sioned and v\arrant officers in active service and on the retired list of the navy of the 












Eirst four years after date of commission 

After four years from date of commission . 

Eirst live years after date of commission . . 

After five years froln date of commission. . 
LIEUTENANTS (Junior Grade)— 

First five years after date of commission . 

After iive years from date of cooimission. . 

Eirst five years after date of commission. . 

After fi-ve years from date of commission, , 






First five years afterdate of commission 

Second five years after date of commission 

Tuird five years after date of commission 

fourth five years after date of commission 

Aft«r twenty years from date of commission 


Eirst five years afterdate of appointment 

After five years from date of appointment 


First five years after date of appointment 

Second five years after date of appointment 

Tiiird five years after date of appointment 

Fourth five years after date of appointment 


First five years after date of appointment 

After five years from date of appointment : 


First five years afterdate of appointment 

Second five years after date of appointment 

Third five ^ears after date of appointment ■ 

Fourth five years after date of appointment ■ 

After twenty years from date of appuintment 


First four years after date of appointment 

Second fonr years after date of appointment 

After eight years from date of appointment 


First five years after date of commission 

After five years from date of commission 


First five years after date of appointment 

Second five years afterdate of appointment 

Third five years after date of appjiutment 

After fifteen years from date of appointment 


First three years after date of appointment 

Second three years after date of appointment 

Tiiird three years after date of appointment 

Fourth three years after date of appointment 

After twelve years from date of appointment 

At sea. 

















On shore 

4 000 

2 400 
















On leave 

or waiting; 























•After leaving Academy, at tea, in other than practice-ships, $950 per annum. 

378 patteeson's illtjstkated nautical dictionary. 

United States, and of tlie Marine Corps, together with their respective numbers in 
their grade. States from which appointed, dates of promotions, lengths of sea and shore 
service, etc. ; also a list of the vessels belonging to the navy. 

Regular. An officer, petty officer, seaman, etc., belonging to the permanent military 
forces maintained by government. 

Reinforce. That part of a gun between the trunnions, and only applies to old- 
fashioned ordnance. 

Relative Rank. The relative rank between officers of the navy and army is as 
follows : 

Admiral with General ; Vice- Admiral with Lieutenant-General ; Rear- Admiral with 
Major-General ; Commodore with Brigadier-General ; Captain with Colonel ; Com- 
mander with Lieutenant-Colonel ; Lieutenant-Commander with Major ; Lieutenant 
with Captain ; Lieutenant Junior Grade with First Lieutenant ; Ensign with Second 

Officers of the Marine Corps take rank with officers of similar grade in the army. 

Rendezvous. The place appointed where several ships are to join company ; also 
a name sometimes applied to a recruiting station on shore. 

Reserve. (See Naval Reserve.) 

Rifled GrUn. Apiece of ordnance having the inside of the barrel furrowed with 
spiral channels, which give to the projectile a rotary motion about an axis, and by 
which great precision of aim is obtained. The rifled guns in use in the U, S. INavy 
are the 5-in., 6-in., 8-in., 10-in. and 12-in. (See Chaege.) 

Rotten RoVF. A certain place in a navy yard in which worn-out vessels are moored. 

Routine. A series of established rules whereby the business on board ship may be 
carried out systematically, whether at sea or in port, in warm or cold climates, etc. 
These rules embrace the care and preservation of the vessel, the airing and washing of 
clothes and bedding, holy-stoning of decks, arrangement of meal and smoking hours, 
drills, etc. 

Ruffle. A low roll of the drum used in the ceremony of saluting officers of high rank 
when boarding or leaving the vessel. An officer holding the rank of admiral receives 
four ruffles ; a vice-admiral three, and rear-admirals and commodores two ruffles. 


Sabot. A flat circle of wood secured to a spherical exploding projectile, fitted with a 
fuze, in order to keep it in position during the time of its passage through the gun, and 
to prevent the fuze from coming in contact with the bore or with the exploding charge 
— thus preventing premature explosion. 

Sailmaker. A warrant officer who has charge of the sails, awnings, wind-sails, and, 
in fact, exercises supervision over all canvas appliances on board ship. 

Sailmaker's Mate. A petty officer of the second class who works under the di- 
rection of the sailmaker, and who has care of the sail-room. 

Sally. A sudden rush in a body from one part of the vessel to another; to issue sud- 

Sally Port. In reference to fire ships, the place of escape for the train-firers. 

Salt Box. A deck case for temporarily containing a number of charges for the guns. 

Salutes. The President or an ex-president of the United States visiting a vessel of 
the navy, or a navy-yard, receives 21 guns ; the vice-President or an ex-vice-president 
and the Secretary of the Navy, 19 guns ; memliers of the Cabinet, Justices of the Su- 
preme Court and Governors of States, 17 guns ; a committee of Congress, officially 
visiting a vessel or navy-yard, 17 guns ; ministers, 15 guns ; a commissioner, 11 
guns; a consul-general, 9 guns; a consul, 7 guns; a vice-consul, 5 guns; an officer 
having the rank of admiral, 17 guns; vice-admiral, 15 guns; rear-admiral, 13 guns ; 
commodore, 11 guns ; Chiefs of Bureau of the Navy Department, 11 guns ; a foreign 

pattkeson's illusteated nautical dictionaey. 
NAVY PAY TABLE.-Continued. 




To Admiral (on shore) 

To Naval Acadtitnv 


First clerks to oommandants of navy.yards 

Second clerks to commandantii of navy-yards 

To commandant at navy-yard, Hare Island 

To commandants of navnl stations 


At navy-yard, Hare Island 

At navy-yards, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Washington .. '. 

At navy-yards, Kittery, Norfolk, and Pensaoo!a 

At other stations 

At receiving ship, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia!!!!!!!!'.".'.'.!!! !!'.'.!!!;".'.!!!; 

At receiving-ship, Mare Island 

At other receiving-ships, on vessels of the ftrstrate, at the'Navai Academy, and at the Naval !i8viam 

On vessels of the second rate and to fleet-paymasters 

On vessels of the third rate and supply -vessels and store-ships 

To inspectors in charge of pirovisions and clothing at navy-yards, Boston, New'Y'ork.'phil'a'deinhia 
and Washington '^ ^ 

At other inspections !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 

Pay per 







Note.— From and after July 1, 1870,' the spirit ration is totally aholished, and in lieu thereof the navy ration 
under the appropriation of provisions for the Navy, is 30 cents per day. "."uu. 

Provided, mit no officer on the retired list of the navy shall be employed on active duty except in time of war ■ 
And provided. That those offleers on the retired list, and those hereafter retired, who were, or who may be retired 
aftei fOTty years service, or on attaining the age of sixty-two years, in conformity with section one of the act of 
December, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, and its amendments, dated June twenty-flfth, eighteen hundred and 
srxty-four, or those who were or may be retired from incapacity resulting from long and faithful service from 
wounds or injuries received in the line of duty, from sickness or exposure therein, shall, after the passage of this 
act, be entitled to seventy-five per centum of the present sea-pay of the grade or rank which they held at the time 
of their retirement. The rear-admirals provided for in the act of June fltth, eighteen hundred and seventv-two 
shall be considered as having been retired as rear-admirals. [Act 3d March, 1873 J ' 



Petty officers, firet class. 

Seaman class. 

Chief Boatswains' Mates 
Chief Quartermasters — 
Chief Gunners' Mates... 


Special class. 


Equipment Yeomen . 


Paymasters' Teomen 
Engineers' Teomen.. 

Ship'A Writers 

School Masters 

Band Masters 


Artificer class. 



Petty officers, second class. 

Boatswains' Mates 


Gunners' Mates 

Coxswains to Commander-iU' 


Ship's Corporals 

Ship's Cooks 

Chief Musicians 




Carpenters' Mates 

Blacksmiths , 

Sailmakers' Mates 
Water Tenders 


Petty offi/:ers, third class. 

<:aptains of Forecastle . 
Captains of Main Top.. . 

Captains of Foretop 

Captains of Mizzen Top 
Captains of Afterguard. 


Quarter Gunners 

Captains of hold . 



380 Patterson's ixt.usteated nautical dictionary. 

sovereign and nieniTjers of a royal family when visiting a vessel of tlie navy receive 
the same number of guns as prescribed for the President. An officer or enlisted man 
is required to salute his superior officer on meeting by raising the cap. 
Salvo. A simultaneous discharge of a number of pieces of ordnance. 
Sand Sliot. A coarse kind of shot once used, which derived its name from being 

cast in sand molds. 
ScaldingS. A warning cry employed on board ship to signify that the enemy is using 
scalding water from the boilers, led through a hose, as a weapon to drive their oppo- 
nents away from the guns. Also used as a warning to avoid something thrown. 
Schoolmaster. A petty officer of the first class who is under the direct orders of 
the navigating officer, and whose duty it is to write the smooth-log and instruct such 
classes as may be voluntarily formed from the crew of sea-going vessels. The course 
of simple instruction is arranged by the executive or commanding officer, or, in the 
case of a ship carrying a chaplain, by that officer. Naval training vessels are allowed 
several schoolmasters, who have charge respectively of the various classes of boys en- 
gaged in English studies, under the orders of an officer who instructs them personally 
in the profession of seamanship, rudimentary navigation, great gun and small arm 
drill, etc. 
School-sllip. A vessel set apart for the education of boys and young men in all 
that pertains to practical seamanship and the common English branches, in order to fit 
them for sailors in the navy. (See Naval Apprentice.) 

A State School-ship is organized and supported by the local authorities, with the de- 
sign of preparing young men to become officers in the merchant marine. These ships 
are known as " Public Marine Schools," and are possessed by two States only — New- 
York and Pennsylvania. The New York marine school-ship is the St. Mary's, and 
the Pennsylvania school-ship the Saratoga, these two vessels being under the direct 
charge of the Board of Education of the cities of Philadelphia and New York respect- 
ivel}'. They are officered by naval officers detailed by the Secretary of the Navy for 
that purpose, but the money for running the vessels is drawn from the city's school 
fund. The St. Marp's and Saratoga belong to the Government, being merely loaned 
to the States in question. 

The iollowing qualifications are necessarj^ for candidates : 
First. They should be between the ages of 15 and 20 years. 

Second. Tlioy must be of average size, of sound constitution and free from all physi- 
cal defects. 
Third. They must, upon admission, produce testimonials of good character. 
Fourth. They must have an inclination for a seafaring life, and enter of their own 
free will. 

The School is in no sense a reformatory, and only boys who can produce satisfactory 
testimonials will be admitted, nor will they be allowed to remain on board unless they 
yield prompt and willing obedience to the " Rules and Regulations " of the ship. 

Boys who are admitted to the School are provided for at the expense of the city, 
with the following exceptions : 

First. They are required to provide themselves with the following articles, which must 
be renewed if necessary : 2 Pairs Boots or Shoes, 1 Pair Rubber Boots, 1 Dark Blue 
Monkey Jacket, 1 Dark Blue Guernse}', 3 Pairs Heavy Drawers, 3 Heavy Under- 
shirts, 3 Pairs Heavy Socks, 1 Black Silk Neckerchief, 3 Pocket Handkerchiefs, 1 
Strong Jack Knile, 3 Towels, 1 Scrub Brush, 1 Tooth Brush, 1 Clothes Brush, 1 
Hair Brush, 1 Blackinff Brush, 1 Box Blacking, 2 Combs — 1 fine and 1 coarse, 
Thread, Needles, Wax, Tape and Buttons. 
Second. A deposit of $30.00 is required to defray the expense of white and blue uni- 
forms during the whole time on board. Should the boy be withdrawn, expelled, or 
desert, the deposit is forfeited. 
, Application may be made in writing to the Chairman of the " Executive Committee 
on Nautical School," Hall of Board of Education, 146 Grand Street, New York City. 
Scotch Prize. An illegal prize — one that must be surrendered. 
Sea Duty. (See Shore Ddtt.) 



NAVY PAY TABLE.— Continued. 



Seamen, first class. 

Seaman class. 

g eg 

Special class. 


c a. 

Artificer class. 
Firemen, first clas-s 

a ■ 




Seamen - 


Seamen Apprentices, first class 


Musicians, first claas . . ^ 



Seamen, second class. 

"Ordinary Seamen 

Seamen Apprentices, first class 


Musicians, second class. 


Firemen, second class. 

Semnen, third class. 


Apprentices, first class. . . 
Apprentices, second class. 
Apprentices, third class.. 

Coal Heavers . 


Stewards to commanders-in-chief 

Stewards to commandants of navy-yards 

Cabin stewards 

"Wardroom stewards 

Steerage stewards 

"Warrant officers' stewai'ds 

Cooks to commanders in-chief 

Cooks 10 commandants of navy-yardsi 

Cabin cooks 

Wardroom cooks 

Steerage cooks 

"WaiTant officers' cooks 


Chief boatswains' and chief gunners' mates allowed to vessels not having boatswains or gunners. 

Men enlisting under continuous-service certificates will be entitled to receive one dollar per month, in addition 
to the pay of their respective ratings, for each consecutive re-enliatment for three years within three months from 
the date of their discharge. 

382 Patterson's ii.lusteated nauticai, DicTiONAEy. 

Seaman. A rating- next higher than that of ordinary seaman. A seaman is a first- 
class sailor, able to hand, reef and steer, heave the lead, is proficient in marlinspike 
seamanship, etc. An ordinary seaman is only partially proficient in these duties. 

Seaman Apprentice. A naval apprentice who has been rated as a seaman be- 
fore his term of apprenticeship is closed. 

Seaman Gunner. A seaman who is skillful in gunnery and torpedo duties, and 
receives a little additional pay on account of such proficiency. 

Sea Pay. (See Pat Table.) 

Search Light. A more or less powerful arc (electric) lamp placed at the focus of 
concave reflectors, the object of the arrangement being to project the rays of light 
from the lamp in parallel or nearly parallel lines. The whole is mounted on a suit- 
able stand, that the lamp and reflectors may have motions over this stand in horizontal 
and vertical planes. The intensity of the light and range of illumination vary greatly. 

Second. Lieutenant. An officer in the marine corps one rank lower than a first 
lieutenant ; a second lieutenant is the lowest ranking officer in the corps. The term is 
applied sometimes to the navigating officer of the vessel. 

Second. Rate. (See Classification.) 

Secretary. There was allowed by law a secretary to the admiral and one to the vice- 
admiral of the navy, these appointments being made from civil life by the admiral and 
vice-admiral respectively, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the XavJ^ These 
two secretaries had the relative rank and allowances of a lieutenant in the navj-, but 
were appointed for no specified period — their term of service being controlled by the 
officers who appointed them. With the death of the admiral and vice-admiral the 
office of Secretary was abolished ; consequently, no such office exists at the present 
time in the U. S. Navy. The secretaries to the admiral and vice-admiral were paid 
from the appropriation under the head of " Pay of the Navy," the same as the regu- 
lar officers of the service. 

The secretaries to rear-admirals afloat are now detailed from regular line officers of 
the navy, not above the grade of lieutenant. 

Until a few years ago all flag officers afloat were allowed by law to appoint their 
secretary from civil life. The appointment carried with it the relative rank and pay of 
lieutenant, but in 1878 Congress abolished this office together with that of Captain's 

The Secretary at the Naval Academy is appointed from civil life, and there is no 
law or regulation giving him rank. His pay is fixed by statute, and appropriated for 
under the head of " Pay of professors and others at the Naval Academy." The secre- 
tar3' at the Naval Academy stands towards the Superintendent in the waj' of a chief 
clerk. The Secretary of the Navy is in command of the navy under the President, 
being a member of the latter's Cabinet. 

Secure. An order as applied to ordnance, signifj'ing that exercise at the guns is to 

Securing' Bolts. Related to old-fashioned guns, being eye-bolts in the sliip's side 
near the port for securing the gun. 

Sentry. A marine or blue-jacket placed on guard. Sentries are stationed at the com- 
manding officer's door, at gangways, on the forecastle and poop, and over prisoners. 

Sentinel. Same as Sentet. 

Serve. To serve a vent is to close it by placing the thumb over it while sponging, 
and to clear it with a priming wire before the gun is loaded. 

Shell. (See Projectile.) 

Shell Bag. A bag made use offer hoisting shell in and out of a vessel, or for trans- 
porting same, or bags which once took the place of shell boxes. 

Shell Bearer. A contrivance for transporting heavy shell. 

Shell Craddle. A contrivance of two brass rings for hoisting shell through 

Shell Crane. An iron stanchion shaped like a fish davit. It is shipped near a 
hatch, lias a tackle hooked into the overhanging end, and is used for hoisting or 
lowerina: shell. 

Patterson's illustkated nautical dicttonaey. 


NAVY PAY TABLE.— Continued. 






MAJOR (Staff and Liue) 





Pay per an- 


Note. — All officers below the rank of Brigadier-General are entitled to ten per centum, in addition to their 
current yearly pay as given above, for each and every period of five years' service, provided the total amount of 
soch increase shall not exceed forty per centum of their current yearly pay ; and provided further, that the pay 
of a Colonel shall not exceed $4..500 per annum, and that of a Lieutenant-Colonel £4,000 per anoum. Othcers on 
the retired list are entitled to seventy-five per centum of pay (salary and increase) of their rank, but no increase 
accrues for time subsequent to date of retirement. 




Qnartermaster-sert^ean t. 


First sergeant 



Drummer and fifer . ... 


Leader of the band 

Musician, first class 

Musician, second class. . - . 

First period 

of 5 years' 


Per month. 

Second pe. 

riod of 5 


Per month. 

Third pe- 
riod of 5 

Per month. 

37 ' 

Fourth pe- 
riod of 5 


Per WjOnth. 


Fifth pe 
riod of 

Per month. 

All enlisted men, except musicians of the band, serving on a first period of five years' service, are entitled to 
one dollar per month for the third year, two dollars per month for the fourth year, and three dollars per month 
for the fifth year's service, in addition to the sums given in the first column above, which additional amounts are 
retained until expiration of service, and paid only upon final settlement and honorable discharge. 

One dollar per month is retained from all enlisted men (except the Marine Band) serving under a re.enlistment. 
This retained pay is not included in the above table, and is to be credited and paid only upon final settlement and 
honorable discharge from service. 

Members of the Marine Baud are allowed $4 per month in addition to rates of pay as given above for playing at 
the White House and public grounds, under the provisions of the act of Congress of August 18. 1856. 

All enlisted men (except musicians of the band and re-enlisted men) have $4 per month retained from their pay 
during the first year of their eolisttnents ; the amounts so accruing being paid witli interest at 1 per cent, per 
annum on honorable discbarge from the service. 


Sliell Extractor. Mechanism in the rear of a breech-loading small arm by which 
the empty shells are removed. Also an instrument for removing siiells from 
heavy guns. 

Shell Gauge. A ring or cylinder by which the dimensions of shells are obtained, 
by passing the latter through them. 

Sliellinail. A member of the gun's crew who provides shell for the gnn. 

Sliell Powder. (See Chaeges.) 

Shell Room. A compartment in the vessel for storing shell. 

Shell Strap. The fastening used to secure the sabot to the shell. 

Shell Whip. A tackle used for hoisting or lowering shell through the hatch. 

Ship's Cook. A petty officer who has charge of the cooiing for the ship's company. 
At seven bells (11.30 a.m.) each day he carries a sam})le of the dinner provided for 
the crew to the officer of the deck, who tastes and passes judgment upon the same be- 
fore he is allowed to serve out the same to the mess cooks. 

Ship's Corporal. An assistant to the master-at-arms. (See Masiek-at-Aems.) 

Ship's Writer. A clerk to the executive officer. He is a first class petty officer, 
and his duty is to keep the names and rates of the ship's company ; the respective 
watches to which they belong; preserve a record of tiie conduct and offenses of the 
crew ; the punishments inflicted ; detail the anchor watches; keep a book showing the 
stations to which members of the crew are assigned by the executive officer when 
coming to anchor, making, reefing and furling sail; exercise at the guns; repelling 
boarders ; abandoning ship, etc. 

Ship's Yeoman. (See Equipment Yeoman.) 

Shore Duty. Service performed at navy yards, naval stations, at the navy depart- 
ment, light-house board, hydrographic office, etc. 

Sea Duty refers to service performed on cruising vessels. 

Shore Pay. (See Pay Table.) 

Shot. (See Projectiles.) 

Shot Garland. A rope grommet for containing shot — obsolete. 

Shot Gauge. A ring or cylinder for ascertaining the diameter of shot. 

Shot LiOcker. A compartment in the hold of a vessel for the stowage of shot. 

Shot Pile. A pyramid of shot. To ascertain the number of shot in a pile, multiply 
the sum of the three parallel edges by the number of shot in a triangular face. 

Shot Plug. A wooden cone used for closing up shot holes made in a wooden 

Shot Kack. Iron rods about the hatch coamings for holding shot. 

Shot Tongs. An iron contrivance, on the principle of ice tongs, for picking 
up shot. 

Shot Trough. Troughs of wood for conveying shot along the decks during an 
engagement, or from one pile to another on shore. 

Shot Wad. Junk placed in front of a shot to hold it in place in the bore of 
the gun. 

Shot Whip. A purchase used in hoisting or lowering shot. 

Shoulder Knot. (See Unifoem.) 

Shouliler Strap. (See Uniform.) 

Sick Bay. The compartment on board ship in which the sick are treated — the 
hospital of the ship. 

Sick Call. The drum and fife call sounded each morning on board a man-o'-war, 
notifying all sick men to report for examination to the surgeon in the sick bay. 

Sick Leave. A vacation granted upon a surgeon's certiiicate of disability. 

Sick List. The names of the sick, together with their respective ailments and con- 
dition, is sent daily to the captain by the surgeon. A duplicate list of the names, 
without details, is posted on the spar deck, and is called the binnacle list. 

Sick Mess. A mess for the sick members of the ciew, provided for wholly or in part 
by the surgeon from stores in his department. 

Sick Ticket. A document which accompanies a member of the crew when he is 
sent to the hospital, and which records his name, rate, disease, etc. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 385 

Side Boys. Boys who attend tlie gangway when ofBcers of rank enter upon or leave 
a vessel. The admiral and vice-admiral are entitled to eight side-bo vs; rear-admirals 
and commodores, six; captains and commanders, four; all oiRcers below the grade of 
commander are entitled to two side-boys. 
Side Tackles. (See Train Tackle.) 

Sigrht. A shape of metal placed on a small arm or cani.on in order to direct the fire 
of the same. 

Breech Sight. A sight fixed on the breech of a gun. This sight has marked on it 
various degrees of elevation with the corresponding distances attained by the shot. 

Front Sight. A small shape of metal on the upper surface of the gun between the 
trunnions. It is brought in line with the object, and the score in the breech sight, so 
that all three form one straight line. 

Beinforce Sight. A sight placed at, or close to the reinforce of the gun, so called in 
the old ordnance! 

Side Sights. Sights situated at the side of the gun on the rimbase or trunnion. 
Trunnion Sight. A side sight; a sight situated on the trunnion of a gun — 

Dispart Sight. A reinforce sight. 
Tangent Sight. A rear sight. 
Sight Bar. A part of the breech-sight. It is a small rod of metal which can be ele- 
vated and lowered, and on wliioh the different ranges are marked in yards and degrees. 
Sight. Cover. A metal cover, which is placed over the sight of a gun as a prptection 

when the piece is not in use. 
Sight Mass. The projection on a gun on which the sights are fixe<l. 
Sight Telescope. Gun sights provided with magnifying telescopes. 
Signals. A code of communication by means of certain signs. For communication 
between men-o'-war belonging to the same country a special code of signals is 
employed. The book containing these signals has lead covers, and when capture is 
imminent the volume is thrown overboard to prevent it from falling into the bands of 
the enemy. (See International Code; Storm Signals; Coston's Signals; 
Wig- Wag Signals.) 
Sigrnal Quartermasters. Quartermasters who have charge of the signal-locker 

and lights, and whose duty it is to signalize under the direction of an officer. 
Single-stick. A hickory sword employed in broad-sword exercise. 
Skids. As applied to naval ordnance iron beams arranged parallel to one another for 

guns to rest on. 
Sleeve Ornaments. (See UNiroRii.) » 

Sloop of War. Before the introduction of steam a sloop of ivar was smaller than a 
frigate, and carried from 18 to 32 guns; but as applied to steam, a vessel carrying 
guns on one deck, and rating larger than a gun-boat. i 

Slow Match. A loosely twisted wick saturated in lime-water and saltpetre. It will 

burn about six inches in an hour. 
Slnsh. (See Part I.) 

Small Arms. Bifies, revolvers, cutlasses and bayonets. 

Small Arm Men. Members of the crew specially trained in the use of small arras. 
Solid Shot. A perfectly solid projectile. 
Spirit Kation. The allowance of grog which previous to 1862 was served out 

daily to all hands on board U. S. vessels of war. 
Spike. A small steel rod used to close the vent of a muzzle-loading gun by dropping 
it into the same, thus rendering the piece useless. A rat-tail file about the size of the 
vent is furnished for spiking purposes. (See Spring Spike.) 
Splinters. Fragments of wood, iron, etc., broken off and scattered owing to a shot 

striking the vessel. 
Sl>linter Nettings. Mesh work arranged to retard the passage of splinters. 
Sponge. A contrivance for cleaning the bore of a gun. It may be composed of soft 
material or stiff bristles. A marine sponge is used for wiping out the chamber and 
brt-ech mechanism of modern guns. 

386 pattbkson's illustkated nautical dictionaey. 

Sponge Cap. A shape of canvas to fit over the head of a sponge when not 

in use. 
Sponge Cover. Sheepskin tacked over the head of a sponge. 
Sponge Handle. A wooden staff to which the sponge is attached. This staff may 

be in one piece or in sections like a fishing-rod. 
Sponge Head. The wooden head on the end of the sponge staff. 
Sponge Staff. (See Sponge Handle.) 
Sponson. A projection from the sliip's side in which guns are mounted to enable 

them to fire fore and aft. 
Sponson Platform. An extension of the gun deck on which the guns are mounted 

in the sponsons. 
Spring. A hawser led from the stern of the vessel to the cable by which the ship is 

riding. It is employed to bring the broadside of the vessel to bear on the enemy when 

Spring Searcher. A pronged tool of steel utilized for searching for orifices or 

cracks in the bore of a gun. 
Spring Spike. An instrument used for spiking a gun. It differs from the ordinary 

spike inasmuch as it is provided with a spring at its lower end to prevent its with- 
Spur. (See Maeinb Eams.) 
Squadron. A number of vessels of war detached from the main fleet. A squadron 

is larger than a division, and smaller than a fleet. 

Flying Squadron. A number of vessels of war cruising rapidly from place to 


White Squadron. A name applied to the collection of modern Q. S. men-o'-war 

first sent afloat, owing to their color. 
Staff Officers. Officers of the medical, pay, and engirieering corps, constructors, 

chaplains, civil engineers, secretaries, professors of mathematics, carpenters, and sail- 
Stand. A support for small arms. 

Stand of Ammunition. The complete charge and projectile. Also called a round of 


Stand of Arms. A rifle, including the bayonet and cartridge belt. 
Stand of Grape. A charge of grape shot. 
Station Bill. (See Paet I.) 
Steel-belted Cruiser. (See Belted Oeuisbr.) 
Steerage. The apartment in which the steerage ofiicers live. 
Steeraue Officers. Midshipmen, cadet midshipmen, mates, cadet engineers, and 

ensigns when they do not perform duty as regular watch officers. (See Mess.) 
Stei'n Chasers. Guns situated so as to. fire through the stern ports, or sharp on 

either quarter from the main deck. 
Store Ship. A government vessel employed in carrying stores of various kinds for 

the use of nien-o'-war. 
Storm Signals. (See Paet I.) 
Stripes. (See Unifokm.) 
Sub-calibre. When projectiles are smaller than the bore of the gun they are called 

sub-calibre projectiles, and are fired from the guns by the aid of contrivances which re- 
duce the diameter of the bore to the size of the projectile. 
Submarine Guu. A gun projecting shell from a point below the surface of the 

Submarine Projectiles. Explosive shell fired from submarine guns. 
Supernumeraries. Men in excess of the ship's complement, or extra members of 

a boat's or gun's crew. 
Surgeon. (See Medical Coeps.) 

Survey. An ordered examination of government stores. (See Medical Sitetet.) 
Suspend. To prohibit an officer from performing duty is to suspend him. 
Swivel Grlin. A small piece of ordnance turning on a pivot. 

Patterson's ihusteated nautical diotionaey. 387 


Tattoo. The drum-beat previous to 9 p.m., at which time two bells are struck and 
" pipe down " made. 

Terrorite. A new and powerful explosive, the component parts of which is eighty 
per cent, nitro-glycerine, the secret of its power being in the mode of purification of 
the nitro-glycerine. It is claimed for this eifplosive that it cannot be exploded by 
shock, requiring to be fired by detonation. (See Detonator.) 

Thl'ee Decker. A ship canning guns upon three gun decks, besides her spar decks. 

Time Fuze. A fuze so constructed as to permit the regulation of the number of sec- 
onds between the firing of the piece and the explosion of the projectile. 

Tonipion. 'I'lie wooden plug fitted into the muzzle of a gun for the exclusion of dust 
and water. 

Top_ S'wivel. A small piece of ordnance once used in the tops of men-o'-war, but 
which has since been succeeded by rapid-fire guns and Gratlings. 

Torpedo. In regard to our torpedo system, it is to be explained that the same is in 
a;n embryo state at the present time. The Government has purchased the right to use 
the Whitehead torpedo, and our new vessels are being constructed with a view to their 
use, and the Government is also engaged in experimenting with the systems of other 
inventors, notably the Howell. Torpedoes are divided into three classes : Mobile Tor- 
pedoes are of the Whitehead or Howell type, which possess their own motive power ; 
Auto-Mobile, or Controllable Torpedoes, in which the motive power is furnished by gases 
and their movements controlled by electricity ; Boat or Spar Torpedoes aracai-ried on 
the ends of spars projecting from the bows of steam launches, and exploded by elec- 
tricity from the boat, the idea being to push them below the water line of an enemy's 
vessel and explode them while in contact. There is also a kind of torpedo called Sub- 
Marine Mine, which rests on the bottom and is used to defend channels and entrances 
to harbors. Gun cotton is the explosive used in all naval torpedoes. 

Torpedo Soat. A small, swift vessel with little freeboard, designed for creeping 
upon an enemy's ship and exploding a torpedo against her side. 

Torpedo Ram. A small, fast boat designed for the double purpose of exploding a 
torpedo against an enemy's vessel and ramming her also. Such a vessel is the Alarm 
of our navy. 

Trail. The tongue of a howitzer carriage which rests on the ground. 

Trail Bar. A wooden bar by which the trail of a howitzer carnage is turned and 
the piece pointed. 

Trail Rope. A rope made fast to the trail of a howitzer carriage, and by means of 
which it is directed while in motion. 

Training Level. An instrument for ascertaining the elevation or depression of a 
gun, or for sighting the same. 

Training Pendulum. An instrument consisting of a level and pendulum, de- 
signed for pointing guns. 

Train Tackle. A tackle, one block of which is hooked to the rear of a broadside 
gun-cariia^e, the other block being hooked to an eye-bolt amidships. By this tackle 
the gun is run in, and is also prevented from running out while it is being loaded. The 
tackles which run a gun out are known as side tackles — old ordnance. 

Trajectory. The curve which a projectile describes after leaving the gun. 

Transfer. When oflicers and men are changed from one vessel to another they are 
said to be transferred. 

Transport. A vessel employed in carrying troops from one place to another. Tlie 
name is sometimes applied to vessels carrying cargoes of war material. 

Transporting Axles. Axles employed in moving from one part of the deck to 
another a gun which is mounted on a pivot carriage. 

Transporting Trucks. The wheels used in conniection with transporting axles. 

Troop Ship. A vessel used in carrying troops, horses, and field artillery. (See 

Truce. Suspended hostilities. When such suspension is desired, it is indicated by 

388 Patterson's illdsteated nautical dictionary. 

the display of a white flag, and the person approaching the enemy's lines carrying a 
flag of truce is always given safe conduct in going and returning. 

Trunnions. The two round projections on the sides of a piece of ordnance by which 
it rests npon the carriage and affords means of elevating and depressing the piece by 
its oscillations in the grooves on the upper edges of tlie checks of the carriage. 

Trunnion G-aug'e. An instrument by which the diameter of the trunnions is meas- 

Trunnion Ledge. The small shelf to the trunnion of a heavy piece of ordnance. 

Trunnion Level. The spirit level by which the trunnion ledge is placed in a 
horizontal position. • 

Trunnion Plate. The plate \yhich covers the upper part of the side-pieces and 
goes under the trunnion. 

Trunnion Ring. The ring upon a gun just forward of the trunnions — now obsolete. 

Trunnion Rule. The rule employed in measuring the distance from the base ring 
to the trunnions. 

Trunnion Square. Tlie instrument made use of in ascertaining whether or not 
the axis of trunnions is perpendicular to tlie axis of the bore. 

Tub. Under this head come division-tub, fire-tub, grog-tub, and match-tub. 

Division Tub. A large flat bucket for holding fresh water, and placed about decks 
during action. 

Fire Tub. A wooden tub containing water and fitted with a grating. In order to 
provide against explosion of the new charges by flre on account of possible sparks 
contained in the cartridge boxes, each empty one is placed inverted on the grating for 
a moment as it is passed below from the deck — old ordnance. 

Grog Tub. The tub in which the allowance of grog was contained, before the spirit 
ration was abolished, and from which it was served out to the crew. 
Match Tub. A bucket for containing slow-matches. 


Unarmorecl Cruiser. A vessel not provided with protective armor to hull and 
guns. This class of vessel is designed chiefly to prey upon an enemy's commerce, and 
is not considered as a regular fighting ship. 
XJnifoi'ni. The following particulars relate to the uniform worn by oflicers in the 
U. S. Navy : 

SLEEVE OKNAMENTS. The sleeve ornaments on the special full-dress coat of 
the admiral, vice-admiral, and rear admirals are as follows : 

Admiral: Three strips of gold embroidered white-oak leaves, the strips I inch wide 
and a half an inch apart. 

Vice-Admiral : Two strips of oak leaves, similarly placed. 

Bear-Admirals : One strip of 8-inch gold lace, IJ inches from the edge of the sleeve, 
with one strip of J-inch gold lace one-quarter of an inch above it. 

The ebgulae sleeve ornaments are : 

Admiral: One strip of 2-inch gold lace, with three strips of ^-inch gold lace, one- 
quarter of an inch apart. 

Yice-Admiral : One strip of 2-inch gold lace, with two strips of ^-inch lace above. 

Bear-Admirals : One strip of 2-inch gold lace, with one strip of ^-inoh lace above. 

Commodores : One strip of 2-inoh gold lace. 

Captains: Four strips of |-inch gold lace set one-quarter of an inch apart. 

Commanders : Three strips |-inch gold laoe, set one-quarter of an inch apart. 

Lieutenant- Commanders : Two strips of ^-inch gold lace with one strip of ^-inch gold 
laoe between, each a quarter of an inch apart. 

Lieutenants : Two strips of ^-inch gold lace, one-quarter of an inch apart. 

Lieutenants {junior grade) : One strip of ^-inch gold lace, with one strip of |-inch 
gold lace one-quarter of an inch above it. 

Ensigns : One strip of ^-inch gold lace. 


Naval Cadets who have completed the four years^ course at the Naval Academy: One 
strip of ;J-inch gold lace to be wound with dark blue silk at intervals of 2 inches, the 
width of tlie silk wrapping to be ^ inch. 

All staff officers except chaplains wear the same lace on the cuff as is prescribed for 
line officere with whom they have relative rank, with bands of colored cloth around 
the sleeve, between the strips of gold lace, as follows : 

Medical officers : Dark maroon velvet. 

Fay officers : White cloth. 

Engineer officers : Red cloth. 

Naval constructors : Dark violet cloth. 

Professors of mathematics : Olive green cloth. 

Civil engineers : Light blue velvet. 

All line officers (including mates, boatswains and gunners) wear a star of five rays, 
embroidered in gold, one inch in diameter, on the outer side of each sleeve. 

DEVICES. The following deviceM are worn on epanlets and shoulder-straps: 

Admiral: Four silver stars of five rays each, placed at equal distances, with a gold 
foul anchor li inches long under each of the outer stars. 

Vice-Admiral : Three similar stars, placed at equal distances, with a gold foul 
anchor li inches long under the central star. 

Mear-Admirals : Two similar stars, one near each end of the frog, with a silver foul 
anchor seven-eighths of an inch long in the centre. 

Commodores : One similar star, placed in the centre, with a silver foul anchor at 
each end of the frog. 

Captains : A silver spread eagle in the centre, with a silver foul anchor at each end 

Commanders : A silver oak leaf at each end, with a silver foul anchor in the centre. 

Lieutenant-Commanders : A gold oak leaf at each end, with a silver foul anchor in 
the centre. 

Lieutenants: Two silver bars at each end, with a silver foul anchor in the centre. 

Lieutenants, junior grade : One silver bar at each end, with a silver foul anchor in 
the centre. 

Ensigns : A silver foul anchor in the centre. 

Naval cadets who have completed the four years' course at the Naval Academy : A 
gold foul anchor in the centre of the pad of the shoulder knot. 

Staff officers wear on the frog of the epaulet and in the centre of shoulder strap the 
same rank devices as are prescribed for line officers with whom they have relative 
rank, substituting the proper corps device for the foul anchor. 

Corps Devices : The following corps-devices distinguish officers of one branch of 
the service from another : 

Medical corps : A spread oak leaf embroidered in dead gold, with an acorn em- 
broidered in silver upon it. 

Pay corps : A silver oak sprig. 

Engineer corps: Four silver oak leaves. 

Construction corps: A gold sprig of two live-oak leaves and an acorn. 

Professors: One silver oak leaf and an acorn. 

Civil engineers: The letters C ]£ in silver. 

Secretaries : The letter % in silver. 

Warrant Oeficer's Devices : These devices are worn on the frock and service 
coats of warrant officers and pay clerks. 

Boatswains : After twenty years' service as such, two foul anchors, crossed, em- 
broidered in silver. Under twenty year's service as such, two foul anchors, crossed, 

embroidered in gold. i • i i n i --i 

Gunners: After twenty years' service as such, a flaming spherical shell, embroidered 
in silver. Under twenty years' service as such, a flaming spherical shell, embroidered 

in gold. . 1, -J J 

Carpenters: After twenty years' service as such, a chevron, point down, embroidered 
in silver. Under twenty years' service as such, a chevron, point down, embroidered 
in gold. 

390 Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 

Sailmakers : After twenty years' service as such, a diamon<i, embroidered in silver. 
Under twenty years' service as sucli, a diamond, embroidered in gold. 

Mates : After twenty years' service as such, a binocular glass, with the axes at right 
angles to the edge of the collar, eye-pieces up, eml)roidered in silver. Under twenty 
years' service as such, a binocular glass placed as above, embroidered in gold. 
Pay[ clerks : The corps device of the Pay Corps, embroidered in gold. 
CAP ORUAMENTS : For all commissioned officers and naval cadets who have- 
completed the four years' course at the Naval Academy, the device is a silver shield, 
emblazoned paleways, of thirteen pieces, with a chief strewn with stars surmounted by 
a silver spread eagle, the whole being placed upon two crossed foul anchors embroid- 
ered in gold. 

For warrant officers, mates, and pay clerks, two gold foul anchors crossed. 
SWORD. The sword for all officers is a cut-and-tlirust blade, not less than ^6 nor 
more than 32 inches long; half-basket hilt; grip white; scabbards of black leather ; 
mountings of yellow gilt ; and all as per pattern. 

Chaplains wear the dress commonly worn by clergymen, consisting of a single- 
breasted coat, with standing collar, waistcoat, and trousers of black or dark navy-blue 
cloth, and black, low-crowned soft felt hat. 

PETTY OFFICERS' RATING BADGES. All petty officers wear on the outer 
garment a rating badge, consisting of a spread-eagle placed above a class clievron. 
(See Natt Pat Table for information concerning class.) In the interior angle of 
the chevron, under the eagle, the specialty mark of the wearer is placed. The badge 
is worn on the outer side of the right or left sleeve half way between the shoulder 
and elbow. Petty officers of the starboard watch wear the badge on the right arm,, 
those of the port watch on the left arm. On blue clothing the eagle and specialty mark 
are worked in white ; on white clothing in blue, and the chevron is always made of 
scarlet cloth, each stripe raised by padding. 

For petty officers, enlisted in their ratings by reason of holding three consecutive 
good conduct badges, the chevron is made of gold lace, instead of scarlet cloth. 
The chevron is, for — 

The master-at-arms : Three stripes and an arch of three stripes. 
Other petty officers, first class: Three stripes and a lozenge. 
Petty officers, second class : Three stripes. 
Petty officers, third class : 'I'wo stripes. 

The specialty marks are worked so as to be entirely included in a circle one inch in 

The specialty marks are as follows : 

Master-at-arms Ia* ■ .. j ^ 

Ship's corporal ]^ five-pointed star. 

Chief boatswain's mate "^ 

Boatswains' mates | 

Captains of tops )>Two crossed anchors. 

Captains of afterguard | 

Coxswains J 

Chief Quartermasters / oi • . i i 

Quartermasters \ ^'»P ^ ^^''^'el. 

Chief gunner's mates ~^ 

Gunner's mates i ,„ , 

Armorer f ^^^° ""^^'^'^ °a""0"- 

Quarter gunners J 

Seaman gunner Flaming spherical shell. 

Captahi ofhold. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.V.'.'.'.'.'.]^'^'' '"■"'"•''^ ^«y«- 

Aoothecarv \ ®'*^ surmounted with wings, and two 

" ) intertwining snakes about staff. 

Ship's writer Two crossed pens. 

Schoolmaster ) ^ . , 

Printer j Open book. 


Bandmaster » _ 

Chief musician ] ^y^'^- 

Ship's cook Disc with hole in center. 

Machinists ^ 

Boilermakers I „ „ , , 

Water-tenders ( Propeller wheel. 

Oilers J 

Carpenter's mate ) „ , , 

Painter ( Crossed broad-axes. 

Blacksmith Two crossed mauls. 

Sailmaker's mate Cringle. 

Apprentice mark Figure eight knot. 

Pettt Officers' and Seamen's Class Maeks. Petti/ officers of the second and 
third classes, enlisted men of the seaman first, second, and third classes, except bands- 
men, wear around the collar of the overshirt and white jumper three stripes of white tape 
three-sixteenths of an inch wide and three-sixteenths of an inch apart, the outpr stripe 
one-quarter of an inch from the edge, the stripes extend down in front to bottom of 
opening. In each corner of the collar there is worked, in white, a star three-quarters 
of an inch in diameter. 

Petty officers of the second and third classes and enlisted men of the seaman first 
class, except bandsman, wear around the cuffs of the overshirt and white jumper three 
stripes of white tape three-sixteenths of an inch wide, one-quarter of an inch apart, the 
middle of the middle stripe to be in the centre line of the cuff. 

Enlisted men of the seaman second class, except bandsmen, wear around the cuffs of 
the overshirt and white jumper two stripes of white tape tlu-ee-sixteenths of an inch 
wide, one-quarter of an inch apart, the middle line of the space between the stripes 
come over the middle of the cuff. 

Enlisted men of the seaman third class wear around the cufts of the overshirt and 
white jumper one stripe of white tape three-sixteenths of an inch wide, placed over the 
middle line of the cuff. 

The appkentice maek, worked in white on blue clothes and in blue on white 
clothes, is worn by all enlisted men who belong to, or have passed through, the ratings 
of apprentice in the navy. On the overshirt and jumper it is worn on the breast, two 
inches below the neck-opening. On coats of all descriptions it is worn on the outside of 
the same sleeve as the rating-badge, half way between the elbow and wrist. 

The watch-mark: is worn by all enlisted men except petty officers and messmen. 

It consists of a strip of tape three-eighths of an inch wide, white on blue shirts and 
blue on white shirts ; placed on the shoulder seam of the sleeve, and extending entirely 
around the arm. For 1st and 2d class firemen and coal-heavers, the tape is red on 
both blue and white shirts, and of the same width and disposition as above. The men 
of the starboard watch wear the mark on the right sleeve ; those of the port watch 
wear it on the left sleeve. (See Navy Pay Table for information concerning class.) 


Velocity. Swiftness; rapidity; rate of motion. 

Equal Velocity. (See 'Final Velocity.) 

Final Velocity. Applied to a body when it passes over equal spaces in equal times 
— also known as Equal Velocity and Uniform Velocity. 

Initial Velocity. The velocity with which a projectile issues from the mouth of a 
cannon. This is also known as Muisele Velocity. 

Muzzle Velocity. (See Initial Velocity.) 

Remaining Velocity. The velocity of a projectile at any point between the mouth 
of the cannon and the point of striking. 

Striking Velocity. (See Terminal Velocity.) 

392 Patterson's illusteated nautical dictionary. 

Terminal Velocity. The velocity of the projectile at the point of striking. This is 

generally known as striking velocity. 

Uniform Velocity. (See Final Velocity.) 
Vent. The small hole in the after part of a muzzle-loading cannon, through whicli 

fire is communicated to the charge. In a breech-loading gun it is the hole passing 

through the stem of the mushroom which passes through the breech plug to the rear 

of the charge. 
Vent Drill. An instrument for clearing the vent when obstructed with caked 

powder, or fragment of metal from a primer. 
Vent Plugr. A stopper of leather for closing the vent of a gun when it is not in use. 
Vessels of the U. S. Navy. All the vessels of the U. S. Navy, together 

with those building for the same, are to be found in a table under the heading of 

" List of Vessels of the U. S. Navy." 
Vice-Admiral. An officer next higher than a rear-admiral, and next lower than an 

admiral. (See Admiral.) 
Volley. The simultaneous discharge of a number of small fire-arms, such as muskets 


TVad. A mass of oakum or other loose substance, rammed into a gun after the pro- 
jectile has been inserted, so as to keep the latter pressed against the charge. 
Grommet Wads. Rough grommets of rope. 
Junlc Wads. Junk laid up in a coil. 
Selvagee Wads. Rope yarn marled together to form a strop. 

Wardroom. The apartment in which the higher commissioned officers live. (See Mess.) 

Wardroom Country. The space contained between the staterooms in the ward- 
room. In this space is placed the wardroom dining-table. 

Wardroom Offlcers. (See Mess.) i 

Warrant Officer. An officer warranted by the President of the United States. 
Warrant officers in the D. S. Navy are : gunner, boatswain, carpenter, and sailmaker, 
and are promoted from seamen and carpenters-mates in the service, or, in the two latter 
cases they may be appointed from ship carpenters and sailmakeis in civil life. 

Watch Bill. (See Paet I.) 

Watch Grlin. A gun once fired in the service at S p.m., when the first anchor watch 
was set. 

Watch Officer. A line officer generally below the rank of lieutenant-commander 
who, while on duty, is the authorized representative of the commanding officer, and is 
subject only to his authority. While on duty a watch officer is known as the officer of 
the deck. (See Officee op the Dkck.) 

Water Cap. A screw plug in a time fuze which prevents the water from extinguish- 
ing the latter. 

Water Shell. A hollow projectile filled with water, and which contains an 
explosive charge of gun cotton in a cylinder which is surrounded by the water. 

Water Tenders. Petty officers of the second class, belonging to the Engineer's 
Department, whose duty it is to observe the height of water in the boilers and keep the 
engineer on watch advised as to same. 

White Squadron. (See Squadeon.) 

Wig Wag. A system of signaling all the letters of the alphabet by waving a flag 
in the daytime and a lantern at night. By these means messages may be communi- 
cated from ship to ship or between a ship and the shore. 

Windage. The difference between the diameter of a projectile and that of the bore 
of the cannon. 


Yeoman. (See Engineees, Equipment, Paymastees, and Ship's Yeoman.) 




Three Styles, all of Equal Quality. 

"BRUT"— A Grand Wine, Exceedingly Dry. 

"GRAND VIN SEC "-The Perfection of a Dry Wine. 

"CARTE BLANCHE"-A Magnificent Rich Wine. 

To be found at all the Leading Clubs, Hotels and Restaurants. 


Ofdefs Solicited ft»ot» the Tfade by the Agents. 


58 BROAD St., New York. 



#5HN OSBORN, S0N.& Co, 



Also Sole Agents in the United States for 


Meaan. S^BODER & SCBlriiER & CO., Bordeaux, . CLAHBTS & SAUTERNXSS 


" ^ 08B0RK & CO., Oporto FORTS 


MANUEL GAZTELU e YRIARTfi, Port St Mary, ... do, 



RIP VSMT WINm.E, Schiedam, ■. . . . GIN 




Sol#= PJ^oprietors "Omnibus" and "ANTEDILUVIAN" Pure 

^ Rye Whiskeys. 

HEW V01?K «^^ fttOHTf^Eflli. 

pattebsgn's illustrated nautical dictionakt. 



pattebson's illtjstbated nautical dictionakt. 



Fof Yachts, Launches, Pilot Boats, Naval Vessels, Etc. 





Plumbers, Steam Fitters and Coppersmiths, 







TiHM numMng a Specialty. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

i;attekson 8 illustrated nautical dictionaey. 




Complete Outfits for Sail Vessels arid 6arg«si'Steam Towing -Machines, Bargi Winches, Wharf Drops, Gypsey Windlasses, E(c. 

The " Prov dence' Patent Pump Brake W ndlass— New Style. The " Providence" Patent Single Barrel Steam-Capttlin, 

pl^HTlI^ S. mRflTOfi, figent. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. p^ Q_ BOX 53 

PATTEESON's illustrated nautical DICTIONAEY. 

"Providence" Naval Steam Capstan Windlass. 

THE AMERICAN SHIP WINDLASS CO. have furnished windlasses 
to the U. S. Naval vessels, built by the Delaware River Iron Ship 
Building and Engine Works, as follows: Dolphin, Boston, Atlanta, 
Chicago, Bennington and Concord. 

Wm. Cramp & Sons Co., the following vessels: Vesuvius, Yorktown, 
-Baltimore, Philadelphia, Newark, New York, and are building the windlasses 
for Cruisers Nos. 12 and 13, and Battle Ships Nos. i and 2. 

Columbian Iron Works and Dry Dock Co., as follows: Petrel, 
and Cruisers Nos. 9 and 10, now building. 

N. F. Palmer, Jr., & Co., Maine, now building. 

Sam'l L. Moore & Sons Co., Practice Cruiser, now building. 

Navy Department : Raleigh, Cincinnati, Texas and Monadnock. 

In addition to above-named vessels we are furnishing windlasses for the 
Light Ships building by F. W. Wheeler & Co., and the Union Iron 
Works, also the Lighthouse Tenders Columbia and Lilac, building by the 
Glo3e Iron Works Co. 

This Company is furnishing NINETY-FIVE per cent, of all the steam wind- 
lasses used in this country. It will be almost inipossible to find anything but 
our windlasses on the steamships built during the last twenty years. 

ss:isri3 s'O-R ixiI:iTJSTiia.te3i> Cjft.TA.ii.oa-TTE:. 


p. O Box S3, 



-^ USE ■.¥- 

Pratt & Lambert's 

Testimonial from Captain W. G. Shackford, of Mr. Jay Gould's Steam Yacht "Atalanta/' 

Steam Yacht "Atalanta," 
To Messrs, Pratt & Lambert, Erie Basin, N. Y., March 17, 1891. 

New York, 
Gentlemen:—! have used your SPAR FINISHING VARNISH on the Steam 
Yacht "Atalanta,'' and on the Pacific Mail Steamship *' Newport/' with excellent resuks. 
The No. 47 YACHT BLACK for outside work stands the weather admirably, and 
retains its gloss after long exposure. Very truly, 




We commend this to the painturs and the public in general 
who have long felt the need of a first-class Outside Varnish 
that would notcraeky turn white-, craiui, pit or bloofu. Our 
Spar is faultless, has a high gloss, and works freely under the 
brush. It is not affected by salt or fresh water. For all ex- 
posed worfc, like, front doors, bath-rooms, shingles, blinds, 
store fronts, hard and soft woods, it has ho equal. 


This Varnish is very similar to our spar finishing varnish, 
only made to dry quicker, and not so light in color. A very 
desirable varnish for inside work where it has not an extreme 
exposure. It is highly recommended for kitchens, bath-rooms, 
floors, grained work or natural woods, &c. Can be rubbed 
or polished. 


Made on similar principles to our No. 38 Preservative 
Varnish, but dries quicker and is lower in price, has a fine 
gloss and dries hard over night, A very durable varnish for 
all interior work ; can be rubbed and polished, will not spot 
or stain. It dries a Kttle slower than hard-oil finish, and is far 
superior to any made. 


This is a very superior Black Varnish for all exterior iron or 
wood work. Has a high gloss, and will not perish, turn 
white, or blister when expus^ to sun, fresh or salt water. Is 
a reliable article for painting outside work on vessels or yachts. 


An excellent filler for all close fiber woods. Is transparent 
when applied, and does not need to be rubbed off, alUiough 
when fine finish is desired it can be sand-papered with fine 
sand paper. Apply with a brtish, and when perfectly dry ap- 
ply varnish. 


A deep black for covering smoke-stacks or any iron work 
connected with boilers and engines where there is intense 
heat. It has a very superior black gloss which does not burn 
off. Not desirable for dwelling-houses. 


Our stams are made with pure turpentine and oil, have 
good bod,y and large covering capacity, are nearly equal to a 
coat of varnish, will not fade or raise the grain of the wood. 


Our goods are used by the REVENUE MARINE, and masters reports of the excellent 

satisfaction our Varnishes have given can be seen by any one 

interested, at the Revenue Marine Offices. 


47 Jolin and 5 Dutch Streets, 

P. O. Box 2970. New York City, N. Y. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionaby 


Fregident. Treasurer and Secretary. 

Manufacturer and Supt. 









NOS. 1 AND 2. 

"SPAR <©> <s> 

— FOR— 

Fresenring and Finishing 

Wood of all kind! In 

their Natural Color 

and Beanty. 

None genuine unless bearing my name stamped on each can and 
patented trade mark on labels. 

Respectfully yours, 


Put up in Barrels, S, 2, 1, }4, li, and }i Gallon Cans. 

84 William Street, New York. 


- ttsde: oovij-jr - 


Emil Caiman & Co., -^S^^ newyork 

J?eaJ what some of the principal boat and ship builders say of our Spar Varnishes : 
Eiviit Calman & Co., 209 Pearl St., New York. _ Bjristol, R. I., April o, 18^0. - 

Gentlemen : — We have given youi Elastic Spar Varnish a thbrough trial, and some very severe tests, and it has given 
us satisfaction on all work we have put it on. 

Among the boats we have used it upon we may mention the steam yachts ''Augusta," '^Daisy " and *' Judy," also the 
U. S. Torpedo Koat No. 1, " Cushlhg," 

We are very much pleased with it, and shall continue to use it. Respectfully, HERRESHOFF M'F'G CO. Y. 
Messrs. Emil Calman & Co., New York. 

Gentlemen : — We have used your Elastic Spar Varnish upon our boat-work the past season, and find that it retains its 
lustre longer and wears better than any other Varnish we have ever used. It does not blister nor turn white, and salt water 
does not affect it. We are highly pleased with, and shall continue to use your goods. We remain, 

South Boston, October 12, 1887. Respectfully yours, GEO. LAWLEV & SON. 

Messrs. Emil Calman & Co. , 

Gentlemen: — It gives me pleasure to state that your Spar Varnish was used on "Volunteer,'' "Mayflower." 
" Gundred '' and other boats of my design, and has given much satisfaction. Yours truly, 

22 Congress Street, Boston, March i, 1888. EDWARD BURGESS. 

Messrs. Emil Calman & Co., New York City. ■ Detroit, Mich., October 31, 1890. 

Gentlemen: — We have given your Spar Varnish a thorough trial, and have found it to be all that you claim for it. It 
has a good body, dries quick, and does not turn white. We shall continue to use it, and recommend it to the trade as the best 
varnish made. Yours truly, DETROIT BOAT-WORKS. 

Per Fred. A. Balltn, Manager. 
Emil Calman & Co., New York City. Boston, Mass., October 23, 1890. 

Gentlemen: — We have used your Varnishes for a number of years, and 6nd them to be the only Varnishes that will 
stand the sun and water of the different countries to which we ship our goods. Your Varnishes are unexcelled for the purposes 
named, viz.. Interior and Exterior. It will not crack nor blister, and will also defy ice and snow. Wishing you contmued 
success, we are, Truly yours, H. V. PARTELOW & CO. 

Messrs. Emil Calman & Co. Boston, March 13, 1891. 

Gentlemen : — We have used your Varnish on our work, and find that it gives satisfaction in every way. 

Yours respectfully, O. SHELDON & CO. 

Messrs. Emil Calman & Co. Boston, March s, 1891. 

Gentlemen: — We have used your Elastic Spar Varnish on all our yacht-blocks for the past three years. We find it 
gives us tlie best results of any Varnish we have ever used on our special class of fine work, which must be impervious to salt 
water, and will stand the elements of the weather, and shall continue to use the same. 

Yours respectful^, BOSTON & LOCKPORT BLOCK CO. 





Agent for sale of U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Charts and Publications. 

34r IVew St. and 3S Broad. St., ]Ve-w ^STorb:. 



53 South Street, NEW YORK. 


Am. £nsigns, 

Flag Poles, 

U. S. Jacks, 


Flag Pole Brackets, 

U. S. Peanants, 


Tents, ^ 

Code Signals, 



Private Signals, 


YacM Sails, 


' ^^^ 

Sand Bags, 

Honse Flags. 


Cotton Duck. 








The Hazard Mfg. Co, 

aX.A.irXJF.A.Oa?T73ECE:X«.S OF 


'v. dm 

^" "li^XsT£EL 


Galvanized Thimbles, 

Hooks, Hanks, 
— — — ^ Seizing Stuff, Etc. 



Galvanized Crucible Steel Rigging for Yachts a Specialty. 







Ch&teaa de Mareuil-sur-Ay, Marne, ^France. 

Branch Office! 127 BROAD ST., SEW TOEK. 
LKON RENAULT, - - Manager. 



Pta. Half FM. 

«3S.OO tatoo 


K B. — Our Cremani '' Brut " is of tile famou Vintage of 1884, and as fine a ohampaKna as 
ever was prodnced; it does not contain any sweetening or brandj whatever. 

Extra Dry $30,110 

Crdmant "Brut" 31,50 




Flags, Banners, Lanterns, 



'^uunfvictnxtvB and '^xpovUxSf 

207 Pearl Street, - - - New York. 


Paints, Oils and Varnishes. Pnre Prepared Paints. 


DO YOU KNOW that the cost to you of ordinary Spar Varnish 
is from $3.50 to $3.75 per gallon? 

The cost of the L. & M. SPAR VARNISH in one gallon cans is 
$2.75. This effects a saving of 75 cts. to $1.00 on every gallon. 

The L. & M. SPAR VARNISH is eminently adapted for all 
-faEposed wood-work requiring an extra durable varnish coating and 
especially for spars. 

Its use will save the cost of labor and varnish several times. 

Is it not worth your while to order a gallon of L. & M. that you 
may try it ? 

We guarantee quality; better cannot be made. 



207 Pearl St., New York, U.S.A. 

pattkeson's illustrated nautical dictionaey. 



Steam Yachts and Launches. 





SS & S4 ]VEW ST., (Boom 30.) TVEAV "YOU-K:. 


William Gregory, 

(Surviving Partner of tlie Firm of James Gregory.) 




Cannon, Force Pumps, Side and Deck Lights 




ei^flSS, fil^OflZE RJiD CO^WPOSITIOlSt CflSTH>lOS. 

214 Front St., ^earbeekman, new York. 


Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 


A Catalogue containing particulars of the Com- 
position, and Testimonials from STEAMSHIP 
AGENTS, YACHTMEN and others, will be mailed 
upon request. 



pattbrson's illustrated nactical dictionary. 


Have the Largest and Finest Line of 


In the United States. 

agents for 

U.S. Coast Survey 


HydrograpMc * 
* * Charts. 


eiven to the Outfits of YACHTS 


Adjusters of * 
* * Compasses 


Iron Vessels. 


Send for lUnstrated Catalogue. 


W N. B. — Trade Orders receive our Best Attention. .Mi 

Patterson's ilLusteatki) UATTTtcAt dictionaey. 





Are Preferred by the conscientious Musical instructors and Muslclansi Are tlie FAVORITES of the Music Loving Public. 
The "North American Keview" says of the Celebrated Sohmer Pianos. 

"No one can fail to notice in them every good quality which one is entitled to expect from a good instrument; nobility, 
elasticity and utmost clearness of tone, andjan extent of power which neVer fails, added to which a perfect evenness of touch 
renders them as near perfection as has been thus far attained. Their touch unites with absolute precision a delicacy and pli- 
abili^, and a most happy responsive quality not found in the instruments of any other maker. 

"While the present firm of Sohmer & Co. was founded in 187a, its existence really extends further back than i860. Its au- 
thor and head, Mr. Hugo Sohmer, is a native of the Black Forest, in Germany, coming of a good family in comfortable circum- 
stances, and was given a most finished scientific and literary education, at the same time acquiring a thorough knowledge of 
Music and the Pianoforte^ At sixteen years of age he arrived in New Vork, and was apprenticed to piano-makij»g in the fac- 
tory of Schuetze & Ludolph. Thoroughly learning his trade with this firm, he returned to Europe in 1868, and traveled in the 
various capitals, studying piano-making critically and scientifically from eveiy possible standpoint. In 1870 he returned to 
New York, and in 1872 commenced embodying m practical form the ideas which his training and travel had brought.^ His 
partner was Mr. Joseph Kuder, who still continues in the firm — a piano-maker who studied the art and trade thoroughly in the 
Vienna Shops, and added considerable experience gained in the shops of prominent makers. At present the firm consists, in 
addition to Messrs. Sohmer & Kuder, of Messrs. Charles Fahr and George Reichmann, each member of the firm being in 
charee of a spedal department, to which he devotes his entire energies. The concern' now has, in addition to its extensive 
warehouse on Fourteenth Street and Third Avenue, a new factory at Astoria, which is the most magnificent and complete es- 
tablishment in the country, and the advent of which has done much for Long Island in inducing her manufacturers to establish 
themselves there. 

Even with the present average production of the firm, which is at the high figure of forty Pianos per week, it is yet in- 
sufficient to supply the extensive demand, the firm being to-day largely in arrears of its orders. 

A widely-spread constituency demanding these celebrated instiuments, they may be had not only at the principal ware- 
rooms, 140 to 15s East Fourteenth Street, New York, but at Montreal, Canada; 236 State Street, Chicago; Union Club Build- 
ing, San Francisco; 1522 Oliver Street^ St. Louis, Mo. ; 1123 Main Street, Kansas City; as also of local dealers throughout 
the country. The laurels of the firm of Sohmer & Co. have been justly earned and cheerfully bestowed." 

s o ub: AC £3 z^ tus 00., 

fFarerooms: 149, 151, 153, 155 East Fourteenth Street, New Yo^h, 










- -" -<2l^flfesS 



Manufactured by J". W OFELDT. the only Inventor of Naphtha systems for Launches. Automatic fuel 
mpplT. So atomizine or expansion of fnel, no odor, no danger. Con be handled by any one after an hour's in- 
stfucHon. SIMPLEST, and HOST POWEEFTTL MOTORS yet devised, and most eoonoinical to run. Send four 
cents in stamps for ratalogne, containing all particulars and price list. ^ ^^„„ „^„ „„ „„„ 



EX^lLiIS It. MIEEICER, G-eneval Agrent. 




Brinckerhoff, Turner & Co. 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in 

"Polhemu«," "Ontario," "Woodbeny," " Druid Mills," and other-favorite Brands, all numbers— Hard 
Medium and Soft. 


" Bear " 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 ounces, 39 inches wide. Twills, Drilling and 40-iiich " Montana " Duck. 
8, 9, 10, 13 and 15 ounce Duck, " ONTABIO " and " WOODBEERY," 



COTTON SAIL TWINE, 3 to 14 Fold. 

%:iiA "U- 8. STANDARD," "ENGLISH," "EAaLE," and "ANCHOR," by the CASE or LESS QUANTITY. 


109 OXJANE STREET, KTew^ York. 

Telephone Calc: 154., South. 


% • CliaqdIei'iJ ^ and ^ fwMn, 

^^^^ PAINTS AND OILS, s;^^^ 

Hlso, plags made to Ofdef. 

722 THIRD AVENUE, Head Tebo's Pier, 

SOXTTHC BH.OOiKiX.'Srisr, ]sr. -ST. 

pattekson's illdsteatbd nautical dictionary. 




BOAT . ■ ■ 
WORKS ■ ■ 

159 South St., 




patteksOn's illustbated nautical dictionaey. 


116- & 117 SOUTH ST., NEW YORK. 

^aGpng, Marine, Canoigii # pporting IJoodg. 

^ ^ . — . 





e: XO E LS I O it 


Lighthouse Brands of Oiled Clothing. 








The Celebrated WATERPROOF Gape Ann Boots and Slippers made of selected 
stock from Milwaukee Grain Leather. 


[see opposite pace.] 



116 & 117 SOUTH Sr., 



International Rubber' Clothing Co. 

Our Large and Varied Assortment will enable us to meet any demand for Waterproof or 

Heavy Goods, such as used by the 



We use the Ground Floor of our six-story building as a Retail Department, where 
the above advertised goods may be purchased by the individual 
consumer at the closest figures. 


[see OPPOSITE PAae-) 











293 «& 297 Fourth Avenue, New York. 

ST. PAUL, MINN., ) RRAiupucc S 

75 East Third Street. \ BRANOHES. \ 

S. E. eor. 23d St. 

42 Fourth Street. S. 


116 dt 118 Cherry St., Cor. Catharine St., 






fiats, Shoes, Ktc, 








































Direct Connected Electric Blowers for Ship Ventilation. 


Patterson's illustrated natttjcal dictionary. 


$5 to, $20, 

And of a Suitable Size for 





''["HE Groups will be 
Delivered Free 
OF Expense to the Pur- 
chaser at any Railroad 
Station, upon receipt of 
the Catalogue Price. 

An Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue can be had on application, or will be mailed 

upon enclosing TEN CENTS TO 

14 West 12th Street, 




Hide and Seek (Boy) $30 00 

Hide and Seek (Girl) 30 00 

Pedestals for Hide and Seek, 

eaph ID 00 

The mlcony 20 00 

John Alden and Priscilla 20 00 

The Wrestlers 20 00 

Othello 20 00 

Faust and Marguerite, their first 

meeting 10 00 

Marguerite and Martha, trying 

on the jewels ; - . ro 00 

Henry WardBcecher 12 00 

The First Ride :;... 12 00 

The Elder's Daughter 12 00 

Fighting Bob 12 00 

The Referee...;.. 12 00 

Faust and 


Shylock $20 00 

The Council of. War 20 00 

Chess 15 00 

Politics 15 00 

The Fugitive's Story 15 00 

King Lear 15 00 

A FroUc at the Old Homestead- . 15 "o 

Romeo and Juliet 15 qo 

' The T*P on fhe Window 12 00 

The School Examination 12 00 

Football 10 00 

One More Shot 10 06 

The Wounded Scout. ;.:..,.;.-. 10 00 

The Charity Patient :,.'.,.. 10 00 

Rip Van Winkle at Home 10 00 

Rip Van Wii kle on the Moun- 
tain.^ 10 00 

Marguerite Leaving the Garden 

A Matter of Opinion $15 00 

Neighboring Pews 1 5 co 

The Favored Scholar 15 co 

Taking the Oath: 1500 

Checkers up at the Farm 15 00 

Weighing the Baby ; 15 00 

The Travelmg Magician 15 00 

Coming to the Parson 15 00 

Rip Van Winkle Returned 10 00 

School Days 10 00 

Going for the Cows 10 00 

Fetching the Doctor 10 00 

We Boys :.., 1000 

The Shkughraun and " Tatters" 8 00 
Phrenology at the Fancy Ball. . . 5 00 
Also various designs of Ebony 

P«de>tBls $S to x8 00 

A.dJU8tex<s of IKON SIIXI»S' COltfl'Ah^SES. 




128 Front Street, 



— AND- 


49- Send for Illustrated Catalogue of Glasses.'Ed 

Sole Agents in the United States for Sir 




Some of the STEAMSHIP 
lines who are using 


Wave Ouellin; Oil 

tTatiosal Liu ol Steimshlps, 
Wttd's Line, Clyde's Line, 

tTethstl'dg Amotioan Stem H.Oo. , 
Bed Z) Use, riorio Llse, 
Korean's Line, Anchor Line, 

Uediterrasean Jt H. 7. S. S. Co., 

And by United States 
Naval Vessels. 



are the sole proprietors of 
the famous brands: 

Eelden's Fyenoteum, 
Beldes's Valvone, 
Belden's UoBareh, 

Engine and 

Machine Oil. 

These oils are Without a rival, having great body and being guaranteed to work perfectly clean | and their unequalled Fire 
Test and viscosity renders them the most economical and perfect lubricators. Poor oil is very costly when you consider the 
damage which might arise from using an inferior article. 

Owing to the immense popularity of these oils in foreign ports, we have established agencies where our special brands can 
be procured at the following places: Iiondon, Bngrlaud; JLiverpooI, Rngland; Glasgow, Scotland ; Paris and 
Belnis, France; Hambarg and Bremen, Germany; Cardiff, Wales; Buenos Ayres, Sontb America, 
and Blelbourne, Australia. 


Mineral, Sperm 
English Colza 



1'. Lard Oil 

— AND — 



A. Gr. BALDEN & CO., Sole Manufacturers, 



Patterson's illustbated nautical dictionasy. 














Length required up to 3,500 feet. 


Maillilai Rope, 3, * or e strands, lor Trans- 
mitting Power. 
(We will be pleased to forward Samples of same.) 


Office Tfp Stofe, 113 Wall St., and 56 South St., fietm Vofk, 

p. O. BOX 1737. 





O. C. & K. R. WILSON, 

Spm Cotton, Wire Rope, Blocks and Sheaves 


89 West Street, - - NEW YORK. 



■ I 


Mechanics' and Engifeeers' Poclfet-Book of Tables, Rvjles, and Formulas pertaining to Mechanics, 
Mathematics, -and Physics, with -Areas, Squar*, Cubes, and Roots, etc. ; Logarithms, Steam and 
the Steam-Engine, Naval Architecture (including Displacement of Vessels, Cables, Chains, Anchor, 
etc., etc.); Masonry, Steam and the Steara-Engine, Steam Vessfels, Mills, etc. ; Limes, Mortars, 
Cements, etc. ; Orthography of Technical Words and Terms, etc., etc. Fifty-sixth Edition, Re- 
siseiand£nlacged. -ByCHAS. HrllASWSu,,.Ci¥il, Marine and Mechanical Engineer, Member 
of Am, Soc. of Civil £ngiDe^s,>aD4- Academy of Sciences, New York; Institutions of Civil En- 
giaeers and of Naval Architects, Enghmd,. etc., etc. Pages xxvi., 940. i2mo. Leather, Pocket- 
Book Form, $4.00, 

(Eji^rmtqfa leUerfnmt the late Captain Ericssok.),. 
Vety flew professional men combine such a perfect pig^^isal 
and theoKt^ knowledse as Mr. Haswdl. In »U miners 
«faring 1^ «r|ichanical Engineering Mt.Basa^l's jenojipedge 
-fluid ex^i^eD'ce is not surpassed by that of stny engineer' in 
the Uniled Stales. Yours very truly, 

' ' . J- KltICS.SON._ 

Certainly no book in the guise of a e'i»&->xa:»m'HS6 air- 
dyed at such popularity i>C;the tailed States as "HSK**!}." 
Ton will find it ip the luUkb^r-cutteii's cabin in Maine.'ili tf-e 
miner's shanty m Nevada, and on the work-l>e(lfh~of the 
meiihahic in all parts of tbe ^^tiy. It may be consulted for 
almost aoything having to ^^wat^ the science of'numhp^or- 
the strength of material, i^tt^ther it be of wood, metal, oj" 
- stone, squares, cubes, rootSj.-'^^s and cosines, motions or 

bodies, equivalents of heat, properties of light, evaporating 
powers, differences of fuel, varnishes, alloys, or the efficacy 
of steam-engines. The laws it presents are not eniptrical, but 
are the po^tive solutions derived from the most reliable 
«ources.^i^^* Yerk Times. 

There is no. other work of this character which can com- 
pare with it in the amount of detailed information on the sub- 
jects of which it treats. — American Metal Market. 

It has been thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged, and, 
if possible, made still worthier of the ct^dence of mechanics 
ahd engineers. — N. Y. youtnal iff Commerce. 

There are few works b^ter Icnown to mechanics and en- 
j^deers than HasweIVs "Pocket-Book." To all such, in fact, 
it'is indispensable. It is one of those books whosesucc'esshas 
kept pace with its merits. — A^ Y. Herald. 


By Sir EdWard J. RKE,p, M.P,, Late Chief Constractor of the British Navy, and Edward Simpson, 
Rear-Admiral'U.S;N„ I^te President U.S. Kaval Advisory Board. With Supplementary Chapters 
and Notes hy:j. D. Je^rold Kellev, Lieiitenant U.S.N. , Author of '*The Question of Ships," 
" Armored Vessels," etc. Beautifully Illustrated. Pages x., 284. Square 8vo, Cloth, $2.50, 

This very faandsbinc illusorated yolumfr ptesents in a j^&c^ 
manent and valuable^ stiape fior the library the able series of 
articles which were jirrintea in Harper* s Magazine ^ and written 
by Sir Ediyard J. Reed, M.P., late chief- eonstractor of the 
British Navy, and Edward Simpson, Rear-Admiral U.S.N., 
late president U.S. Naval Advisory Board. The admirable 
work of these gen£tem«n,.vih^^^»^ in a fluent and intelligible 
nianner and without inveivecl technical phraseology, has been 
capitally supplemented by J;. D.. Jerrold Kelley, Lieutenant 
U.S.Ni, and already a welt-known writer qh ships andiatmored 
vessels, who has added chapters and notes which make the 
book a complete account of all ^e navies of the .wen-Id and 
their armaments up to date. Tbej:ontents of the book have, 
- naturally, a special bearing on thet^peeds of the United States; 
but they form a compendium orSi^rmation and a source of 
pliKaEarable reading concerning' ievery thing that is known of 
naval equipment. The pages are brge and the illustrations 
very fine. — N. Y. Mail and Eitfr^ss. - p.., - 

The articles in this volume, as a general thing, have been 
published in Harper^s Magazinty and will prove to be very 
valuable and instructive, in view of the vast changes that have 
taken place in naval science during the last thirty years. 
Those who were ignorant of the fact wiU learn in this volume 
the vast inferiority of our navy as compared with that of some 
of the great powers of Europe. Rear- Admiral Simpson, in 
the article on the United States Navy, says that " the condi- 
tion of the navy of the Umted States is not such as any citizen 
of the country would desire. Pride in their navy v^u one of 
the curliest sentiments that inspired the hearts of the people 
when the United States took their place as a nation* and the 
memory of its deeds has not faded during the subsequent 
years of the country's aggrandizement." The appendices 
contain, articles on "S.ubmarine War&re," "Torpedoes," 
"A Naval Reserve." "Forced Draft," "The Question of 
Types," and "Range of Guns." The work is prQfiasely 
illustrated. — Phthdelphia Inquirer, 


HARPER'S HALF HOJJR SERIES., 32mo, paper or flexible cloth binding. Containing, in neat 
and portable form (about 4f x 3I iiiches), the best works in the departments of History, Bio- 
graphy, the Drama,. Literature, Travel, Fittion,%X.c., etc., and ranging in price from 30 to 40 cents 
per volume. Full list of the vplumes contained in the series will be sent on application. 

Published by HABPEB & BROTHERS, STew York. 

Hahpek S: Brothers will send either of the above works by mail, postage frefaid, to any fart of the United States, 

Canada, or Mexico, on receipt of the price. 

Patterson's ill0stbateo nauticai dictionary. 

J. D. & C. C. Lincoln, 




T/y^E carry the largest and only complete line of 
CABOOSES and Ship Stoves in :N"ew York, used 
by the U. S. Government and all foreign countries, 
adapted for the smallest and largest ship. 

Patterson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 





THIS cut is a copy of a photograph of a board having cue end painted with 
e=-*I^BW (^BP^SBY (©OPPEF? ^AINT, •^^'^a) 
manufactured by HARRY LOUDERBOUGH, proprietor of New Jersey PainT Works, 
Jersey City, N. J., and placed in the water at Port Royal, S. C, for five months. Upon the 
uttpainted end you can note the ravages of the salt-water worm, so destructive to wood, and 
also the large number of barnacles that have fastened upon it. Observe the painted end, where 
Jfew Jersey Copper Paint was applied— its splendid condition. 

The board here represented was placed in the water at Port Royal, S. C, by me, and left in 
the water five months. The t>ainted end was as good as when it was placed in the water. 

Mii,i/S Edward, Master Schooner " Florence Shay," 

pattebson's illtjstkated nauticai. dictionaet. 




Sea Valves as shotvn are not necessary, but when helow water line, we always 

put them on; 


JPlumtjer, Steam Fitter elxicL Coppersmith. 








Patterson's illustrated nautical diotionaet. 






''''■'-<. Jils';*i" r^^Sran^^^^^-st^Wip- 


We are collecting royalties from the customers of many infringers. 


Safe, Reliable, Simple, Light Weight, Economical, No Shop Repairs, Small 

S«nd for IILTJSTEATED PAMPHLET and other reading matter, with hnndreda of enthuBiastic 
letters from purchasers and engineers. 


Speeding 22 miles per hour with Roberts Boiler. 


Works covering 12,000 iq. ft, of ground at RED BANK, N. J. 


pattebson's illttsteated nautical diotionaet. 


Tensile Strength upwards of 79,000 lbs. per square inch. Tor-- 
sional Strength equal to the best Machinery Steel. Anti-Frictional 
and Non-Corrosive. Can be forged hot. 

Round, Square and Hexagon Bars for Bolt Forgings, etc. Pump 
Piston Rods, Yacht Shafting, Spring Wire, Rolled Sheets and Plates 
for Pump Linings, and Condenser Tube Sheets, Ship Sheathing, etc. 

The following Yacht Builders comprise a feiv of those who have used TOSIN 

BRONZE for Yacht Shafting: 



Ansonia Brass & Copper Company, 

ss3£^x> ^oi* cmoTcrLA-ii. NEW YORK 


0. s. foundry co. 





New York, 









All Grocers and Wine Merchants. 

Sole Agents for the U. S. and Canada: 






And all needful Stapplies may be found at ttie 

above address. 



LENSES of all the best makes, including DALLMEYER'S, 
for -which they are the Sole Agents. ' '' 

AMATEUR EQUIPMENTS, ranging in price from $7.80, 


CHEMICALS and PAPER of all kinds for printiiig. 
SHUTTERS of all the Best Patterns, and 




591 Broadway, NEW YORK. 


Sole Agents tov St. Rvtxould St Cie. " JOCI^EY CliUfi " Champagne. 

Epetnajr. (Special Cuv6e.) Extra Dry. 

Messrs. FELIX POTIN & CIE., Paris, High- Class Allmentaries, &c. 

Annual Sales over 23,000,000 lbs. ^ CHOCOLAT FELIX POTIN. * 40 Medals Awarded. 

T. W. STEMMLER, American Director, - - UNION SQUARE, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



^^ 1?lie 'best Cr6ine de Mentha, Anisette, Marasquin, Cura^oa, and the celebrated FIeur-de>Lis Cognacs. ^^^ 


The only Ice and Refrigerating Machine which has with satisfaction been placed into a 

steamer's engine room, and been attended by the regular engineers, while the 

cold rooms and ice-making place are at distant parts of the vessel. 


No. 22 Cortlandt Street, ...... New York. 

Consulting AND Constructing Engineer. 







All classes of Steam Vessels, Steam Yachts, etc., modeled and 
designed for steel, iron or wood, their construction superin- 
tended or contracted foj-, complete ready for steam. 

Light Draft Vessels a Specialty. 

For Sale and Charter.— Large selection of Schooner, Sloop 
and Steam Yachts. Launches and Steam Vessel Property 





€\§)I»-A.XENX #N9 


Protective Coating 

Wor- bottom:© of STJESXaiL. and IXtCHS SHIPS. 

In 1180 .by all the Principal Lines ofEnropean and Amerioaa Steamers and Steam Tachia, and 
by the U.- 8. GOVBRNMENT. Is the " fastest" Coating for Ships or Yachts. 

GEORGE N. GARDINER, Sole Agent for the U.S. 


THE CALIFORNIA PAINT CO., 22 Jessie St., San Francisco, Cal. 


Engineer and Nav. Architect. 



New York. 

Yarrow Water Tube Boiler. 

See and Stone Ash Ejector. 
See Water Feed Scourer, Etc. 

Patterson's illttstbated nabtical DiCTioiiAETf. 






TJ Pi 

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s" -J 2 

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a= I- 


Patterson's illustkated nautical DictioNAEY. 

E Manufacture Everything Requisite to Fully Equip Owners, Officers 
and Crews of Yachts; Naval, Naval Reserve, Reven ue and Steamship 
Officers and Men; arid All Goods Bearing the following Trade Mark 

May be Depended Upon as being the Best in the Market. 


. • • SEND FOR CATAUOGVE • • - • 


" AND 



" KNOWN .' 



Used by Messrs. J. E. Simpson & Co. in the Construction of the Brooklyn, League Island 
AND Norfolk Navy Yard Dry Docks. 

EieTABlLiISHEP 18713. 


Improved Patent Life Preservers, 



Line Throwing Projectiles. 

Fender and. Life -Saving Appliances of 
Every Description. 



U. S. Supervising Inspectors of Steam Vessels. 


146, 148 and 150 WORTH ST., 

(Near Centra-) 


Hend. fol? Illus-trated. CataloKue. 

Branch Office: 8 Oliver Street, Boston, Mass. 


Foot of 26th Street, - - South Brooklyn. 

Klght Hundred Keet Long by One Hundred Keet ^?Vide. 

^ — ^.^.i9X]>a' iM'o. a. — ^ 

Foot of 86th Street, - - South Brooklyn, ' 

Bight Hundred Keet I«ong by Three Hundred and T-wenty fteet Wide. 

Patterson's illustbated kautioal dictionary. 

S. Appel & Co., 


Yaeht Cirems iJnifoi'med 
at Shopt ^otiee, fleeof ding 
to Club l^egolatlons, and 
Satisfaction Gaafanteed. 

Kai/ing made this bvaneh 
a specialty, ate have the 
distinction of possessing 
the lavgest patvonage of 
any house in this line of 
business in the Ignited 

Among the many yachts fitted out by us we respectfially refer to the following : 

















































Sea Fox, 

Wave Crest, 








— sTMiA.:M: 




Fra Diavolo, 























Day Dream, 


















y^M. H. PLYER, 







Deck Seams of "^aGhts, and in Combination with Canvas for Water- 
proofing Double Planking of Boats and Launches, Water-tight 
Coinpartments in Life Boats, Joining Masts, Yards and Other 
Timbers^ Etc., also for Coating the Interior of Galvanic Batteries. 


A .. This reduced Section of'Deck 

shows the appearance of the Gtue 
in the seams when the planks are 
~" ■ ■ under expansion and contrac- 

tion. The fiexihility of the Give 
is. one of its most valualile quali- 
ties, as it allows the timbers to 
contract, a]q4 expand, still reel- 
ing its ^reat\aid)iesive power'te 
the c^gtsofiak plank. )Vhen 
the plank's becopie contracted by 
the Heat of ttie sun, a draught 
takes place on the Glue, and the 
seam becpm^ expanded, 9& 
shown at A. When the pbinks 
are swollen by rains, and there 
is a pressure on the Glue, the 
seam becomes contracted, as 
shown at B. As the temperature 
varies, these forms, A and B, 
condnue to assume each othec^s 
shapes year afier year (if the 
deck has been firoperly caulked 
'. ■ and paved) until the deck be- 

comes worn down to the Oakum, 

A represents Glue under eifect of the 

B action under cold and wet. 

205 South St., near Catherine, n ew York. 




PRICE, $2.50. 

PRICE, $1.0Q, 


PRICE, $2.50 

PRICE, $1.60. 


-^ USE i¥- 



Testimonial from Captain W. G. Shackford, of Mr. Jay Gould's Steam Yacht "Atalanta." 

Steam Yacht "Atalanta," 
To Messrs. Pratt & Lambert, Erie Basin, N. Y., March 17, 1891. 

New York. 
Gentlemen:— I have used your SPAR FINISHING VARNISH on the Steam 
Yacht "Atalanta,"'and on the Pacific Mail Steamship "Newport," with excellent results. 
The No. 47 YACHT BLACK for outside work stands the weather admirably, and 
retains its gloss after long exposure. Very truly, 




We commend this to the painturs and the public in general 
who have long felt the need of a first-class Outside Varnish 
that would not cracky turn whiie^i crawly Ht or bloont. Our 
Spar is faultless, has a high gloss, and works freely under the 
brush. It is not affected by salt or fresh water. For all ex- 
posed work, like front doors, bath-roomi, shingles, blinds, 
store fronts, hard and soft woods, it has no equaU 


This Varnish is very similar to our spar finishing varnish, 
only made to dry quicker, and not so light in color, A very 
desirable varnish for inside worh where it has not an extreme 
exposure. It is highly recommended for kitchens, bath-rooms, 
floors, grained work or natural woods, &c. Can be nibbed 
or polished. 


Made on similar principles to our No. 38 Prbservativb 
Varnish, but dries quicker and is lower in price, has a fine 
gloss and dries hard over jiight. A vory durable varnish for 
all interior work ; can be rubbed and polished, will not spot 
or stain. It dries a little slower than hard-oil finish, and is far 
superior to any made. 


This is a very superior Black Varnish for all exterior iron or 
wood work. Has a high gloss, and will not perish, turn 
white, or blister when exposed to sun, fresh or salt water. Is 
a reliable article for painting outside work on vessels or yachts. 


An excellent filler for all close fiber woods. Is transparent 
when applied, and does not need to be rubbed of!, although 
when fine finish is desired it can be sand-papered with fine 
sand paper. Apply with a brush, and when perfectly dry ap- 
ply varnish. 


A deep black for covering smoke-stacks or any iron work 
connected with boilers and engines where there is intense 
heat. It has a very superior black gloss which does not burn 
off. Not desirable for dwelling-houses. 


Our stains are made with pure turpentine and oil, have 
good body and large covering capacity, are nearly equal to a 
coat of varnish, will not fiidc or raise the grain of the wood. 


Our goods are used by the REVENUE MARINE, and masters reports of the excellent 

satisfaction our Varnishes have given can be seen by any one 

interested, at the Revenue Marine Offices. 


47 Jobn and 5 Dutch Streets* 

P. O. Box 2970. New York City, N. Y. 

pattebson's illustrated nautical dictionary. 



For Yachts, Launches, Pilot Boats, Naval Vessels, Etc. 

patented and manufactured by 


Plumbers, Steam Fitters and Coppersmiths, 

manufacturers of 






Yacht Plumbing a Specialty, 

Correspondence SoUcUea, 


" By their acts ye shall know them." 

; My friends are those to whom I have 

Sails or Flags, 

to those I refer. 




Flag Manufacturer, 


My facilities are equal 
to turning out first-class 
work quickly, and I beg the oppor- 
tunity to correspond with those requiring 
anything in my line. 


John Osborn, Son & Co., 




Also Sole Agents in the United States for 




OSBORN & CO., Oporto, FORTS 


MAinTEL OAZTELU e TRIARTE, Fort St Mary, ... do. 







Sole Proprietors "Omnibus" and "ANTEDILUVIAN" Pure 

Bye Whiskeys. 

|4EW V01?I^ mty JttOHTt?EflIi.